Responses to Transition Metals
Jonathan H. Freedman, Ph.D.
Tel (919) 541-7899
Fax (919) 541-5737
P.O. Box 12233
Mail Drop E1-05
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709
The overall research program in the Comparative Genomics Group involves understanding contribution of environmental toxicants to the etiology of human diseases. Specifically, how organisms respond on the molecular level when they are exposed to transition metals (cadmium, copper, zinc, mercury). The cellular responses elicited by metals are similar to those observed following exposure to ultraviolet or ionizing radiation, heat shock, organic chemicals, pro-oxidants and chemical carcinogens. This group has focused on understanding the metal-responsive regulatory processes controlling the gene expression. Ultimately, disruption of these regulatory processes or the inability of an organism to affectively respond to metal exposure may lead to the development of pathologies.
To address these problems, the research is directed toward understanding the mechanisms by which metals affect the transcription of specific genes and entire genomes, activate signal transduction cascades, induce post-translational modification of metal-responsive transcription factors, and disrupt normal development. Although the major focus is on the response mechanisms associated with cadmium, copper and mercury exposure, the mechanism of global metal responsiveness is also being investigating by examining silver, zinc, arsenic, and chromium toxicity. To investigate these mechanisms, a variety of model systems, each with characteristics that make in applicable to this research: yeast (rapid growth, genetics), C. elegans (multicellular, genetics, defined cell biology), and mammalian cell culture (more applicable to human conditions) are being used. In addition, through collaborate efforts, zebrafish (multicellular, vertebrate) and mice (genetics, vertebrate) are also being utilized.
Using classic genetic and reverse-genetic approaches, molecular biology, and genomics, the regulatory pathways that respond to metals and subsequently activate transcription are being identified and characterized. Results from this research will be used to help elucidate the fundamental mechanisms of transition metal-induced disease, developmental abnormalities and carcinogenesis, and how organisms adapt to increasingly toxic environments.
Major areas of research:
A 3-dimensional confocal fluorescence image showing the pharynx of a transgenic C. elegans harboring both the numr-1 promoter fused to mCherry (red) and a partial numr-2 translational fusion to GFP (green). Both genes are constitutively expressed in sensory neurons in the head.
Jonathan H. Freedman, Ph.D., heads the Comparative Genomics Group within the Laboratory of Molecular Toxicology. He received his Ph.D. in molecular pharmacology from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in 1986. He has published 60 peer-reviewed articles in leading biomedical journals, as well as several book chapters. He served as Associate Professor of Molecular Toxicology at Duke University before joining NIEHS in 2005.