Enzymes produced from aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes are involved in the breakdown (metabolism) of various molecules within cells. Aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes play a role in the metabolism of many molecules including certain fats (cholesterol and other fatty acids) and protein building blocks (amino acids). Additional aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes detoxify external substances, such as alcohol and pollutants, and internal substances, such as toxins that are formed within cells. The specific role of aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes is to alter groups of oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen atoms (collectively called an aldehyde group) that are attached to other molecules. Aldehyde groups can be beneficial or damaging to cells and tissues, depending on the molecule to which they are attached. Through their action in altering aldehyde groups, aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes produce a molecule called NADPH, which is necessary for many cellular processes. Researchers have identified 19 ALDH genes in humans.
Aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes are primarily found in liver and kidney cells but are also located in cells throughout the body. Within cells, aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes are located in a structure involved in protein processing and transport (endoplasmic reticulum), the energy-producing centers of cells (mitochondria), the internal fluid of the cell (cytosol), and the nucleus. Aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes interact with many different kinds of molecules depending on the enzymes' location within the cell.
Common variations (polymorphisms) in ALDH genes can affect the function of the enzymes. The effects of polymorphisms in the ALDH2 gene, for example, are prominently seen in the breakdown of alcohol. People who have a polymorphism in the ALDH2 gene that disrupts the functioning of the enzyme have a decreased tolerance for alcohol.
The name of each aldehyde dehydrogenase gene begins with ALDH , indicating that it is part of the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene family. The gene is also given a number associated with a specific group within the gene family, a letter representing the gene's subfamily, and a number assigned to the specific gene within the subfamily. For example, the first aldehyde dehydrogenase gene in group 7, subfamily A, is written as ALDH7A1.
Diseases caused by mutations in ALDH genes typically involve the buildup of substances in the body that are harmful in large amounts or that impair the function or production of other necessary molecules.
The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) provides a list of genes in the ALDH family.
Genetics Home Reference provides additional information about these members of the ALDH gene family: ALDH4A1, ALDH5A1, and ALDH7A1.
Genetics Home Reference includes these conditions related to genes in the ALDH gene family:
You may find the following resources about the ALDH gene family helpful.
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