Skip Over Navigation Links
National Institutes of Health


1Blehar MD, Oren DA. Gender differences in depression. Medscape Women’s Health,1997; 2(2):3. Revisión proveniente de: Women’s increased vulnerability to mood disorders: integrating psychobiology and epidemiology. Depression,1995; 3:3-12.

2Weissman MM, Bland RC, Canino GJ, Faravelli C, Greenwald S, Hwu HG, Joyce PR, Karam EG, Lee CK, Lellouch J, Lepine JP, Newman SC, Rubin-Stiper M, Wells JE, Wickramaratne PJ, Wittchen H, Yeh EK. Cross-national epidemiology of major depression and bipolar disorder. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1996; 276: 293-9.

3Narrow WE. One-year prevalence of depressive disorders among adults 18 and over in the U.S.: NIMH ECA prospective data. Population estimates based on U.S. Census estimated residential population age 18 and over on July 1, 1998. Tabla no publicada.

4Sackeim HA. Commentary: Functional brain circuits in major depression and remission. Archives of General Psychiatry, 2001; 58(7): 649-50.

5Regier DA, Rae DS, Narrow WE, Kaelber CT, Schatzberg AF. Prevalence of anxiety disorders and their comorbidity with mood and addictive disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1998; 173(Supl. 34): 24-8.

6Depression Guideline Panel. Clinical practice guideline, number 5. Depression in primary care: volumen 1. Detection and diagnosis. Pub. de AHCPR No. 93-0551. Rockville: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, 1993.

7Shalev AY, Freedman S, Perry T, Brandes D, Sahar T, Orr SP, Pitman RK. Prospective study of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression following trauma. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1998; 155(5): 630-7.

8Strakowski SM, DelBello MP. The co-occurrence of bipolar and substance use disorders. Clinical Psychology Review, 2000; 20(2): 191-206.

9NIMH Fact Sheets on Depression and Other Illnesses. Junio 2002.

10Lewinsohn PM, Hoberman HH, Rosenbaum M. A prospective study of risk factors for unipolar depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1988; 97(3) 251-64.

11Tsuang MT, Faraone SV. The genetics of mood disorders. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990.

12Soares JC, Mann JJ. The anatomy of mood disorders—review of structural neuroimaging studies. Biological Psychiatry, 1997; 41: 86-106.

13Soares JC, Mann JJ. The functional neuroanatomy of mood disorders. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 1997; 31(4): 393-432.

14Pollack W. Mourning, melancholia, and masculinity: recognizing and treating depression in men. En: Pollack W, Levant R, eds. New psychotherapy for men. New York: Wiley, 1998; 147-66.

15Cochran SV, Rabinowitz FE. Men and depression: clinical and empirical perspectives. San Diego: Academic Press, 2000.

16Robins L, Regier D. Psychiatric disorders in America. New York: Free Press, 1991.

17Minino AM, Arias E, Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Smith BL. Deaths: final data for 2000. National Vital Statistics Reports; 50(15). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 2002.

18Moscicki EK. Epidemiology of suicide. En: Jacobs D, ed. The Harvard Medical School guide to suicide assessment and intervention. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1999; 40-71.

19Moscicki EK. Epidemiology of completed and attempted suicide: toward a framework for prevention. Clinical Neuroscience Research, 2001; 1: 310-23.

20Lebowitz BD, Pearson JL, Schneider LS, Reynolds CF, Alexopoulos GS, Bruce MI, Conwell Y, Katz IR, Meyers BS, Morrison MF, Mossey J, Niederehe G, Parmelee P. Diagnosis and treatment of depression in late life: consensus statement update. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1997; 278(14): 1186-90.

21Gallo JJ, Rabins PV. Depression without sadness: alternative presentations of depression in late life. American Family Physician, 1999; 60(3): 820-6.

22Conwell Y. Suicide in later life: a review and recommendations for prevention. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 200 1; 31 (Supl.): 32-47.

23Bruce ML, Pearson JL. Designing an intervention to prevent suicide: PROSPECT (Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly: Collaborative Trial). Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 1999; 1(2): 100-12.

