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Clarice R. Weinberg, Ph.D.

Biostatistics Branch

Clarice R. Weinberg, Ph.D.
Clarice R. Weinberg, Ph.D.
Chief, Biostatistics Branch

Tel (919) 541-4927
Fax (919) 541-4311

Curriculum Vitae (weinberg-cv.pdf)  Download Adobe Reader
P.O. Box 12233
Mail Drop A3-03
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709
Delivery Instructions

Epidemiology is one of the best tools for studying human health effects of environmental exposures.  However, this tool is inherently imperfect and prone to imprecision and biases. Clarice Weinberg’s research has focused on the development of improved methods for design and analysis that account for sources of bias, missing data, response heterogeneity and mismeasurement in epidemiologic studies. Methodologic research is most fruitful when it arises in the context of real applications to epidemiology. Her extensive collaborations with epidemiologists at NIEHS have inspired nearly all of this work.

Weinberg is also interested in developing improved designs and methods of analysis to elucidate the joint etiologic roles of genetic and environmental susceptibility factors. Complex diseases, such as birth defects, heart diseases, neurodegenerative disease and cancer, are caused by time and the combined action of genetic susceptibility factors and exposures. One understudied area is the relation between the prenatal environment and health. Of particular interest is the interplay between genetic factors—both maternal and fetal—and maternal exposures in influencing fetal survival, embryologic development and postnatal long-term health. Methods being developed in this area will be applied to data from an international study of oral clefting and to a study of osteosarcoma, a bone cancer that occurs in childhood.

Weinberg is also collaborating with Dale Sandler, Ph.D., Chief of the Epidemiology Branch, in a major cohort study of breast cancer, called the Sister Study. This Study is recruiting 50,000 women who are sisters of women with breast cancer. The sisters will be followed prospectively for incidence of breast cancer and other diseases.  This cohort design takes advantage of the fact that sisters have an increased prevalence of susceptibility genes, and this enrichment will markedly enhance the research team’s statistical power for detecting gene-by-environment interactions, compared to a similarly-sized random cohort of women.

Weinberg and colleagues are now undertaking a new study, called the Two Sister Study, with funding from Susan G. Komen for the Cure. This study, which uses a family-based design, builds on the Sister Study ( Exit NIEHS Website cohort by recruiting some 1,600 families where one sister is already a member of the Sister Study and the sister who had breast cancer was recently diagnosed and was under the age of 50 at diagnosis. DNA, household dust samples, and extensive questionnaire data will allow elucidation of the role of interacting environmental and genetic factors in the development of young-onset disease. Parents will also be asked to contribute DNA via a mail-back saliva collection kit. Follow-up of the affected sisters over the coming years will also allow better characterization of factors that contribute to healthy survival following treatment for cancer.

