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NIAID Glossary of Funding and Policy Terms and Acronyms: T-Z

For Institute program-specific acronyms, go to NIAID Profile and Fact Book.

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Table of contents

For electronic applications, a table of contents is generated automatically .

For paper grant applications, Form Page 3 in the paper PHS 398 grant application.

Targeted/Planned Enrollment Table

Form listing potential populations to be enrolled for human subjects research. For paper PHS 398 grant applications, use this Targeted/Planned Enrollment Table. For electronic grant applications, use the Targeted/Planned Enrollment Table form in your Grant Application Package. Go to the Grant Application Guide for details.

Also see Inclusion Enrollment Report Table. Go to NIAID's Send the Inclusion Enrollment Form With Your Progress Report tutorial page and Human Subjects, Clinical Research.

Targeted research

Research funded from an NIH institute set aside of dollars for a scientific area. Institutes solicit grant applications using research initiatives: requests for applications for grants and requests for proposals for contracts.

Go to NIAID's Targeted Research SOPs, How to Choose an Application Topic tutorial page, and How does NIH define investigator-initiated applications? question and answer. See the converse, investigator-initiated research.

Technical evaluation criteria Conditions determined by a project officer and contracting officer during pre-solicitation for evaluating the technical merit of contract proposals responding to an RFP. Go to NIAID's R&D Contracts and the Peer Review of R&D Contract Technical Proposals SOP.
Technical evaluation group

Panel of peer reviewers with scientific or technical expertise who conduct initial peer review of the scientific and technical merits of R&D contract proposals. They vote on acceptability and make other recommendations.

Go to NIAID's R&D Contracts and the Peer Review of R&D Contract Technical Proposals SOP.

Technical evaluation report

Report prepared by a scientific review officer after initial peer review of R&D contract proposals stating scores, strengths and weaknesses, and whether acceptable or unacceptable. Go to NIAID's R&D Contracts and the Peer Review of R&D Contract Technical Proposals SOP.

Technology transfer Sharing of knowledge and facilities among federal laboratories, industry, universities, government, and others to make federally generated scientific and technological advances accessible to private industry and state and local governments. Go to NIH Office of Technology Transfer.
Termination Discontinuance of a clinical investigation before completion by a sponsor or by withdrawal of IRB or FDA approval. Go to definition 21 CFR 812.3, 21 CFR 56.113, and 21 CFR 312.44. Also go to the Contract Termination SOP.
Termination for convenience, contracts Government contract termination that does not hold a contractor at fault, usually done if it's in the government's best interest. Non-profit and educational organizations can be terminated for convenience, but not for default. Go to FAR 49 and NIAID' is hiss R&D Contracts. Also go to the Contract Termination SOP.
Termination for default, contracts Government contract termination that holds a contractor at fault for failure to make progress or comply with provisions of a contract. This action is appropriate only in cost-plus-fixed-fee and fixed-price contracts. Go to FAR 49 and R&D Contracts.
Termination, grants Permanent withdrawal of a grantee's authority to use grant funds, pending either corrective action by a grantee or a decision by NIH to terminate the award.
Terms and conditions of award NIH legal requirements for a grant or contract, based on statute, regulation, or policy. Terms are described in a Notice of Award or contract. See NIAID's Clinical Terms of Award and select agent. Go to NIAID's Biodefense Research and Developments for biodefense terms for grants and contracts.
Terms of award, clinical See Clinical Terms of Award.
Test article FDA term for drugs, devices, biologicals, medical devices, human food or color additives, electronic products, or other item regulated by FDA. Go to definition 21 CFR 56.102 and full 21 CFR 56.
Total costs for grants Total allowed costs, both direct and facilities and administrative, incurred by a grantee to carry out a project or activity. These include costs charged to a grant or paid by a grantee to satisfy a matching or cost-sharing requirement.
Totipotent cell Stem cell that can differentiate into most types of endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm cells. Compare with pluripotent, multipotent, oligopotent, unipotent stem cells.
Training grants Training (T) and fellowship (F) grants. For descriptions of these activity codes, go to NIAID's Training and Career Awards and Training and Career Awards and Fellowships questions and answers.
Transdifferentiation Ability of a cell of one tissue, organ, or system to differentiate into a different cell type.
Treatment investigational new drug

FDA procedure for giving patients with serious or life-threatening diseases access to investigational new drugs outside a clinical trial.

See investigational new drug application and Treatment IND in FDA's Handbook for more information. Go to 21 CFR 312.34 and 21 CFR 312.36.

Triage See streamlined review.
Type See application type and activity code.
Unacceptable proposal Contract proposal judged by a technical evaluation group to fail to satisfy minimum requirements of an RFP without significant revisions. Go to NIAID's R&D Contracts and the Peer Review of R&D Contract Technical Proposals SOP.
Unallowable cost

Cost that cannot be included in a price, cost-reimbursement, or settlement under a government contract. Go to FAR 31.001.

