Sytems Analysis of Nanoparticle Biocompatibility
Brian Thrall, Ph.D.
We propose a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) approach to investigate the specific physical and chemical surface properties that influence nanoparticle biocompatibility. Amorphous silica is chosen as an experimental particle due to its widespread use in consumer products, and because it is readily synthesized in a wide range of defined sizes and surface chemistries. Our recent work shows that the bioactivity of amorphous silica is greatly enhanced in particles <50 nm. We hypothesize that this is due to changes in the silanol site surface chemistry as particle diameter is decreased.
Our approach involves three aims:
X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy will be used to identify surface silicon isoforms in particles adsorbed to micelles mimicking cell membranes. The biological responses of each particle will be assessed in multiwell cellular assays with macrophages, using the ELISA microarray platform to provide quantitative measures of dose-response for ~20 different pathway markers. QSAR analyses will be performed with the measured physicochemical parameters and biological response data to identify relationships that correlate most strongly. 3) Particles selected from QSAR analysis will be further tested in mice exposed by intratracheal instillation, and biological responses will be determined by histopathology along with ELISA microarray analysis of bronchial lavage fluid. Comparison of QSAR results obtained in aims 2 and 3 will determine how predictive the in vitro assay is, as well as highlight particle characteristics that are most important for dictating biocompatibility in vivo. The results will determine properties of nano-scale amorphous silica that determine its biocompatibility, and reveal general principals relevant to other types of nanomaterial. In addition, the approach and biomarkers developed from this work will provide a screening platform that can be deployed to a variety of nanomaterials in the future.