Selected Publications

  1. Umbach, D. and Weinberg, C.R.  Designing and analyzing case-control studies to exploit independence of genotype and exposure.  Statistics in Medicine, 16(15): 1731-43, 1997. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  2. Rockhill, B., Newman, B., and Weinberg, C.R.  Use and misuse of population attributable fractions.  American Journal of Public Health, 88(1): 15-19, 1998. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  3. Weinberg, C.R., Wilcox, A.J. and Lie, R.T.  A log-linear approach to case-parent triad data:  Assessing effects of disease genes that act directly or through maternal effects, and may be subject to parental imprinting.  American Journal of Human Genetics, 62(4): 969-978, 1998. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  4. Wilcox, A.J., Weinberg, C.R. and Lie, R.T. Distinguishing the effects of maternal and offspring genes through studies of 'case-parent triads.'  American Journal of Epidemiology, 148(9): 893-901, 1998. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  5. Weinberg, C.R. and Umbach, D.M. Using pooled exposure assessment to improve efficiency in case-control studies. Biometrics, 55(3): 718-726, 1999. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  6. Wilcox, A.J., Baird, D.D. and Weinberg, C.R. Time of implantation of the conceptus and loss of pregnancy. New England Journal of Medicine, 340(23): 1796-9, 1999. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  7. Weinberg, C.R. Allowing for missing parents in genetic studies of case-parent triads. American Journal of Human Genetics 64(4): 1186-1193, 1999. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  8. Janowsky, E.C., Lester, G.E., Weinberg, C.R., Millikan, R.C., Schildkraut, J. M., Garrett, P.A., Hulka, B.S. The association between low levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D and breast cancer risk. Public Health Nutrition, 2(3): 283-91, 1999. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  9. Weinberg, C.R. Methods for detecting parent-of-origin effects in genetic studies of case-parents triads. American Journal of Human Genetics, 65: 229-235, 1999. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  10. Umbach, D.M. and Weinberg, C.R. The use of case-parent triads to study joint effects of genotype and exposure. American Journal of Human Genetics, 66:251-261, 2000. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  11. Weinberg, C.R. and Dunson, D.B.  Some issues in assessing human fertility. Invited Millennial vignette, Journal of the American Statistical Association, 95(449): 300-303, 2000.
  12. Dunson, D. and Weinberg, C.R.   Modeling human fertility in the presence of measurement error. Biometrics, 56:288-92, 2000. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  13. Dunson, D.B. and Weinberg, C.R.  Accounting for unreported and missing intercourse in human fertility studies. Statistics in Medicine, 19: 665-79, 2000. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  14. Weinberg, C.R. and Umbach, D.M.  Choosing a retrospective design to assess joint genetic and environmental contributions to risk. American Journal of Epidemiology, 152(3): 197-203, 2000. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  15. Dunson, D.B., Weinberg, C.R., Baird, D.D., Kesner, J., and Wilcox, A.J. Assessing human fertility using several markers of ovulation.  Statistics in Medicine20(6): 965-78, 2001. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  16. Dunson, D.B. Weinberg, C.R. and Wilcox, A.J. Modelling multiple ovulation, fertilization, and embryo loss in human fertility studies. Biostatistics, 2(2): 131-145, 2001. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  17. Rieger, R., Kaplan, N. and Weinberg, C.R. Efficient use of sibling data for testing for linkage and association.  Genetic Epidemiology, 20(2): 175-91, 2001. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  18. Li, L., Darden, T.A., Weinberg, C.R., Levine, A.J. and Pedersen, L.G.  Gene assessment and sample classification for gene expression data using a genetic algorithm/k-nearest neighbor method. Combinatorial Chemistry and High Throughput Screening, 4(8): 727-39, 2001. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  19. Weinberg, C.R.  It's time to rehabilitate the P-value.  Invited editorial, Epidemiology, 12(3): 288-290,  2001. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  20. Hoffman, Elaine Borland, Sen, P.K., and Weinberg, C.R.  Within-cluster resampling. Biometrika, 88(4):1121-34, 2001.
