Chapter 5
Older Adults and Mental Health

Chapter Overview

Overview of Mental Disorders in Older Adults

Depression in Older Adults

Alzheimer’s Disease

Other Mental Disorders in Older Adults

Service Delivery

Other Services and Supports




Aarts, P., & Op den Velde W. (1996). Prior traumatization and the process of aging. In B. A. van der Kolk, A. C. McFarlane, & L. Weisath (Eds.), Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body and society (pp. 359–377). New York: Guilford Press.

Abrams, R. C., Rosendahl, E., Card, C., & Alexopoulos, G. S. (1994). Personality disorder correlates of late and early onset depression. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 42, 727–731.

Adams, W. L., Garry, P. J., Rhyne, R., Hunt, W. C., & Goodwin, J. S. (1990). Alcohol intake in the healthy elderly. Changes with age in a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 38, 211–216.

Aevarsson, O., & Skoog, I. (1996). A population-based study on the incidence of dementia disorders between 85 and 88 years of age. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 44, 1455–1460.

Aiken, L. (1990). Chronic mental illness. In B. S. Fogel, A. Furino, & G. Gottlieb (Eds.), Mental health policy for older Americans: Protecting minds at risk. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Albert, M. S., Jones, K., Savage, C. R., Berkman, L., Seeman, T., Blazer, D., & Rowe, J. W. (1995). Predictors of cognitive change in older persons: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Psychology and Aging, 10, 578–589.

Alexopoulos, G. S. (1997, November 6). Epidemiology, nosology and treatment of geriatric depression. Paper presented at Exploring Opportunities to Advance Mental Health Care for an Aging Population, meeting sponsored by the John A. Hartford Foundation, Rockville, MD.

Alexopoulos, G. S., & Abrams, R. C. (1991). Depression in Alzheimer’s disease. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14, 327–340.

Alexopoulos, G. S., & Chester, J. G. (1992). Outcomes of geriatric depression. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 8, 363–376.

Alexopoulos, G. S., Meyers, B. S., Young, R. C., Campbell, S., Silbersweig, D., & Charlson, M. (1997). “Vascular depression” hypothesis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 915–922.

Alexopoulos, G. S., Meyers, B. S., Young, R. C., Kakuma, T., Feder, M., Einhorn, A., & Rosendahl, E. (1996). Recovery in geriatric depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 305–312.

Alexopoulos, G. S., & Salzman, C. (1998). Treatment of depression with heterocyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and psychomotor stimulants. In C. Salzman (Ed.), Clinical geriatric psychopharmacology (pp. 184–244). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. (1997). Recommendations from primary care physicians: When to refer depressed elderly patients to a geriatric psychiatrist. Bethesda, MD: American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry.

American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

American Psychiatric Association. (1993). Practice guidelines for major depressive disorders in adults. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 1–26.

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Andersen, K., Launer, L. J., Ott, A., Hoes, A. W., Breteler, M. M., & Hofman, A. (1995). Do nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decrease the risk for Alzheimer’s disease? The Rotterdam Study. Neurology, 45, 1441–1145.

Anderson, G. M., Kerluke, K. J., Pulcins, I. R., Hertzman, C., & Barer, M. L. (1993). Trends and determinants of prescription drug expenditures in the elderly: Data from the British Columbia Pharmacare Program. Inquiry, 30, 199–207.

Anthony, J. C., & Helzer J. E. (1991). Syndromes of drug abuse and dependence. In L. N. Robins & D. A. Regier (Eds.), Psychiatric disorders in America: The Epidemiologic Catchment Area study (pp. 116–154). New York: Free Press.

Arean, P. A., Perri, M. G., Nezu, A. M., Schein, R. L., Christopher, F., & Joseph, T. X. (1993). Comparative effectiveness of social problem-solving therapy and reminiscence therapy as treatments for depression in older adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 1003–1010.

Atkinson, R. M., Ganzini, L., & Bernstein, M. J. (1992). Alcohol and substance-use disorders in the elderly. In J. E. Birren, B. Sloane, & G. D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of mental health and aging (2nd ed., pp. 515–555). San Diego: Academic Press.

Bachman, D. L., Wolf, P. A., Linn, R., Knoefel, J. E., Cobb, J., Belanger, A., D’Agostino, R. B., & White, L. R. (1992). Prevalence of dementia and probable senile dementia of the Alzheimer type in the Framingham Study. Neurology, 42, 115–119.

Bailey, M. B., Haberman, P. W., & Alksne, H. (1965). The epidemiology of alcoholism in an urban residential area. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 26, 19–40.

