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Your search term(s) "Oral medications" returned 54 results.

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Quick Guide to Medications. Chicago, IL: American Association of Diabetes Educators. 2004. 19 p.

Approximately 90 percent of people with diabetes require oral glucose-lowering medications, insulin injections, or both, to reach blood glucose goals. This lengthy brochure is designed to provide in quick reference format an overview of the oral medications used to manage diabetes mellitus. In addition to oral medications and insulin, the drug therapies for a person with diabetes often include other medications to treat the associated conditions or complications of diabetes. The drugs are considered in separate categories: oral glucose-lowering agents, insulins available in the United States, major classes of agents used to treat high blood pressure, and lipid-lowering therapies. Other charts cover a comparison of human insulins and analogs, guidelines for mixing insulin or prefilling syringes, the use of glucagons injection for severe hypoglycemia, drug-food interactions of diabetes medications, adverse effects of drugs on body systems, drug-disease and drug-drug interactions, and drug therapies for the treatment of dyslipidemia in people with diabetes. The brochure emphasizes that health care professionals must be knowledgeable of the total range of therapies that are available for comprehensive diabetes care, not just the therapies that are used for glycemic control. 2 figures. 6 tables. 1 reference.

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Diabetes Sourcebook. 3rd ed. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics. 2003. 621 p.

This book provides information for people seeking to understand the risk factors, complications, and management of type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. The book offers 67 chapters in seven sections: diabetes types and diagnosis; lifestyle and related diabetes management concerns; exercise and nutrition for diabetes management; medication management of diabetes; complications of diabetes; treatment of end stage renal disease (ESRD); and diabetes-related research and statistics. Specific topics include risk factors, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), insulin resistance, HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin) testing, blood glucose testing, urine testing, SMBG (self monitoring of blood glucose), non-invasive blood glucose monitors, preventing complications, how stress affect diabetes, alternative therapies for diabetes, exercise, exchange lists, carbohydrate counting, eating at restaurants, insulin administration and dosage, oral medications, amputation, kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy), diabetic retinopathy (eye disease), diabetic neuropathy (nerve disease), gastroparesis (reduced motility of stomach contents), hypoglycemia (low blood glucose levels), hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels), erectile dysfunction (ED formerly called impotence), research advances in diabetes, and diabetes in ethnic and racial groups. The book includes a glossary of related terms, information about locating financial help for diabetes care, and a list of resources, including organizations, recipes and cookbooks.

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Pharmacologic Therapies for Glucose Management. In: Franz, M.J., et al., eds. Core Curriculum for Diabetes Education. 5th ed. (Volume 2) Diabetes Management Therapies. Chicago, IL: American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE). 2003. p. 93-154.

For the majority of people with diabetes, their treatment includes pharmacologic (drug) intervention. In addition to oral medications or insulin, the pharmacologic therapies for a person with diabetes often include other agents to treat the myriad of associated comorbid conditions or complications of diabetes. This chapter on pharmacologic therapies for glucose management for diabetes is from a handbook of the CORE Curriculum, a publication that helps educators prepare for the Certified Diabetes Educators (CDE) exam, serves as a key reference for the Advanced Diabetes Management credential exam, and provides an authoritative source of information for diabetes education, training, and management. This chapter covers the physiologic effects of insulin; the different types of insulin preparations based upon species, source, type, purity, and concentration; proper administration and storage of insulin; the limitations of insulin mixing; the similarities and differences of potential insulin therapy regimens, including the use of insulin pumps, and indications for specific insulin products; commonly encountered insulin regimens in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; the differences between use of insulin in a person with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; the mechanisms of action of sulfonylureas, d-phenylalanine derivatives, meglitinides, biguanides, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, and thiazolidinediones; the clinical use of these drug families; the use of combination therapy in people with type 2 diabetes; the clinical use of glucagon; and potential drug-disease, drug-drug, and drug-food interactions. The chapter includes an introduction, a list of learning objectives, key definitions (glossary), key educational considerations, self review questions, references, and a post-test (including an answer key). 8 figures. 9 tables. 84 references.

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Self-Care for Diabetes. [Autocuidado para la Diabetes.]. Yardley, PA: The StayWell Company: KRAMES Health and Safety Education. 2003. [4 p.].

This brochure, available in English or Spanish, reviews the basic components of diabetes self-management: understanding the disease, monitoring blood glucose, taking medication, and making healthy food choices. Specific topics include the complications that can arise from high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia), the goals of self-care, monitoring strategies (including SMBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, a measure of blood glucose levels over time), how to treat high blood glucose levels, how to manage episodes of low blood glucose (hypoglycemia), oral medications, insulin, healthy eating, shopping hints, meal planning, foot care, footwear, and the role of exercise. The brochure is printed on heavy cardstock and is illustrated with brightly colored graphics. 7 figures. 1 table.

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Class Action. Diabetes Forecast. 55(2): 62-66. February 2002.

There are now five classes of diabetes pills (oral medications); this article reviews how each class can help people control their type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes results in high blood glucose (sugar) levels because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, the liver releases too much glucose, and the muscle cells do not readily take in glucose. Biguanides work primarily in the liver and keep the liver from releasing too much glucose. Sulfonylureas stimulate the pancreas to release more insulin. Meglitinides stimulate the pancreas to release more insulin. Thiazolidinediones make muscle cells more sensitive to insulin. And alpha glucosidase inhibitors work in the intestine to slow the digestion of some carbohydrates, resulting in after meal blood glucose peaks that are not as high as without the drug. The author provides information on the drugs through a diagram that illustrates where and how the drugs work, and a chart that summarizes the different drugs available in each class, how they work, and risk factors for hypoglycemia (low blood glucose levels) with each. 1 figure. 1 table.