  21. Schroeder, J. and Weinberg, C.R.  Use of missing-data methods to correct bias and improve precision in case-control studies where cases are subtyped but subtype information is incomplete. American Journal of Epidemiology, 154(10): 954-62, 2001. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  22. Li, L., Weinberg, C.R., Darden, T.A. and Pedersen, L.G.  Gene selection for sample classification based on gene expression data:  study of sensitivity  to choice of parameters of the GA/KNN method. Bioinformatics, 17(12): 1131-42, 2001. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  23. Rieger, R. and Weinberg, C.R. Analysis of clustered binary outcomes using within-cluster paired resampling. Biometrics, 58:332-341, 2002. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  24. Infante-Rivard, C., Rivard, G-E, Yotov, W., Genin, E., Guiguet, M., Weinberg, C., Gauthier R., Feoli-Fonseca, J-C  Absence of association of thrombophilic polymorthisms with intrauterine growth restriction. New England Journal of Medicine347(1): 19-25, 2002. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  25. Basso, O., Weinberg, C.R., Wilcox, A.J., Baird D.D., Olsen J.  Subfecundity as a correlate of pre-eclampsia:  A study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.  American Journal of Epidemiology, 157(3):195-202 2003. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  26. Baird, D.D., Weinberg, C.R., McConnaughey, D.R., and Wilcox, A.J. Rescue of the corpus luteum in human pregnancy. Biology of Reproduction, Feb; 68(2):448-56, 2003. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  27. Weinberg, C.R.  Studying parents and grandparents to assess genetic contributions to early-onset disease.  American Journal of Human Genetics, 72(2):438-47, 2003. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  28. Peddada, S.D., Lobenhofer, E.K., Li, L., Afshari, C.A., Weinberg, C.R., Umbach, D.M.  Gene selection and clustering for time-course and dose-response microarray experiments using order-restricted inference. Bioinformatics, 19(7):834-41, 2003. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  29. Weinberg, C.R. and Morris, R.  Invited Commentary:  Testing for Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium using a genome SNP scan based on cases only.   American Journal of Epidemiology, 158(5):401-3, 2003. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  30. Harville, E.W., Wilcox, A.J., Baird, D.D., and Weinberg, C.R. Vaginal bleeding in very early pregnancy. Human Reproduction, 18(9): 1944-7, 2003. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  31. Weinberg, C.R. Invited Commentary:  Making the most of genotype asymmetries. American Journal of Epidemiology, 158(11): 1033-5, 2003. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  32. Basso, O. Wilcox, A.J., Baird, D.D., Weinberg, C.R., and Olsen, J.  Height and risk of severe pre-eclampsia: A study within the Danish National Birth Registry. International Journal of Epidemiology, 33(4): 858-63, 2004. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  33. Kistner, E.O. and Weinberg, C.R. A method for using complete and incomplete trios to identify genes related to a quantitative trait. Genetic Epidemiology, 27(1): 33-42, 2004. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  34. Liu, D., Umbach, D., Peddada, S., Li, L., Crockett, P., Weinberg, C.R. A random-periods model for expression of cell-cycle genes.  Proceedings of the National Academies of Science, 101(19): 7240-45, 2004. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  35. Wilcox, A.J., Baird DD, Weinberg, CR, Dunson, D, McConnaughey, DR., Kesner, J.S. On the frequency of intercourse around ovulation: Evidence for biologic influences.  Human Reproduction, 19(7):1539-43, 2004. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  36. Liu, D., Weinberg, C.R. and Peddada, S.D.  A geometric approach to determine association and coherence of the activation times of cell-cycling genes under differing experimental conditions. Bioinformatics, 20(16): 2521-8, 2004. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  37. Weinberg, C.R.  Barker meets Simpson.  Invited Commentary, American Journal of Epidemiology161(1): 33-35, 2005. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  38. Sallmén, M, Weinberg, CR, Baird, DD, Lindbohm, M-L, Wilcox, AJ.  Has human fertility declined over time?  Why we may never know.  Epidemiology, 16(4): 494-9, 2005. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  39. McChesney, R., Wilcox, A.J., O’Connor J.F., Weinberg, C.R., Baird, D.D., Schlatterer, J.P., McConnaughey, D.R., Birken, S., and Canfield R.E.  Urinary analytes of beta-hCG:  Longitudinal patterns during early pregnancy.  Human Reproduction, 20(4): 928-35, 2005. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  40. Mitchell, L.E., Weinberg, C.R..  Evaluation of maternal and offspring genetic effects on disease risk using a family-based approach:  The “pent” design. American Journal of Epidemiology, 162(7): 676-85, 2005. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  41. Sarkar, K., Weinberg, C.R.,  Oddis, C.V., Medsger, T.A., Plotz, P.H., Reveille, J.D., Arnett, F.C., Targoff, I.N., Genth, E., Love, L.A., Miller, F.W.  Seasonal influence in the onset of serologic groups of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 52(8): 2433-8, 2005. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  42. Kistner, E. and Weinberg, C.R.  A method for identifying genes related to a quantitative trait, incorporating multiple siblings and missing parents.  Genetic Epidemiology, 29(2): 155-65, 2005. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  43. Infante-Rivard, C., Weinberg, C.R.  Parent-of-origin transmission of thrombophillic alleles to intrauterine-growth-restricted newborns and transmission-ratio distortion in unaffected newborns.  American Journal of Epidemiology, 162(9): 891-7. 2005. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  44. Weinberg, C.R. and Umbach, D.M.  A hybrid design for studying genetic influences on risk of diseases with onset in early life.  American Journal of Human Genetics, 77(4): 627-36, 2005. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  45. Infante-Rivard, C., Weinberg, C.R. Guiguet, M.  Xenobiotic-metabolizing genes and small-for-gestational-age births: interaction with maternal smoking.  Epidemiology, 17(1): 38-46, 2006. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  46. Krewski D, Lubin JH, Zielinski JM, Alavanja M, Catalan V, Field W, Klotz JB, Letourneau EG, Lynch CF, Lyon JL, Sandler DP, Schoenberg JB, Steck DJ, Stolwijk JA, Weinberg CR, Wilcox HB.  A combined analysis of North American Case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer. J Tox Env Health, 69(7): 533-97, 2006. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  47. Sandler, D.P., Weinberg, C.R., Shore, D.L., Archer, V.E., Bishop-Stone, M., Lyon, J.L., Rothney-Kozlak, L., Shepherd, M., Stolwijk, J.A.J. Indoor radon and lung cancer risk in Connecticut and Utah. J Tox Env Health, A 69(7):633-54, 2006. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  48. Kistner, E.O., Infante-Rivard C., Weinberg, C.R.  A method for using incomplete triads to test maternally mediated genetic effects and parent-of-origin effects in relation to a quantitative trait. American Journal of Epidemiology, 163(3): 255-61, 2006. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  49. Liu, D., Peddada, S.D., Li, L., Weinberg, C.R.  Phase analysis of circadian-related genes in two tissues. BMC Bioinformatics, 2006 Feb 23, 7: 87. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  50. Basso, O., Wilcox, A.J. and Weinberg, C.R.  Birth weight and mortality:  Causality or confounding? American Journal of Epidemiology, 164(4): 303-11, 2006 [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  51. Howards, P., Hertz-Picciotto, I., Weinberg, C.R. and Poole, C.  Misclassification of gestational age in the study of spontaneous abortion. American Journal of Epidemiology, 164(11): 1126-36, 2006. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  52. Basso, O., Rassmussen, S., Weinberg, C.R., Wilcox, A.J., Irgens, L.M., Skjaerven, R. Trends in fetal and infant survival following preeclampsia. Journal of the American Medical Association, 296(11): 1357-62, 2006. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  53. Promislow, J.H.E., Baird, D.D., Wilcox, A.J., Weinberg, C.R. Bleeding following pregnancy loss prior to six weeks gestation. In press, Human Reproduction, 2007. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  54. Rampersaud, E., Morris, R.W., Weinberg, C.R., Speer, M.C. and Martin, E.R.  Power calculations for likelihood ratio tests for genetic risks, maternal effects and parent-of-origin (POO) effects in the presence of missing parental genotypes when unaffected siblings are available. Genetic Epidemiology, 31(1): 18-30, 2007. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  55. Shi, M, Christensen, K., Weinberg, C.R., Romitti, P., Bathum, L., Lozada, A., Murray, J.C.  Comprehensive gene environment interaction analysis of 16 genes involved in detoxification pathways in the causes of orofacial clefts. American Journal of Human Genetics 80(1): 76-90, 2007. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  56. Infante-Rivard, C., Vermunt, J.K., Weinberg, C.R. Excess transmission of the NQ01 C609T allele in families of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  In press, American Journal of Epidemiology, 2007.
  57. Weinberg, C.R., Shore, D., Umbach, D.M., and Sandler, D.P.  Using risk-based sampling to enrich cohorts for endpoints, genes and exposures.  In press, American Journal of Epidemiology, 2007.
  58. Vegosen L.J., Weinberg C.R., O'Hanlon T.P., Targoff I.T., Miller F.W., Rider L.G. Seasonal birth patterns in subgroups of myositis suggest a role for early environmental exposures in etiology. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 8: 2719-2729, 2007. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  59. Jukic AMZ, Weinberg CW, Baird DD, Wilcox AJ. Life-study and reproductive factors associated with follicular phase length. Journal of women's health (2002) 2007 16(9):1340-1347. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  60. Jukic AMZ, Weinberg C, Wilcox AJ, McConnaughey DR, Hornsby PP, Baird DD. Accuracy of reporting of menstrual cycle length. American journal of epidemiology 2008 167(1):25-33. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS
  61. Nepomnaschy PA , Weinberg CR, Wilcox AJ, Baird DD. Urinary hCG patterns during the week following implantation. Human reproduction (Oxford, England) 2008 23(2):271-277. [Abstract] ( Exit NIEHS