Baldwin, R. C., & Tomenson, B. (1995). Depression in later life. A comparison of symptoms and risk factors in early and late onset cases. British Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 649–652.

Baltes, P. B., Sowarka, D., & Kliegl, R. (1989). Cognitive training research on fluid intelligence in old age: What can older adults achieve by themselves? Psychology and Aging, 4, 217–221.

Barbone, F., McMahon, A. D., Davey, P. G., Morris, A. D., Reid, I. C., McDevitt, D. G., & MacDonald, T. M. (1998). Association of road-traffic accidents with benzodiazepine use. Lancet, 352, 1331–1336.

Barinaga, M. (1998). Alzheimer’s treatments that work now. Science, 282, 1030–1032.

Bartels, S. J., & Colenda, C. C. (1998). Mental health services for Alzheimer’s disease. Current trends in reimbursement and public policy, and the future under managed care. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 6, S85–S100.

Bartels, S. J., Horn, S., Sharkey, P., & Levine, K. (1997). Treatment of depression in older primary care patients in health maintenance organizations. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 27, 215–231.

Bartels, S. J., & Levine, K. J. (1998). Meeting the needs of older adults with severe and persistent mental illness: Public policy in an era of managed and long-term reform. Public Policy and Aging Report, 9, 1–6.

Bartels, S. J., Levine, K. J., & Shea, D. (in press). Mental health long-term care for older persons with severe and persistent mental disorders in an era of managed care. Psychiatric Services.

Bass, S. A. (Ed.). (1995). Older and active: How Americans over 55 are contributing to society. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Baum, C., Kennedy, D. L., Forbes, M. B., & Jones, J. K. (1984). Drug use in the United States in 1981. Journal of the American Medical Association, 251, 1293–1297.

Bazemore, P. H. (1996). Medical problems of the seriously and persistently mentally ill. Seattle: Hogrefe and Huber.

Beck, C., Heacock, P., Mercer, S. O., Walls, R. C., Rapp, C. G., & Vogelpohl, T. S. (1997). Improving dressing behavior in cognitively impaired nursing home residents. Nursing Research, 46, 126–132.

Beck, J. G., & Stanley, M. A. (1997). Anxiety disorder in the elderly: The emerging role of behavior therapy. Behavior Therapy, 28, 83–100.

Beekman, A. T., Deeg, D. J., van Tilburg, T., Smit, J. H., Hooijer, C., & van Tilburg, W. (1995). Major and minor depression in later life: A study of prevalence and risk factors. Journal of Affective Disorders, 36, 65–75.

Behl, C., Widmann, M., Trapp, T., & Holsboer, F. (1995). 17-beta estradiol protects neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell death in vitro. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 216, 473–482.

Bengston, V. L., Cutler, N. E., & Mangen, D. J., & Marshall, V. W. (1985). Generations, cohorts and relations between age groups. In R. H. Binstock & E. Shanas (Eds.), Handbook of aging and social sciences (2nd ed., pp. 415–449). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Bernstein, M. A., & Hensley, R. (1993). Developing community-based program alternatives for the seriously and persistently mentally ill elderly. Journal of Mental Health Administration, 20, 201–207.

Beutler, L. E., Scogin, F., Kirkish P., Schretlen, D., Corbishley, A., Hamblin, D., Meredith, K., Potter, R., Bamford, C. R., & Levenson, A. I. (1987). Group cognitive therapy and alprazolam in the treatment of depression in older adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 550–556.

Biegel, D. E., Sales, E., & Schulz, R. (1991). Family care giving in chronic illness. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Bland, R. C., Newman, S. C., & Orn, H. (1988). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the elderly in Edmonton. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplement, 338, 57–63.

Blazer, D. (1989). Depression in the elderly. New England Journal of Medicine, 320,164–166.

Blazer, D. G. (1996a). Alcohol and drug problems. In E. W. Busse & D. G. Blazer (Eds.), The American Psychiatric Press textbook of geriatric psychiatry (2nd ed., pp. 341–359). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Blazer, D. G. (1996b). Epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in late life. In E. W. Busse & D. G. Blazer (Eds.), The American Psychiatric Press textbook of geriatric psychiatry (2nd ed., pp. 155–171). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Bodick, N. C., Offen, W. W., Levey, A. I., Cutler, N. R., Gauthier, S. G., Satlin, A., Shannon, H. E., Tollefson, G. D., Rasmussen, K., Bymaster, F. P., Hurley, D. J., Potter, W. Z., & Paul, S. M. (1997). Effects of xanomeline, a selective muscarinic receptor agonist, on cognitive function and behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer disease. Archives of Neurology, 54, 465–473.