24Little JT, Reynolds CF III, Dew MA, Frank E, Begley AE, Miller MD, Cornes C, Mazumdar S, Perel JM, Kupfer DJ. How common is resistance to treatment in recurrent, nonpsychotic geriatric depression? American Journal of Psychiatry, 1998; 155(8): 1035-8.

25Reynolds CF III, Frank E, Perel JM, Imber SD, Cornes C, Miller MD, Mazumdar S, Houck PR, Dew MA, Stack JA, Pollock BG, Kupfer DJ. Nortriptyline and interpersonal psychotherapy as maintenance therapies for recurrent major depression: a randomized controlled trial in patients older than 59 years. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1999; 281(1): 39-45.

26Shaffer D, Fisher P, Dulcan MK, Davies M, Piacentini J, Schwab-Stone ME, Lahey BB, Bourdon K, Jensen PS, Bird HR, Canino G, Regier DA. The NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version 2.3 (DISC-2.3): description, acceptability, prevalence rates, and performance in the MECA Study. Methods for the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders Study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1996; 35(7): 865-77.

27Angold A, Worthman CW. Puberty onset of gender differences in rates of depression: a developmental, epidemiologic and neuroendocrine perspective. Journal of Affective Disorders, 1993; 29: 145-58.

28Klerman GL, Weissman M. Increasing rates of depression. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1989; 261: 2229-35.

29Weissman MM, Wolk S, Goldstein RB, Moreau D, Adams P, Greenwald S, Klier CM, Ryan ND, Dahl RE, Wickramaratne P. Depressed adolescents grown up. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1999; 281(18):1701-13.

30Angold A, Costello EJ. Depressive comorbidity in children and adolescents: empirical, theoretical, and methodological issues. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1993; 150(12): 1779-91.

31Kovacs M. Psychiatric disorders in youths with IDDM: rates and risk factors. Diabetes Care, 1997; 20(1): 36-44.

32Birmaher B, Brent DA, Benson RS. Summary of the practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with depressive disorders. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1998; 37(11): 1234-8.

33Ryan ND, Puig-Antich J, Ambrosini P, Rabinovich H, Robinson D, Nelson B, Iyengar S, Twomey J. The clinical picture of major depression in children and adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1987; 44(10): 854-61.

34McClellan J, Werry J. Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1997; 36(Supl. 10): 157S-76S.

35Birmaher B, Ryan ND, Williamson DE, Brent DA, Kaufman J. Childhood and adolescent depression: a review of the past 10 years. Part 1. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1996; 35(11): 1427-39.

36Shaffer D, Gould MS, Fisher P, Trautman P, Moreau D, Kleinman M, Flory M. Psychiatric diagnosis in child and adolescent suicide. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1996; 53(4): 339-48.

37Shaffer D, Craft L. Methods of adolescent suicide prevention. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1999; 60(Supl. 2): 70-4; discusión 75-6, 113-6.

38National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Leading Causes of Injury Deaths, United States, 2000, All Races, Both Sexes.

39Thase ME, Sachs GS. Bipolar depression: pharmacotherapy and related therapeutic strategies. Biological Psychiatry, 2000; 48(6): 558-72.

40Nurnberg HG, Hensley PL, Gelenberg AJ, Fava M, Lauriello J, Paine S. Treatment of antidepressant-associated sexual dysfunction with sildenafil: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2003; 289(1): 56-64.

41U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Mental health: a report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health, 1999.

42Sackeim HA, Haskett RF, Mulsant BH, Thase ME, Mann JJ, Pettinati HM, Greenberg RM, Crowe RR, Cooper TB, Prudic J. Continuation pharmacotherapy in the prevention of relapse following electroconvulsive therapy: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2001; 285(10): 1299-307.

43Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group. Effect of Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) in major depressive disorder: a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2002; 287(14): 1807-14.

Los siguientes escritores y editores de la Oficina de Comunicaciones del NIMH contribuyeron a la producción de este folleto: Rayford Kytle, Margaret Strock, Melissa Spearing, Clarissa Wittenberg, Daisy Whittemore, Ruth Dubois y Lisa D. Alberts. La revisión científica fue realizada por Matthew V. Rudorfer, MD y Jane L. Pearson, PhD, del NIMH.

Publicación de NIH No. SP 04-4972
Impreso en el 2004