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The following files are available for downloading. Clicking on the link will open the file in a browser window - to download them either RIGHT CLICK (on a PC) or CONTROL CLICK (on a Mac) and pick Download Link To Disk (sometimes listed as Save Link to Disk). Additional downloads at Biostatistics Branch Resources. (

  • SAS code to fit log-linear models for offspring gentoype effects, maternal genotype effects, and imprinting. Included is an output file that you can check output from your computer against. Developed by Richard Morris and Clare Weinberg. PLEASE NOTE: This Log-Linear SAS code is designed for data sets with MISSING PARENTS. It does not work properly if there are no missing parents.
  • Added July 30, 2005: Please follow this link for the Hybrid Design ( log linear model as described in the paper "A hybrid design for studying genetic influences on diseases with onset early in life" Weinberg, C.R. and Umbach, D.M. Am. J. Hum. Gen., in review.
  • SAS code to fit polytomous and additive logistic models for single offspring gentoype effects with missing fathers or mothers. These models are described in the paper "A Method Using Complete and Incomplete Trios to Identify Genes Related to a Quantitative Trait," by Emily Kistner and Clare Weinberg, which is in Genetic Epidemiology, Volume 27, Issue 1, pages 33-42.
    • add1 (txt) (17KB) is the Additive Logistic Model for Missing Parents
    • qpl1 (txt) (18KB) is the Polytomous Logistic Model for Missing Parents.
  • SAS code to fit polytomous and additive logistic models for multiple offspring genotype effects with missing fathers or mothers. These models are described in the paper "A Method for Identifying Genes Related to a Quantitative Trait, Incorporating Multiple Siblings and Missing Parents," by Emily Kistner and Clare Weinberg, which is in Genetic Epidemiology, Volue 29, pages 155-165.
    • add3 (txt) (7KB) is the Additive Logistic Model for Multiple Children and Missing Parents
    • qpl3 (txt) (6KB) is the Polytomous Logistic Model for Multiple Children and Missing Parents
    • lib2 (iml) (87KB) are the functions that are called in add3.TXT and qpl3.TXT
  • SAS code to fit polytomous logistic model for maternal effects with single offspring and missing fathers or mothers. The code may also be changed slightly as described in maternal1.txt to fit a model for parent-of-origin effects. These models are described in a paper titled "A Method for Using Incomplete Triads to Test Maternally-mediated Genetic Effects and Parent-of-Origin Effects in Relation to a Quantitative Trait," by Emily Kistner, Claire Infante-Rivard, and Clare Weinberg, which is in press in the American Journal of Epidemiology. NOTE: SAS source code updated 15 February 2006.
    • maternal1 (txt) (23KB) polytomous logistic model for maternal or parent-of-origin effects with single offspring and missing fathers or mothers
  • Added March 23, 2007: The TRIad Multi-Marker (TRIMM) program performs max_Z2, and sum_log(P) tests, association tests for child's or mother's genetic effects using multiple markers from triad families. Statistical significance is evaluated via permutation. It also outputs the nominated risk-haplotype-tagging alleles. For details, see Shi M, Umbach DM, Weinberg CR "Identification of Risk-related Haplotypes Using Multiple SNPs from Nuclear Families."
    • TRIMM (  View Information About ZIP Files (26 KB) is the ZIPPED set of the following 5 files:
      • R source code: TRIMM.r
      • Program documentation: TRIMM_Documentation.pdf
      • 3 Example files: geno.m geno.f geno.c
  • Added February 13, 2008: This archive provides information for fitting log-linear models and carrying out statistical tests for a design that includes two samples from the same population: one sample of affected individuals and their mothers and a second sample of unaffected individuals and their mothers, as described in the paper "Making the most of case-mother/control-mother studies," M. Shi , D.M. Umbach, S.H. Vermeulen and C.R. Weinberg.
    • case-control (  View Information About ZIP Files (32 KB) is the ZIPPED file containing 17 items, including a README document.
  • Added March 28, 2008: This archive provides information for fitting log-linear models and carrying out statistical tests for a hybrid design that includes a sample of affected individuals and their parents and a sample of unaffected individuals and their mothers (case-parent triad/control-mother dyad design), as described in the paper "A hybrid design: case-parent triads supplemented by control-mother dyads" by S.H. Vermeulen, M. Shi, C.R. Weinberg, and D.M. Umbach.
    • ctrl-mom-hybrid (  View Information About ZIP Files (44 KB) is the ZIPPED file containing 28 items, including a README document.
  • Added June 2, 2008: This package contains programs that fit log-linear models to estimate the relative risk associated with a candidate risk haplotype in a triad-based association study as described in the manuscript Shi M, Umbach DM, Weinberg CR "Using Case-parent Triads to Estimate Relative Risk Associated with a Candidate Haplotype." Updated August 28, 2008: The supplementary results are available as the document "Comparison-to-Carayol-et-al.pdf".
    • TRIMMEST (  View Information About ZIP Files (70 KB) is the ZIPPED file containing 8 items.
    • Comparison-to-Carayol-et-al.pdf (  Download Adobe Reader (201 KB)

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