Bohm, C., Robinson, D. S., Gammans, R. E., Shrotriya, R. C., Alms, D. R., Leroy, A., & Placchi, M. (1990). Buspirone therapy in anxious elderly patients: A controlled clinical trial. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 10, 47S–51S.

Borkan, G. A., Hults, D. E., Gerzof, S. G., Robbins, A. H., & Silbert, C. K. (1983). Age changes in body composition revealed by computed tomography. Journal of Gerontology, 38, 673–677.

Borson, S. (1995). Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Borson, S., Barnes, R. A., Kukull, W. A., Okimoto, J. T., Veith, R. C., Inui, T. S., Carter, W., & Raskind, M. A. (1986). Symptomatic depression in elderly medical outpatients. I. Prevalence, demography, and health service utilization. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 34, 341–347.

Borson, S., & Raskind, M. A. (1997). Clinical features and pharmacologic treatment of behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology, 48, S17–S24.

Branconnier, R. J., Cole, J. O., Ghazvinian, S., Spera, K. F., Oxenkrug, G. F., & Bass, J. L. (1983). Clinical pharmacology of bupropion and imipramine in elderly depressives. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 44, 130–133.

Branconnier, R. J., DeVitt, D. R., Cole, J. O., & Spera, K. F. (1982). Amitriptyline selectively disrupts verbal recall from secondary memory of the normal aged. Neurobiology of Aging, 3, 55–59.

Breitner, J. C. (1991). Clinical genetics and genetic counseling in Alzheimer disease. Annals of Internal Medicine, 115, 601–606.

Breteler, M. M., Claus, J. J., van Duijn, C. M., Launer, L. J., & Hofman, A. (1992). Epidemiology of Alzheimer’s disease. Epidemiology Review, 14, 59–82.

Broadhead, W. E., Blazer, D. G., George, L. K., & Tse, C. K. (1990). Depression, disability days, and days lost from work in a prospective epidemiologic survey. Journal of the American Medical Association, 264, 2524–2528.

Brody, D. S., Khaliq, A. A., & Thompson, T. L., Jr. (1997). Patients’ perspectives on the management of emotional distress in primary care settings. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 12, 403–406.

Bruce, M. L., & Hoff, R. A. (1994). Social and physical health risk factors for first-onset major depressive disorder in a community sample. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 29, 165–171.

Bruce, M. L., Kim, K., Leaf, P. J., & Jacobs, S. (1990). Depressive episodes and dysphoria resulting from conjugal bereavement in a prospective community sample. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 608–611.

Burgio, L. D., Engel, B. T., Hawkins, A., McCormick, K., Scheve, A., & Jones, L. T. (1990). A staff management system for maintaining improvements in continence with elderly nursing home residents. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 111–118.

Burgio, L., Scilley, K., Hardin, J. M., Hsu, C., & Yancey, J. (1996). Environmental “white noise”: An intervention for verbally agitated nursing home residents. Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 51, P364–P373.

Burns, B. J. (1991). Mental health services research on the hospitalized and institutionalized CMI elderly. In E. Light & B. D. Lebowitz (Eds.), The elderly with chronic mental illness (pp. 207–215). New York: Springer.

Busch, S. (1997). Carving-out mental health benefits to Medicaid beneficiaries: A shift toward managed care. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 24, 301–321.

Butler, R. N. (1974). Successful aging and the role of the life review. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 22, 529–535.

Butler, R. N., Lewis, M. I., & Sunderland, T. (1991). Aging and mental health: Positive psychosocial and biomedical approaches. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.

Buysse, D. J., Reynolds, C. F., III, Hoch, C. C., Houck, P. R., Kupfer, D. J., Mazumdar, S., & Frank, E. (1996). Longitudinal effects of nortriptyline on EEG sleep and the likelihood of recurrence in elderly depressed patients. Neuropsychopharmacology, 14, 243–252.

Cadoret, R. J., & Widmer, R. B. (1988). The development of depressive symptoms in elderly following onset of severe physical illness. Journal of Family Practice, 27, 71–76.

Cafferata, G. L., Kasper, J., & Bernstein, A. (1983). Family roles, structure, and stressors in relation to sex differences in obtaining psychotropic drugs. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 132–143.

Caine, E. D., Lyness, J. M., & Conwell, Y. (1996). Diagnosis of late-life depression: Preliminary studies in primary care settings. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 4, S45–S50.

Callahan, C. M., Hall, K. S., Hui, S. L., Musick, B. S., Unverzagt, F. W., & Hendrie, H. C. (1996a). Relationship of age, education, and occupation with dementia among a community-based sample of African Americans. Archives of Neurology, 53, 134–140.

