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Your search term(s) "Hormone replacement therapy" returned 29 results.

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Complications of Cholestasis. IN: Lindor, K.; Talwalkar, J., eds. Cholestatic Liver Disease. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. 2008. pp 155-170.

This chapter on the complications of cholestasis is from a book that offers health care providers an overview of cholestatic liver disease; cholestasis is defined as a liver disorder characterized by impaired bile flow. The chapter covers osteoporosis, pruritus, dyslipidemia, and vitamin deficiencies. For each condition, the authors discuss prevalence, pathophysiology, and treatment options. Osteoporosis is extremely common in patients with cholestatic liver disease; treatment goals are to prevent further bone loss, thus reducing the risk of fracture. Biphosphonates, hormone replacement therapy, and vitamin K all increase bone mineral density (BMD) and can prevent further bone loss in cholestatic patients. Management of pruritus associated with cholestasis remains challenging because of incomplete understanding of the mechanisms involved and the limited therapies available. Current treatments include reducing bile acid concentration, reducing opioid tonicity, modulating serotonergic activity, and dialysis. The drug treatments commonly used for dyslipidemia remain controversial because of the long-term impact of therapy on vascular events. Because patients with advanced cholestatic liver disease are at risk for vitamin deficiencies, notably of vitamins A and D, screening and treatment are recommended. The authors stress the importance of recognizing the complications of cholestasis because of their prevalence and their pretransplant and posttransplant implications in this patient population. 3 tables. 81 references.

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Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease in Menopause: Exploring the Mechanisms. Review of Endocrinology. 1(3): 32-34. July 2007.

This article discusses strategies for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic disease in menopause, including diet, exercise, and soy protein supplementation. The authors note that morbidity and mortality rates from CVD increase after natural and surgical menopause, and the incidence of diabetes dramatically increases after menopause. The authors review the components of metabolic syndrome, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation, vascular function, and adiposity; the role of hormone replacement therapy (HRT); and the use of soy protein. The classic method for counteracting the decrease in energy expenditure with the subsequent increase in abdominal adiposity with aging and menopause is with caloric restriction and exercise; the use of soy protein as a specific dietary supplement shows some promise in preventing the development of risk factors for CVD and metabolic disease in this population. 1 table. 51 references.

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Impact of HRT, Resistance Training on Spine BMD. Review of Endocrinology. 1(2): 28-32. June 2007.

This article explores the impact of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and resistance training on the spine bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. The author reviews evidence that physical activity of sufficient loading can stimulate bone and muscle formation enough to reduce or attenuate age-related osteoporosis and sarcopenia. The author reports on a study that focused on two specific types of exercises, the squat and the deadlift, as ways to reduce bone resorption at the hip and spine. The study, undertaken to investigate the independent and combined effects of resistance training and HRT, examined the bone response to these two site-specific free-weight exercises performed 2 days per week, plus HRT, in early postmenopausal women. The study included four groups: resistance training without HRT (n = 35), resistance training with HRT (n = 37), HRT without resistance training (n = 35), and controls (n = 34). Results showed that, regardless of HRT status, free-weight squat and deadlift exercises performed 2 days per week prevented bone loss at the spine in this group of early postmenopausal women. The author concludes that regular participation in a resistance training program could potentially decrease the dosage of drugs required to induce bone formation in ways that enhance efficacy and also reduce the risk of side effects associated with drug therapies. 5 figures. 3 tables. 32 references.

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Pharmacological Prevention of Colorectal Cancer. Practical Gastroenterology. 31(10): 20-30, 35-36. October 2007.

This article reviews the current status of the pharmacological prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC). The authors note that CRC tends to develop through a multistep process that occurs over a period of years, permitting many opportunities for intervention and cancer prevention. The authors briefly discuss the natural history of adenomatous polyps and CRC, as well as the identification of individuals at risk for CRC, and address the use of chemoprevention. Chemoprevention involves the long-term use of nutritional or pharmaceutical agents that can delay, prevent, or even reverse the process of CRC development. The authors discuss the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as well as a new group of agents, the nitric-oxide-releasing NSAIDs (NO-NSAIDs). Other drugs discussed include HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), ursodeoxycholic acid, difluromethaylornitine (DMFO), and hormone replacement therapy (HRT). They note that, at present, the only approved drug for chemoprevention of CRC is celecoxib and that is indicated only in high-risk patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Screening methods and surveillance continue to be the standard of care for high-risk patients with a history of CRC or adenomatous polyps and for the general population based on age. 64 references.

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American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Menopause. Endocrine Practice. 12(3): 315-337. May-June 2006.

This article presents the position statement of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) on the diagnosis and treatment of menopause. The authors first review the current role of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for management of menopause, discussing the treatment of symptomatic women, the effect of HRT on bone mass and preventing fractures, cancer related to HRT, vascular and thromboembolic disease, dementia, nonhormonal therapy, androgen therapy, the indications and contraindications for HRT, and administration and dosage of estrogens and progestogens. The guidelines then outline the risks associated with short-term and long-term HRT, including venous thromboembolic disease, endometrial cancer, breast cancer, and stroke. HRT may also prevent some of the consequences of aging and menopause, including osteoporosis, dementia, and cardiovascular disease. The guidelines then consider nonhormonal therapy for menopause, notably for the management of vasomotor symptoms, or hot flashes, and androgen deficiency in postmenopausal women. The authors conclude that in selected, symptomatic, postmenopausal women, estrogen replacement alone may not be adequate therapy but should be implemented first. Combined estrogen-androgen therapy may be used in those patients who continue to have symptoms.

