The Population Estimates Program publishes total resident population estimates and demographic components of change (births, deaths, and migration) each year. We also publish the estimates by demographic characteristics (age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin) for the nation, states, and counties. In addition to the resident population universe, we also produce population estimates for these universes: resident plus armed forces overseas, civilian, and civilian noninstitutionalized at the national level; and civilian at the state level. The reference date for estimates is July 1.

Estimates usually are for the present and the past, while projections are estimates of the population for future dates. We develop these estimates with the assistance of the Federal State Cooperative Program for Population Estimates (FSCPE).

These estimates are used in federal funding allocations, as denominators for vital rates and per capita time series, as survey controls, and in monitoring recent demographic changes. With each new issue of July 1 estimates, we revise estimates for years back to the last census. Previously published estimates are superseded and archived.

The Population Estimates are also available on American Factfinder.