Skip Navigation

Link to  the National Institutes of Health NIDA NEWS NIDA News RSS Feed
The Science of Drug Abuse and Addiction from the National Institute on Drug Abuse Keep Your Body Healthy
Go to the Home pageGo to the About Nida pageGo to the News pageGo to the Meetings & Events pageGo to the Funding pageGo to the Publications page
PhysiciansResearchersParents/TeachersStudents/Young AdultsEn Español Drugs of Abuse & Related Topics
NIDA Home > Publications > Research Reports > Anabolic Steroid Abuse

Research Report Series - Anabolic Steroid Abuse

Where can I get further scientific information about steroid abuse?

To learn more about anabolic steroids and other drugs of abuse, contact the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI) at 800-729-6686. Information specialists are available to help you locate information and resources.

Fact sheets, including InfoFacts, on the health effects of anabolic steroids, other drugs of abuse, and other drug topics are available on the NIDA Web site (, and can be ordered free of charge in English and Spanish from NCADI at


Addiction: A chronic, relapsing disease, characterized by compulsive drug seeking and abuse and by long-lasting chemical changes in the brain.

Anabolic effects: Drug-induced growth or thickening of the body's nonreproductive tract tissues—including skeletal muscle, bones, the larynx, and vocal cords—and a decrease in body fat.

Analgesics: A group of medications that reduce pain.

Androgenic effects: A drug’s effects upon the growth of the male reproductive tract and the development of male secondary sexual characteristics.

Antidepressants: A group of medications used in treating depressive disorders.

Cardiovascular system: The heart and blood vessels.

Hormone: A chemical substance formed in glands in the body and carried by the blood to organs and tissues, where it influences function, structure, and behavior.

Musculoskeletal system: The muscles, bones, tendons, and ligaments.

Placebo: An inactive substance (pill, liquid, etc.), which is administered to a comparison group, as if it were therapy, but which has no therapeutic value other than to serve as a negative control.

Sex hormones: Hormones that are found in higher quantities in one sex than in the other. Male sex hormones are the androgens, which include testosterone; and the female sex hormones are the estrogens and progesterone.

Withdrawal: Symptoms that occur after chronic use of an addictive drug is reduced or stopped.


Bahrke MS, Yesalis CE, Wright JE. Psychological and behavioral effects of endogenous testosterone and anabolic-androgenic steroids: an update. Sports Med 22(6):367–390, 1996.

Berning JM, Adams KJ, Stamford BA. Anabolic steroid usage in athletics: facts, fiction, and public relations. J Strength Conditioning Res 18(4):908–917, 2004.

Blue JG, Lombardo JA. Steroids and steroid-like compounds. Clin Sports Med 18(3):667–689, 1999.

Bronson FH, Matherne CM. Exposure to anabolicandrogenic steroids shortens life span of male mice. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29(5):615–619, 1997.

Brower KJ. Withdrawal from anabolic steroids. Curr Ther Endocrinol Metab 6:338–343, 1997.

Daly RC, et al. Neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of high-dose anabolic steroid administration in male normal volunteers. Psychoneuroendocrinology 28(3):317–331, 2003.

Elliot D, Goldberg L. Intervention and prevention of steroid use in adolescents. Am J Sports Med 24(6):S46–S47, 1996.

Goldberg L, et al. Anabolic steroid education and adolescents: Do scare tactics work? Pediatrics 87(3):283–286, 1991.

Goldberg L, et al. Effects of a multidimensional anabolic steroid prevention intervention: The Adolescents Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids (ATLAS) Program. JAMA 276(19):1555–1562, 1996.

Goldberg L, et al. The ATLAS program: Preventing drug use and promoting health behaviors. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 154(4):332–338, 2000.

Gottfredson GD, et al. The national study of delinquency prevention in schools. Ellicott City, MD: Gottfredson Associates, Inc., 2000.

Green et al. NCAA study of substance use and abuse habits of college student-athletes. Clin J Sport Med 11(1):51–56, 2001.

Gruber AJ, Pope HG Jr. Compulsive weight lifting and anabolic drug abuse among women rape victims. Compr Psychiatry 40(4):273–277, 1999.

Gruber AJ, Pope HG Jr. Psychiatric and medical effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid use in women. Psychother Psychosom 69:19–26, 2000.

Hoberman JM, Yesalis CE. The history of synthetic testosterone. Sci Am 272(2):76–81, 1995.

Leder BZ, et al. Oral androstenedione administration and serum testosterone concentrations in young men. JAMA 283(6):779–782, 2000.

The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics. Creatine and androstenedione—two "dietary supplements." 40(1039):105–106. New Rochelle, NY: The Medical Letter, Inc., 1998.

Middleman AB, et al. High-risk behaviors among high school students in Massachusetts who use anabolic steroids. Pediatrics 96(2):268–272, 1995.

Pope HG Jr, Kouri EM, Hudson MD. Effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on mood and aggression in normal men: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57(2):133–140, 2000.

Porcerelli JH, Sandler BA. Anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse and psychopathology. Psychiatr Clin North Am 21(4):829–833, 1998.

Rich JD, Dickinson BP, Flanigan TP, Valone SE. Abscess related to anabolic-androgenic steroid injection. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31(2):207–209, 1999.

Stilger VG, Yesalis CE. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use among high school football players. J Community Health 24(2):131–145, 1999.

Su T-P, et al. Neuropsychiatric effects of anabolic steroids in male normal volunteers. JAMA 269(21):2760–2764, 1993.

Sullivan ML, Martinez CM, Gennis P, Gallagher, EJ. The cardiac toxicity of anabolic steroids. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 41(1):1–15, 1998.

Verroken M. Hormones and Sport. Ethical aspects and the prevalence of hormone abuse in sport. J Endocrinol 170(1):49–54, 2001.

Yesalis CE. Anabolic steroids in sports and exercise, 2nd edition. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 2000.

Yesalis CE. Androstenedione. Sport dietary supplements update, 2000,

Yesalis CE. Trends in anabolic-androgenic steroid use among adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 151(12):1197–1206.

Yesalis CE, Kennedy NJ, Kopstein AN, Bahrke MS. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use in the United States. JAMA 270(10):1217–1221, 1993.

Zorpette G. Andro angst. Sci Am 279(6):22–26, 1998.


Letter from the Director

What are anabolic steroids?

What are steroidal supplements?

What is the scope of steroid abuse in the United States?

Why do people use anabolic steroids?

How are anabolic steroids abused?

What are the health consequences of steroid abuse?

What effects do anabolic steroids have on behavior?

Are anabolic steroids addictive?

What can be done to prevent steroid abuse?

NIDA-funded prevention research helps reduce steroid abuse.

What treatments are effective for anabolic steroid abuse?

Where can I get further scientific information about steroid abuse?

Glossary and References

Steroid Abuse and Addiction Research Report Cover

NIDA Home | Site Map | Search | FAQs | Accessibility | Privacy | FOIA (NIH) | Employment | Print Version

National Institutes of Health logo_Department of Health and Human Services Logo The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) , a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Questions? See our Contact Information. Last updated on Thursday, November 2, 2006. The U.S. government's official web portal