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Menopause Transition And Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy. IN: Jameson, J.L., ed. Harrison's Endocrinology. Columbus, OH: McGraw Hill. 2006. pp 225-232.

This chapter on the menopause transition and postmenopausal hormone therapy is from a textbook that offers a comprehensive, practical look at the field of endocrinology. The authors define menopause as the permanent cessation of menstruation; perimenopause refers to the time period preceding menopause, when fertility wanes and menstrual cycle irregularity increases. The chapter covers the physiology, symptoms, and appropriate diagnostic tests of perimenopause; menopause and postmenopausal hormone therapy; and the benefits and risks of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Low-dose oral contraceptives are a therapeutic mainstay in perimenopause, whereas postmenopausal HRT has been a common method of symptom alleviation after menstruation ceases. A patient care algorithm for identifying candidates for HRT use is included. 2 figures. 1 table. 8 references.

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Radioiodine Therapy. Jacksonville, FL: American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE). 2006. 2p.

This fact sheet reviews the use of radioactive iodine, or radioiodine, used to treat thyroid cancer or an overactive thyroid gland, called hyperthyroidism. The fact sheet briefly reviews the physiology of the thyroid gland and the development of radioiodine as a treatment. The fact sheet then reviews how radioiodine is used in people who have hyperthyroidism to destroy the diseased thyroid gland. This results in the intentional development of an underactive thyroid state, called hypothyroidism, which is easily, predictably, and inexpensively corrected by lifelong daily use of oral thyroid hormone replacement therapy. The fact sheet goes on to explain what people with thyroid cancer can expect after removal of their thyroid and during follow-up. The remainder of the fact sheet answers common questions about radioiodine therapy, including what happens to the radioiodine after a treatment, breast-feeding during treatment, future pregnancies after radioiodine treatment, outpatient versus hospital treatment, and exposure to others after treatment with radioiodine. Readers are referred to for more information.

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Hormonal Influences on the Gastrointestinal Tract and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Practical Gastroenterology. 29(5): 62-75. May 2005.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder characterized by abdominal pain and discomfort, associated with a change in bowel habits (constipation, diarrhea, or a combination of both). This article considers the role of hormonal influences on the gastrointestinal tract in general and on IBS. The authors note that IBS is more often found in women than men. Often symptoms of IBS appear to be related to hormone status (e.g., menstruating, pregnant, menopausal, taking oral contraceptives, or hormone replacement therapy). In some women, symptoms come and go in tandem with their menstrual cycle. The authors describe the growing body of evidence that supports a role for sex hormones in the pathophysiology and symptom presentation of IBS. The authors call for additional research on IBS that includes categorization and selection of patients based on sex and hormone status to help determine whether sex or hormone status has an impact on the effectiveness of standard management approaches for IBS. 1 figure. 9 references.

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Risk Factors for Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the General Population. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 22(4): 309-316. August 15, 2005.

The etiology (cause) of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease) remains largely unknown. This article reports on a comprehensive assessment of the potential risk factors associated with the occurrence of IBD. The authors identified a cohort of patients 20 to 84 years old between 1995 and 1997 registered in the General Practitioner Research Database in the United Kingdom. A total of 444 new cases of IBD were found and validated with the general practitioner. Analyses showed incidence rates for ulcerative colitis (UC) were 11 cases per 100,000 person-years, for Crohn’s disease were 8 cases per 100,000 person-years, and for indeterminate colitis were 2 cases per 100,000 person-years. Among women, long-term users of oral contraceptives were at increased risk of developing UC. Similarly, long-term users of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) had an increased risk of CD, but not UC. Current smokers experienced a reduced risk of UC along with an increased risk of CD. Prior appendectomy was associated with a decreased risk of UC. Depression and anxiety were associated with a small increased risk of UC. This association was also present among patients with a long-standing (2 years or more) history of these conditions, which supports a hypothetical role of psychological factors in the occurrence of UC. Diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis are independent risk factors of UC and CD, respectively. 1 figure. 3 tables. 14 references.

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Thyroid Hormone Treatment. Falls Church, VA: American Thyroid Association. 2005. 2 p.

This fact sheet describes thyroid hormone treatment, which is used to replace the function of a nonworking thyroid gland or to prevent further growth of thyroid tissue. The goal of thyroid hormone treatment is to closely replicate normal thyroid function. Written in nontechnical language, the fact sheet reviews the definition of thyroid hormone replacement therapy, the details of taking this type of therapy, and the different types of thyroid hormone therapy in use, answering common questions in each section. Specific topics include the dose of thyroid hormone, FDA-approved products for this type of therapy, interactions between thyroid hormone and other medications, taking thyroid hormone while pregnant, concerns about the use of desiccated animal thyroid, the indications for thyroid hormone suppression therapy, and treatment of thyroid cancer. Readers are referred to the American Thyroid Association website ( for additional information.

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