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Cystic fibrosis
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Cystic fibrosis

Reviewed January 2008

What is cystic fibrosis?

Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease of the mucus glands that affects many body systems. The disorder's most common signs and symptoms include progressive damage to the respiratory system and chronic digestive system problems.

Mucus is a slippery substance that lubricates and protects the linings of the airways, digestive system, reproductive system, and other organs and tissues. In people with cystic fibrosis, the body produces mucus that is abnormally thick and sticky. This abnormal mucus can obstruct the airways, leading to severe problems with breathing and bacterial infections in the lungs. These infections cause chronic coughing, wheezing, and inflammation. Over time, mucus buildup and infections result in permanent lung damage, including the formation of scar tissue (fibrosis) and cysts in the lungs.

Most people with cystic fibrosis also have digestive problems because thick, sticky mucus interferes with the function of the pancreas. The pancreas is an organ that produces insulin (a hormone that helps control blood sugar levels). It also makes enzymes that help digest food. In people with cystic fibrosis, mucus blocks the ducts of the pancreas, preventing these enzymes from reaching the intestines to aid digestion. Problems with digestion can lead to diarrhea, malnutrition, poor growth, and weight loss. Some babies with cystic fibrosis have meconium ileus, a blockage of the intestine that occurs shortly after birth.

Cystic fibrosis used to be considered a fatal disease of childhood. With improved treatments and better ways to manage the disease, many people with cystic fibrosis now live well into adulthood. Adults with cystic fibrosis experience medical problems affecting the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive systems. For example, most men with cystic fibrosis are unable to father children (infertile) because the tubes that carry sperm (the vas deferens) are blocked by mucus and do not develop properly. This condition is known as congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD). Infertility is also possible, though less common, in women with cystic fibrosis.

How common is cystic fibrosis?

Cystic fibrosis is a common genetic disease within the Caucasian (white) population in the United States. The disease occurs in 1 in 2,500 to 3,500 Caucasian newborns. Cystic fibrosis is less common in other ethnic groups, affecting about 1 in 17,000 African Americans and 1 in 31,000 Asian Americans.

What genes are related to cystic fibrosis?

Mutations in the CFTR gene cause cystic fibrosis.

The CFTR gene provides instructions for making a channel that transports negatively charged particles called chloride ions into and out of cells. The flow of chloride ions helps control the movement of water in tissues, which is necessary for the production of thin, freely flowing mucus.

Mutations in the CFTR gene disrupt the function of the chloride channels, preventing them from regulating the flow of chloride ions and water across cell membranes. As a result, cells that line the passageways of the lungs, pancreas, and other organs produce mucus that is unusually thick and sticky. This mucus clogs the airways and glands, causing the characteristic signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis.

Other genetic and environmental factors likely influence the severity of the condition. For example, mutations in genes other than CFTR might help explain why some people with cystic fibrosis are more severely affected than others. Most of these genetic changes have not been identified, however.

Read more about the CFTR gene.

How do people inherit cystic fibrosis?

This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.

Where can I find information about treatment for cystic fibrosis?

These resources address the management of cystic fibrosis and may include treatment providers.

You might also find information on treatment of cystic fibrosis in Educational resources and Patient support.

Where can I find additional information about cystic fibrosis?

You may find the following resources about cystic fibrosis helpful. These materials are written for the general public.

You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.

What other names do people use for cystic fibrosis?

  • CF
  • Cystic fibrosis of pancreas
  • Fibrocystic Disease of Pancreas
  • Mucoviscidosis

What if I still have specific questions about cystic fibrosis?

Where can I find general information about genetic conditions?

What glossary definitions help with understanding cystic fibrosis?

References (7 links)


The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.

Reviewed: January 2008
Published: January 23, 2009