Callahan, C. M., Hendrie, H. C., Nienaber, N. A., & Tierney, W. M. (1996b). Suicidal ideation among older primary care patients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 44, 1205–1209.

Callahan, C. M., Hendrie, H. C., & Tierney, W. M. (1995). Documentation and evaluation of cognitive impairment in elderly primary care patients. Annals of Internal Medicine, 122, 422–429.

Callahan, C. M., Hui, S. L., Nienaber, N. A., Musick, B. S., & Tierney, W. M. (1994). Longitudinal study of depression and health services use among elderly primary care patients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 42, 833–838.

Callahan, C. M., Nienaber, N. A., Hendrie, H. C., & Tierney, W. M. (1992). Depression of elderly outpatients: Primary care physicians’ attitudes and practice patterns. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 7, 26–31.

Callahan, C. M., & Wolinsky, F. D. (1995). Hospitalization for major depression among older Americans. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 50, M196–M202.

Caramel, V. M., Remarque, E. J., Knook, D. L., Lagaay, A. M., & Van den Brande, K. J. (1998). Benzodiazepine users aged 85 and older fall more often. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 46, 1178–1179.

Carman, M. B. (1997). The psychology of normal aging. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 20, 15–24.

Castle, D. J., & Howard, R. (1992). What do we know about the aetiology of late-onset schizophrenia. European Psychiatry, 7, 99–108.

Castle, D. J., Wessely, S., Howard, R., & Murray, R. M. (1997). Schizophrenia with onset at the extremes of adult life. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 12, 712–717.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1999). Suicide deaths and rates per 100,000 [On-line]. Available:

Chrischilles, E. A., Foley, D. J., Wallace, R. B., Lemke, J. H., Semla, T. P., Hanlon, J. T., Glynn, R. J., Ostfeld, A. M., & Guralnik, J. M. (1992). Use of medications by persons 65 and over: Data from the established populations for epidemiologic studies of the elderly. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 47, M137–M144.

Cohen D., & Cairl R. (1996). Mental health care policy in an aging society. In B. L. Levin & J. Petrila (Eds.), Mental health services: A public health perspective (pp. 301–319). New York: Oxford University Press.

Cohen, G. D. (1988). The brain in human aging. New York: Springer.

Cohen, G. D. (1990). Lessons from longitudinal studies of mentally ill and mentally healthy elderly: A 17-year perspective. In M. Bergener and S. I. Finkel (Eds.), Clinical and scientific psychogeriatrics (Vol. 1, pp. 135–148). New York: Springer.

Cohen, G. D. (1994). The geriatric landscape: Toward a health and humanities research agenda in aging. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 2, 185–187.

Cohen, G. D. (1995a). Intergenerationalism: A new “ism” with positive mental health and social policy potential. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 3, 1–5.

Cohen, G. D. (1995b). Mental health promotion in later life: The case for social portfolio. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 3, 277–279.

Cohen, G. D. (1998a). Creativity and aging: Ramifications for research, practice, and policy. Geriatrics, 53(Suppl. 1), S4–S8.

Cohen, G. D. (1998b). Do health science concepts influence care? The case for a new landscape of aging. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 6, 273–276.

Cohen, G. D. (in press). Human potential phases in the second half of life: Mental health theory development. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry.

Cohen-Mansfield, J., & Werner, P. (1997). Management of verbally disruptive behaviors in nursing home residents. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 52, M369–M377.

Cole, M. G., & Bellavance, F. (1997). The prognosis of depression in old age. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 5, 4–14.

Cole, R. E., Reed, S. K., Babigian, H. M., Brown, S. W., & Fray, J. (1994). A mental health capitation program: I. Patient outcomes. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 45, 1090–1096.

Collins, M. W., & Abeles, N. (1996). Subjective memory complaints in the able elderly. Clinical Gerontologist, 16, 29–54.

Constantino, R. E. (1988). Comparison of two group interventions for the bereaved. Image—The Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 20, 83–87.

Conwell, Y. (1996). Diagnosis and treatment of depression in late life. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Conwell, Y., Duberstein, P. R., Cox, C., Hermann, J. H., Forbes, N. T., & Caine, E. D. (1996). Relationships of age and axis I diagnoses in victims of completed suicide: A psychological autopsy study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 1001–1008.

Cooper, J. K., Love, D. W., & Raffoul, P. R. (1982). Intentional prescription nonadherence (noncompliance) by the elderly. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 30, 329–333.