Unanticipated adverse device effect Unanticipated serious adverse effect on health or safety related to the rights, safety, or welfare of subjects associated with a device. Go to definition 21 CFR 812.3 and full 21 CFR 812.
Unauthorized commitment Order for supplies or services placed by an agency employee authorized to do so or orders placed by contracting officers exceeding their authorized dollar limit.
Underrepresented group

Group underrepresented in biomedical research, defined as the following:

Used as an eligibility requirement for Research Supplements to Promote Diversity in Health-Related Research, Fellowship Grants (F31), and other NIH programs. Also see the human subjects definition of minority group. Go to NIAID's Special Populations questions and answers.

Undue influence

Improper pressure or coercion to shape a person's presence of mind and actions, depriving that person's freedom of choice. Human subjects protections prevent investigators from using such measures to enroll people in research. See informed consent.

See also 45 CFR 46.116 general requirements for informed consent and 21 CFR 50.20.

Unexpected adverse events Adverse events not described in labels, brochures, published medical literature, protocols, or consent documents. Go to the NIH Adverse Event Reports and NIAID's Human Subjects, Clinical Research.
Unipotent stem cell Stem cell that can differentiate into a single type of endoderm, ectoderm, or mesoderm cell. Compare with totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent, and oligopotent stem cells.
Unliquidated obligation

Expenses agreed to but not paid for by the end of a budget period.

In the financial status report for a final budget period, unliquidated obligations must be zero.

Unobligated balance

Funds not used by the completion of a grant's project period. Grantees must report unobligated balances over 25 percent of total costs to the grants management specialist.

Grants awarded under expanded authorities may carry over unobligated funds from one budget period to another within an approved project period without prior approval, as stated in the Notice of Award.


Describes a grant application that does not receive a full initial peer review or priority score because it was either streamlined or not recommended for further consideration. These applications receive the primary and secondary reviewers' critiques as a summary statement.

Occasionally, an unscored application is funded by a special action of an NIH institute's advisory council. Also see recommended.

Go to NIAID's Part 11b. Not Funded, Reapply in the NIH Grant Cycle: Application to Renewal.

Unsolicited proposal Written proposal submitted at an offeror's initiative to obtain a contract with the government that is not in response to a request for proposals or a government solicitation of any type. Go to FAR 15.602 and see the official definition at FAR 2.101.
Unsolicited research

Research funded after an investigator submits a research grant application on a topic of his or her choice, including applications responding to program announcements. See investigator-initiated research and the converse, targeted research.

USA Patriot Act Public law to deter and punish terrorism inside and outside the U.S. and provide investigatory and other tools, which include restricting access to select agents. Go to USA Patriot Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 and USA Patriot Act of 2001.
USAID U.S. Agency for International Development. Go to USAID.
USDA See U.S. Department of Agriculture.
U.S. Department of Agriculture

Federal government agency with programs for food, agriculture, natural resources, and related topics. USDA implements the Animal Welfare Act and regulates the study of pathogens and toxins for livestock and plants.

Researchers must register with USDA APHIS for approval to possess or use a select agent. For a list of Overlap select agents regulated by CDC and USDA, go to Select Agent and Toxin List.

Go to the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare Animal Welfare Regulations tutorial. Go to USDA.

U.S. Public Health Service See Public Health Service.
Valid analysis

Human subjects term indicating an unbiased assessment that generally yields a correct estimate of the difference in outcomes between two groups of subjects. Used for small and large clinical studies, a valid analysis does not need high statistical power for detecting an effect. Also see analysis.

Main requirements for ensuring a valid analysis are as follows:

  • Allocation of study participants of both genders and from different racial and ethnic groups to intervention and control groups by an unbiased process, such as randomization.
  • Unbiased evaluation of an outcome.
  • Use of unbiased statistical analyses and methods of inference to estimate and compare intervention effects among different groups.

For electronic grant applications, systematic check of an application against the Grant Application Guide and funding opportunity announcement. It can result in errors or warnings. Go to NIAID's About Validations in the NIH Grant Cycle: Application to Renewal.

Viewing window

For electronic grant applications, two-day period an applicant can use to check the application image to make sure it meets expectations.

Unless a signing official rejects an application, it automatically becomes final -- moves to the Center for Scientific Review -- at midnight EST two business days after passing validations. Go to If Your Application Passes Commons Validation and If You Want to Correct After Passing Commons Validation in the NIH Grant Cycle: Application to Renewal.


For electronic grant applications, result of or eRA Commons validation that may require the applicant's attention although it does not stop an application from becoming final -- moving to the Center for Scientific Review.

Go to NIAID's About Validations in the NIH Grant Cycle: Application to Renewaland Corrected or Late Electronic Applications questions and answers.

Waiver Exception to an NIAID grant policy that NIAID approves when highly beneficial to either the Institute or a project's scientific goals or fiscal stewardship. Also see deviation and go to the Deviations and Waivers to Grant Policies SOP.
White Human subjects term indicating a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.
WHO See World Health Organization.
Withholding of support Decision by NIH not to make a noncompeting continuation award for an ongoing grant.
Women See gender.
World Health Organization United Nations agency for world health. Go to WHO.

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