Prion diseases belong to group of progressive conditions that affect the nervous system in humans and animals. In people, prion diseases impair brain function, causing memory changes, personality changes, a decline in intellectual function (dementia), and problems with movement that worsen over time. The signs and symptoms of these conditions typically begin in adulthood, and these disorders lead to death within a few months to several years.
Familial prion diseases of humans include classic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), and fatal insomnia (FI). These conditions form a spectrum of diseases with overlapping signs and symptoms.
These disorders are very rare. They affect about one person per million worldwide each year. Approximately 300 cases occur annually in the United States.
Mutations in the PRNP gene cause prion disease.
Only a small percentage of prion disease cases run in families. Most cases are sporadic, which means they occur in people without any known risk factors or gene mutations. Rarely, prion diseases can be transmitted by accidental exposure to prion-contaminated tissues during a medical procedure. This type of prion disease is called iatrogenic.
One type of prion disease in humans, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), is acquired by eating beef products obtained from cattle with prion disease. In cows, this form of the disease is known as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or, more commonly, "mad cow" disease. Another example of an acquired human prion disease is kuru, which was identified in the South Fore tribe in Papua New Guinea. The disorder was transmitted when tribe members ate the tissue of affected people during cannibalistic funeral rituals.
Familial forms of prion disease are caused by inherited mutations in the PRNP gene. This gene provides instructions for making a protein called prion protein (PrP). Normally, this protein is likely involved in transporting copper into cells. It may also play a role in protecting brain cells and helping them communicate. In familial cases of prion disease, mutations in the PRNP gene cause cells to produce an abnormal form of the prion protein known as PrPSc. In iatrogenic and acquired cases, an affected person develops prion disease from exposure to this abnormal protein.
In a process that is not fully understood, PrPSc has the ability to convert the normal prion protein, PrPC, into more PrPSc. This abnormal protein builds up in the brain, forming clumps that damage or destroy nerve cells. The loss of these cells creates microscopic sponge-like holes in the brain, which leads to the signs and symptoms of prion disease.
Read more about the PRNP gene.
Familial forms of prion disease are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. In most cases, an affected person inherits the altered gene from one affected parent. In some people, familial forms of prion disease are caused by a new mutation in the PRNP gene. Although such people most likely do not have an affected parent, they can pass the genetic change to their children.
The sporadic, iatrogenic, and acquired forms of prion disease, including kuru and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, are not inherited.
These resources address the management of prion disease and may include treatment providers.
You might also find information on treatment of prion disease in
Educational resources and Patient support.
You may find the following resources about prion disease helpful. These materials are written for the general public.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.
- Inherited Human Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies
- Prion-associated disorders
- Prion-Induced Disorders
- Prion Protein Diseases
- Transmissible Dementias
- Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for
professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about
a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified
See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.