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Your search term(s) "Septicemia" returned 7 results.

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Morbidity and Mortality. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 49(1): s129-s146. January 2007.

This chapter on morbidity and mortality in the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population is from a special supplemental issue of the American Journal of Kidney Diseases that presents excerpts from the 18th annual report from the U.S. Renal Data System on the ESRD program in the United States; data through 2004 is included. The Annual Data Report (ADR) also presents information on patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and assesses care of at-risk populations and international comparisons of ESRD. This chapter examines overall and cause-specific hospitalization and mortality rates, including tables of hospitalization rates by patient vintage, maps of admission rates for cardiovascular disease and infection, and maps of mortality rates related to cardiovascular disease, stroke, and bacteremia or septicemia. The chapter also covers neuro-epidemiology, focusing on incident and prevalent stroke, peripheral neuropathy, and dementia. 48 figures. 5 tables.

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Factors Predisposing to Urinary Tract Infection After J Ureteral Stent Insertion. Journal of Urology. 167(3): 1334-1337. March 2002.

This article reports on a study undertaken to determine the group of patients most likely to have bacterial infection or colonization of J stents inserted to relieve ureteral obstruction. Midstream urine from 250 consecutive patients who required indwelling J stent insertion obtained before stent insertion and on the day of stent removal was analyzed by microbiological testing. At stent removal, 3 to 5 centimeters of the stent tip located inside the bladder was also sent for culture. Patient sex, duration of stent insertion, and systemic disease, such as diabetes mellitus, chronic renal (kidney) failure, or diabetic nephropathy (kidney disease associated with diabetes) were recorded. Of the 250 patients studied, 180 (72 percent) were men and 70 (28 percent) were women, while 152 (60.8 percent) had no systemic disease, 27 (10.8 percent) had diabetes mellitus, 53 (21.2 percent) had chronic renal failure (CRF), and 18 (7.2 percent) had diabetic nephropathy. The bacteriuria rate was 4.2 percent for stents removed within 30 days and 34 percent for stents removed after 90 days. Overall, the bacteriuria (bacteria in the urine) in women was 24.3 percent compared with 13.9 percent in men. The rate of bacteriuria in normal patients was significantly lower (3.3 percent) than in patients with diabetes mellitus, CRF, and diabetic nephropathy (33. 3 percent, 39.6 percent, and 44.4 percent, respectively). The colonization rate of the tip of the stent was higher in women (64.3 percent) than in men (34.7 percent). The stent was removed prematurely in 9 of the 250 patients (3.6 percent) because of septicemia, including 7 women (77.8 percent) with systemic disease. The authors conclude that the risk of bacteriuria and colonization of the J stent tip is significantly enhanced by the duration of stent retention, patient sex, and the systemic disease. These categories of patients should undergo shorter stent retention, antimicrobial prophylaxis, and careful followup to minimize infectious complications. 5 tables. 19 references.

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Hepato-cellular Failure. In: Sherlock, S.; Dooley, J. Diseases of the Liver and Biliary System. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, Inc. 2002. p.81-92.

This chapter on hepatocellular failure is from a textbook that presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of diseases of the liver and biliary system. The authors note that hepatocellular failure can complicate almost all forms of liver disease. Although the clinical features may differ, the overall picture and treatment are similar, regardless of etiology (cause). Topics include the general failure of health, jaundice, vasodilation and hyperdynamic circulation, pulmonary hypertension, fever and septicemia, fetor hepaticus, changes in nitrogen metabolism, skin changes, vascular spiders, palmar erythema (liver palms), white nails, mechanism of skin changes, endocrine changes, hypogonadism, hypothalamic-pituitary function, metabolism of hormones, general treatment considerations and precipitating factors. Each section has its own list of references, for further reading. 15 figures. 2 tables. 76 references.

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Vibrio Vulnificus. New York, NY: American Liver Foundation. 2002. 2 p.

This fact sheet helps health care providers understand the risks of eating raw molluscan shellfish that might be contaminated with Vibrio vulnificus, a bacteria that can cause severe illness or death to people in risk groups (including persons with liver disease, diabetes mellitus, or weakened immune systems). The fact sheet outlines the three distinct clinical syndromes associated with V. vulnificus infections: primary septicemia, gastroenteritis, and wound infection. The fact sheet then discusses diagnosis, treatment, long-term sequelae, case reporting requirements, reducing the risk of infection, and prevention recommendations. The brochure includes the contact addresses for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) websites that can provide more information ( 3 references.

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Clinical Risks of Infection Associated with Endoscopy. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology. 15(5): 321-331. May 2001.

This article reviews the clinical risks of infection associated with endoscopy. The author stresses that the cleaning of flexible endoscopes is both difficult and time consuming. Any method of attempted sterilization or high level disinfection will fail if prior cleaning has been defective. Inadequate reprocessing of endoscopes may result in patient to patient transmission of serious bacterial and viral diseases or infection with endemic hospital pathogens. Antibiotic prophylaxis is required to prevent septicemia (blood infection) and bacterial endocarditis (infection of the heart valve or lining) in high risk patients undergoing specific endoscopic procedures. Prevention of these and other serious endoscopy associated clinical infections requires strict compliance with detailed reprocessing protocols by specially trained nursing staff. The author considers the use of microbiological surveillance of endoscopes and the use of patient infection detection protocols. A cost effective approach is mentioned that recommends infection detection surveillance programs should exist at least intermittently for high risk procedures such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). In addition, consumer pressure for more stringent infection control measures in endoscopy appears to have forced instrument manufacturers to take this aspect of endoscope and accessory design much more seriously. 206 references.

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Vibrio vulnificus Fact Sheet for Health Care Providers. Cedar Grove, NJ: American Liver Foundation. 2001. [2 p.].

Every year, millions of Americans consume raw molluscan shellfish, especially oysters and clams. For some people, eating these shellfish raw or undercooked can cause serious illness or death from Vibrio vulnificus. V. vulnificus is a gram-negative bacterium and is considered the most lethal of the vibrios bacteria inhabiting brackish and salt water. This bacterium is not the result of bacteriological or chemical pollution of marine waters, but occurs naturally in warm, coast areas. This fact sheet provides health care workers with basic information about V. vulnificus. Topics include persons at high risk, how infection occurs, the resulting illness (primary septicemia, gastroenteritis, wound infection), diagnostic considerations, treatment (notably prompt antimicrobial therapy), the long term sequelae of V. vulnificus infection, how to reduce the risk of infection, and prevention recommendations. The fact sheet concludes with the contact information for the American Liver Foundation, a nonprofit, national voluntary health organization (

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Vibrio Vulnificus Fact Sheet for Health Care Providers. New York, NY: American Liver Foundation. 2006. 2 p.

Vibrio vulnificus is a gram-negative bacterium that is considered the most lethal of the vibrios inhabiting brackish and salt water. This bacterium occurs naturally in warm, coastal areas and is found in higher concentrations from April through October, when coastal waters are warm. This fact sheet helps health care providers understand the risks of V. vulnificus infection. Topics include the population most at risk of V. vulnificus infection; the clinical syndromes associated with V. vulnificus infections, including primary septicemia, gastroenteritis, and wound infection; diagnostic approaches; treatment, notably with antibiotics; long-term sequelae; case reporting, which is mandated at the state level; and strategies to reduce the risk of infection. Most healthy individuals are not at risk for V. vulnificus infection. Persons at high risk include those with liver disorders, including hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer; hemochromatosis; diabetes mellitus; and immunocompromising conditions such as HIV, AIDS, and cancer. The fact sheet includes the contact information for the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference (; 803-788-7559). 3 references.

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