Sir Francis Drake: A Pictorial Biography by Hans P. Kraus
The Beginning of the End: The Drake-Norris Expedition, 1589
The war with the Spaniards continued to be fought after the Armada's
defeat; in 1589 it was England's turn to attempt an invasion and
to be repelled by Spain. This expedition was under Drake, in command
of the ships, and Sir John Norreys (Norris) (1547-1597) in command
of the troops. They were assigned several objectives, the first
being to seek out and destroy the surviving ships of the 1588 Armada
in the ports of northern Spain. The second was to make a landing
at Lisbon, to raise a revolt there against Philip II, then King
of Portugal as well as Spain, and to supplant him with the Prior
of Crato, the last surviving heir of the Aviz dynasty. The third
objective was to occupy the Azores, if possible.
The narrative of this expedition by Anthony Wingfield, a participant,
is the most detailed account extant .
Another important source is the Latin Ephemeris Expeditionis
Norreysii et Draki .
While at Lisbon, Drake seized a number of German merchant ships
carrying wheat and other supplies to Spain. The Declaration
of the Causes  is
a diplomatic "white paper" justifying this seizure on the grounds
that the supplies were contraband of war.
(Wingfield), A True Coppie of a Discourse written by a Gentleman,
Three source works for the history of the Drake-Norris expedition of
ABOVE: A Declaration of the Causes which mooved the chiefe Commanders
of the Navie...to take...certaine shippes, 1589. 
Ephemeris expeditionis Norreysii & Draki in Lusitaniam, 1589. 
The extraordinary expenses incurred in fighting the Armada in
1588 had drained the English treasury, and the Drake-Norris expedition
had to be financed as a joint venture. As stated on page 65 (introduction
to the circumnavigation section), such ventures usually consisted
of financing commercial, military, and colonizing enterprises of
that day. In the present instance, the profits to the venturers
would have come from seizures of ordinary Spanish merchant or naval
ships; from booty or ransom extorted by the soldiers in land actions
against towns; and, especially, from the treasure convoy from America
if they should be so lucky as to capture it. None of these sources
proved to be very productive and the investors sustained a loss.
The two contemporary documents (reproduced on the following two
pages) relate to this financial aspect of the expedition. Apparently
both are unpublished. The first (Oct. 11, 1588) appoints a committee
of three to act as auditors for the investors, the most important
of whom was the Queen. It is a contemporary copy, probably official,
of the document signed by William Lord Burghley and Sir Francis
Walsingham. It reads, in part: "Whereas there is a voyage of good
consequence undertaken by Sir John Norris and Sir Fr. Drake, wherein
her Majestie together with soundrie of her subjects, do adventure
good somes of monie...her Highnes hath made speciall choice of
you to whom she thinketh meete to comitt the said care to see how
the same monie is from time to time issued and expended about the
Document, appointing auditors for the Drake-Norris expedition,
signed by Burghley and Walsingham, 1588. 
TRANSCRIPT OF THE LINES REPRODUCED ABOVE
shalbe therunto required by the said Sir Jo. Norris and
Sir Francis Drake or either of them. And for that it ymporteth
greatlie that the said service be accomplished with all expedition,
her Highness pleasure is, that you ymploie yourselves most dilligentlie.
And carefullie therin: yeldinge all the furtherance [?] you maie
to the advancemente therof. And so we do comitt you to God. From
the cort at St. James the xith of October 1588.
Your verie lovinge friends
Document of the financial accounts of the Drake-Norris expedition,
The second document, dated Dec. 17, 1588, is very revealing.
It shows that up to that date the Queen had invested the sum of £16,000,
and that "Sir Francis Drake knighte and other adventurers" had
invested £10,450, this latter figure being written over the
cancelled figure £8,356/12/--. It then gives the surplus
of the Queen's payment over those of her partners as £50550
(! sic, for £5550).
It may be assumed that this statement was drawn up to bring pressure
on the "other adventurers" to pay up their shares, and the document
would further imply that the total of the Queen's venture was to
be matched by that of the private persons.
Both the present document and the previous one bear notations
that they were from the collection of John Evelyn, the noted diarist,
who is known to have owned a large number of English historical
papers, many of which were dispersed in the 19th century.
TRANSCRIPT OF THE LINES REPRODUCED ABOVE
The xvii of December 1588
There is disboursed as appearith by the Booke of accompte towardes
the furnishinge of a voyage intended by Sir John Norreis and
Syr Francis Drake knights the Some of
six . . . foure
twentie three thousande three hundreth fiftie six powndes xi sh
xxiii ccc lvi xi
Two contemporary double maps, one on paper, the other on vellum,
depict the harbors of La Coruña and Santander. They very
probably were prepared for use in the Drake-Norris expedition,
as it was just these two ports which held the remaining vessels
of the Armada. A possible indication of this is to be found on
the paper map of Santander, where there is a legend: "The place
where the ships be bilded"; this may designate the docks where
40 of the Armada ships were being repaired.
As the destruction of the ships was a principal objective of
the expedition, Drake attacked La Coruña and sank a few
ships there. But the delays he encountered made it impracticable
for him to proceed to Santander, where most of the Armada survivors
had been taken, and he then went on to Lisbon, his next objective.
The two maps are from the collection of George Legge, Baron Dartmouth,
Master of the Ordnance under Kings Charles II and James II. Dartmouth
obtained some of the maps in his collection from the Royal map
collection, others from the Ordnance office collection, including
a number which dated back to Elizabethan days. The present two
maps (reproduced on the following two pages, a detail below) must
have come from one of those sources.
Manuscript map, showing the town La Coruña
("Gronia") and the citadel which repelled the English attack
during the Drake-Norris expedition, c. 1589, at the time of
the Drake-Norris expedition. Note the signature of the cartographer,
James Bere, at the end
of the legend below the scale 
Another manuscript map of Santander and
La Coruña, c. 1589, at the time of the Drake-Norris