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Diabetes: A Growing Public Health Concern: Either You Have It or You Don't. FDA Consumer. 36(1): 26-33. January-February 2002.

This article reminds readers that diabetes is a definite diagnosis; there is no such thing as 'a little diabetes.' The author stresses that an accurate diagnosis is essential, because while a person can live a long and healthy life with diabetes, ignoring it or not taking it seriously can be deadly. Much of the treatment depends largely on self care practices. Monitoring blood sugar (glucose) levels is a key component in the treatment and management of the disease. People who keep their blood glucose levels within individual target ranges set by their doctors stand a good change of reducing the risk of complications from diabetes. In many cases, intensive lifestyle changes in diet and exercise can actually prevent, reduce or delay the risk of developing one type of the disease. The author reviews diabetes and the metabolism of insulin production and physiology, lists the characteristics of type 1 diabetes, describes type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes, summarizes the treatment goals for controlling diabetes, discusses insulin therapy and oral medications, and explains the use of organ transplants (pancreas and kidney). The article concludes with the contact information for four resource organizations, including their web sites. One sidebar summarizes recent advances in diabetes monitoring and treatment devices; two charts summarize insulin and oral drugs available. 5 figures. 2 tables.

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What to do When You Have Type 2 Diabetes. Alexandria, VA: American Diabetes Association. 2002. 59 p.

This Fast Facts booklet was written to help readers newly diagnosed with diabetes understand the first steps towards taking care of themselves and preventing complications. The booklet explains what diabetes is and then discusses diet therapy, the important role of exercise, oral hypoglycemic agents (oral medications), the use of insulin, blood glucose monitoring (SMBG), and how to get and stay motivated. A final section outlines the different types of complications that can arise with diabetes, including eye problems, foot problems, kidney disease, nerve disease, and cardiovascular disease; strategies to monitor and prevent each are discussed. The booklet concludes with a brief description of the American Diabetes Association ( 5 figures. 3 tables.

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Clinical Management of Diabetes in the Elderly. Clinical Diabetes. 19(4): 172-175. 2001.

Managing type 2 diabetes in the elderly population is difficult because of complex comorbid (other illnesses present at the same time) medical issues and the generally lower functional status of elderly patients. Nationally published guidelines often do not apply to geriatric care, and practitioners' individualized approaches to therapy are highly variable. This article reviews the clinical management of diabetes in the elderly. Clinicians should be aware of and primed to recognize the syndromes more commonly occurring in elderly patients with diabetes: diabetic neuropathic cachexia (painful peripheral neuropathy or nerve disease, anorexia, depression and weight loss), diabetic neuropathy, amyotrophy (muscle weakness and muscle wasting), malignant otitis externa (external ear infection), and osteoporosis (low levels of bone density). Goals of therapy for elderly patients with diabetes should include an evaluation of their functional status, life expectancy, social and financial support, and their own desires for treatment. Coexisting health problems, such as dementia or psychiatric illnesses, may require a simplified approach to diabetes care. Overall goals should aim at reduction of all cardiovascular risk factors, smoking cessation, improvement in exercise, elimination of obesity, and optimal control of hypertension (high blood pressure). The authors review five different types of medications and their use in elderly patients: alpha glucosidase inhibitors (Precose and Glyset); biguanides such as metformin (Glucophage); sulfonylureas (e.g., Glucotrol, Micronase, Glynase, Diabeta); thiazolidinediones (Avandia, Actos); and insulin. Complicating aspects of the physiology of aging include changes in the pharmacokinetics (how a drug works) of both insulin and oral medications. Changes in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and clearance must be considered when treating any condition in elderly patients. The authors conclude that ideal geriatric care requires a multidisciplinary approach. Successful diabetes care in the aging population requires an understanding of the physiology of aging, recognition of the special issues facing the elderly, and interaction with geriatricians, diabetologists, pharmacists, social workers, diabetes educators, and dietitians to ensure the most effective treatment. 1 table. 22 references.

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Creating A Diabetes Sick-Day Plan. Diabetes Forecast. 54(8): 90-93. August 2001.

This article provides people who have diabetes with guidelines for creating a sick day plan. Illness can affect blood glucose levels regardless of whether a person controls his or her diabetes with insulin, oral medications, or diet and exercise alone. A sick day plan should indicate how often a person should check his or her blood glucose and how to deal with the presence of ketones in the urine, list a variety of foods that a person can eat when he or she cannot adhere to a regular diet, list general nonprescription medications that will not affect blood glucose or interact with other medications, and tell when to contact a doctor. In addition, the article stresses that a person who has diabetes should not stop taking his or her insulin during an illness.

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Managing Your Own Diabetes. In: Lincoln, T.A.; Eaddy, J.A. Beating the Blood Sugar Blues. Alexandria, VA: American Diabetes Association. 2001. p.148-150.

This chapter is from a book that offers first hand knowledge from two doctors who have more than 100 years of combined experienced with the day-to-day balancing act of blood glucose (sugar) and diabetes. The authors, both of whom have type 1 diabetes, share their own stories as well as those of over 40 of their patients. In this final chapter, the authors reiterate the importance of self management of diabetes and the need for patients to educate themselves and take charge of their own health care. The first impulse of people who are newly diagnosed with diabetes is to depend on their physicians to tell them exactly what to do. And, indeed, a general plan for diet, insulin or oral medications, and exercise can be prescribed by a physician, but it will not result in good blood glucose control unless it is skillfully implemented by the patient. The treatment of diabetes also has to follow the particulars of each person's career, family life, and lifestyle. The authors encourage patients to take classes and workshops about diabetes care, to find and read instructional materials, and to measure their own blood glucose levels at least four times a day. Like learning a new sport or dance, coaching plus practice are the secrets for success.

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