Cooper-Patrick, L., Crum, R. M., & Ford, D. E. (1994). Characteristics of patients with major depression who received care in general medical and specialty mental health settings. Medical Care, 32, 15–24.

Copeland, J. R., Dewey, M. E., Wood, N., Searle, R., Davidson, I. A., & McWilliam, C. (1987a). Range of mental illness among the elderly in the community. Prevalence in Liverpool using the GMS-AGECAT package. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 815–823.

Copeland, J. R., Gurland, B. J., Dewey, M. E., Kelleher, M. J., Smith, A. M., & Davidson, I. A. (1987b). Is there more dementia, depression and neurosis in New York? A comparative study of the elderly in New York and London using the computer diagnosis AGECAT. British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 466–473.

Corder, E. H., Saunders, A. M., Strittmatter, W. J., Schmechel, D. E., Gaskell, P. C., Small, G. W., Roses, A. D., Haines, J. L., & Pericak-Vance, M. A. (1993). Gene dose of apolipoprotein E type 4 allele and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in late onset families. Science, 261, 921–923.

Coyne, A. C., Reichman, W. E., & Berbig, L. J. (1993). The relationship between dementia and elder abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 643–646.

Crook, T. (1993). Diagnosis and treatment of memory loss and older patients who are not demented. In Levy. R., Howard R., & Burns A. (Eds.), Treatment and care in old age psychiatry (pp. 95–111). New York: Wrightson Biomedical Publishing.

Cuffel, B. J., Jeste, D. V., Halpain, M., Pratt, C., Tarke, H., & Patterson, T. L. (1996). Treatment costs and use of community mental health services for schizophrenia by age cohorts. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 870–876.

Cummings, J. L., Cyrus, P. A., Bieber, F., Mas, J., Orazem, J., & Gulanski, B. (1998a). Metrifonate treatment of the cognitive deficits of Alzheimer’s disease. Metrifonate Study Group. Neurology, 50, 1214–1221.

Cummings, J., & Jeste, D. (1999). Alzheimer’s disease and its management in the year 2010. Psychiatric Services, 50, 1173–1177.

Cummings, J. L., Vinters, H. V., Cole, G. M., & Khachaturian, Z. S. (1998b). Alzheimer’s disease: Etiologies, pathophysiology, cognitive reserve, and treatment opportunities. Neurology, 51, S2–S17.

DeLisi, L. E. (1992). The significance of age of onset for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 18, 209–215.

Depression Guideline Panel. (1993). Clinical practice guideline Number 5: Depression in primary care II (AHRQ Publication No. 93-0551). Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Devanand, D. P., Jacobs, D. M., Tang, M. X., Del Castillo-Castaneda, C., Sano, M., Marder, K., Bell, K., Bylsma, F. W., Brandt, J., Albert, M., & Stern, Y. (1997). The course of psychopathologic features in mild to moderate Alzheimer disease. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 257–263.

Devor, M., Wang, A., Renvall, M., Feigal, D., & Ramsdell, J. (1994). Compliance with social and safety recommendations in an outpatient comprehensive geriatric assessment program. Journal of Gerontology, 49, M168–M173.

Dew, M. A., Reynolds, C. F., III, Houck, P. R., Hall, M., Buysse, D. J., Frank, E., & Kupfer, D. J. (1997). Temporal profiles of the course of depression during treatment. Predictors of pathways toward recovery in the elderly. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 1016–1024.

DSM-IV. See American Psychiatric Association (1994).

Duara, R., Barker, W. W., Lopez-Alberola, R., Loewenstein, D. A., Grau, L. B., Gilchrist, D., Sevush, S., & St. George-Hyslop, S. (1996). Alzheimer’s disease: Interaction of apolipoprotein E genotype, family history of dementia, gender, education, ethnicity, and age of onset. Neurology, 46, 1575–1579.

Eaton, W. W., Anthony, J. C., Gallo, J., Cai, G., Tien, A., Romanoski, A., Lyketsos, C., & Chen, L. S. (1997). Natural history of Diagnostic Interview Schedule/DSM-IV major depression. The Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area follow-up. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 993–999.

Eaton, W. W., Kramer, M., Anthony, J. C., Dryman, A., Shapiro, S., & Locke, B. Z. (1989). The incidence of specific DIS/DSM-III mental disorders: Data from the NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 79, 163–178.

Eggebeen, D. J., & Wilhelm, M. O. (1995). Patterns of support given by older Americans to their children. In S. A. Bass (Ed.), Older and active: How Americans over 55 are contributing to society (pp. 122–168). New Haven: Yale University Press.

Back to Top

Home | Contents | Previous | Next