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List of Validation Studies of Physical Activity Questionnaires Containing Walking/Bicycling Questions

  1. Table 1.  Validation Studies of the Ainsworth New Physical Activity Questionnaire (N-PAQ)
  2. Table 2.  Validation Studies of the Arizona Activity Frequency Questionnaire (AAFQ)
  3. Table 3.  Validation Studies of the Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey (ADNFS)
  4. Table 4.  Auckland Heart Study (AHS) Physical Activity Questionnaire
  5. Table 5.  Validation Studies of the Baecke Activity Questionnaire (BAQ)
  6. Table 6.  Modified Baecke Questionnaire (MBAQ)
  7. Table 7.  Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System - New Walking Module
  8. Table 8.  Campbell Survey on Well-Being in Canada Physical Activity Monitor (PAM)
  9. Table 9.  Central Sweden Physical Activity Questionnaire (CSPAQ)
  10. Table 10.  CARDIA Physical Activity Questionnaire
  11. Table 11.  CHAMPS Activities Questionnaire for Older Adults
  12. Table 12.  European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Physical Activity Questions
  13. Table 13.  European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition - Norfolk (EPIC2) Physical Activity Questions
  14. Table 14a.  Health Insurance Plan of New York City (HIP) Activity Questionnaire
  15. Table 14b.  Historical Leisure Activity Questionnaire (HLAQ)
  16. Table 15.  International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)
  17. Table 16.  Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS)
  18. Table 17.  Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA)-Physical Activity Questionnaire (LAPAQ)
  19. Table 18.  Minnesota Leisure-time Physical activity questionnaire (MLTPAQ)
  20. Table 19.  The Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ)/Pima Indian Questionnaire
  21. Table 20.  The MONICA Optional Study of Physical Activity (MOSPA-Q)
  22. Table 21.  National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) - walking questions
  23. Table 22.  Nurses Health Study II Activity and Inactivity Questionnaire (NHS II-PAQ)
  24. Table 23.  One-Page Questionnaire of Physical activity (VITAL - study)
  25. Table 24.  Perceived Functional Ability (PFA) Questionnaire/Physical Activity Rating (PA-R) Questionnaire
  26. Table 25.  Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire/College Alumnus Questionnaire (CAQ)
  27. Table 26.  Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE)
  28. Table 27.  Physical Activity Scale (PAS)
  29. Table 28.  Postmenopausal Osteopenia PAQ (Activity Questionnaire-AQ)
  30. Table 29.  Quantitative physical activity recall questions (QPAR) - Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study - 1982 and baseline
  31. Table 30.  The Short Questionnaire to assess Health-enhancing Physical activity (SQUASH)
  32. Table 31.  Stanford Usual Physical Activity Questionnaire (SUPAQ)
  33. Table 32.  Techumseh Occupational Physical Activity Questionnaire (TOQ)
  34. Table 33.  Walking Adherence Questionnaire
  35. Table 34.  Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS)
  36. Table 35.  Zutphen Physical Activity Questionnaire (ZPAQ)
  37. Abbreviations of Terms
  38. References

Table 1. Validation Studies of the Ainsworth New Physical Activity Questionnaire (N-PAQ)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Ainsworth et al, 2000(1) Relationships between N-PAQ and PA log (PAL), CSA monitor derived counts/d and moderate intensity scores using equations from: Freedson-F, Hendelman-H and Schwartz-S (Spearman’s rank order correlation coefficients) 83 adults (38 men and 45 women); ages NS
N-PAQ F H S CSA c/d PAL
Non-occupational walking 0.41** 0.05 0.11 0.28* 0.38**
Non-occupational walking +moderate 0.26* 0.11 0.19 0.26* 0.54**
* p < 0.05   ** p < 0.01   *** p < 0.001

 

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Table 2. Validation Studies of the Arizona Activity Frequency Questionnaire (AAFQ)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Staten et al. 2001(2) Relation between 28-d and 7-d AAFQ and Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and Total energy Expenditure (TEE) calculated from DLW and measured RMR (Pearson correlations) -- NS between 7-d and 28 dy AAFQ 35 sedentary women; 31-60 years of age
Expenditure Measure (kJ/d) Mean+SD
RMR 4267 ± 687
DLW TEE 9847 ± 2555
DLW PAEE 5578 ± 2084
28-d AAFQ -total MET 44.5 ± 10.1
PAEE-indirect calorimetry 3645 ± 1916
TEE--indirect calorimetry 7912 ± 2196
TEE reporting accuracy (AAFQic vs DLW) -17.8 ± 20.6
-PAEE- Miffen et al 4838 ± 2498
-TEE-Miffen et al 10,544 ± 2814
-TEE reporting accuracy (AAFQmif vs DLW) 9.5 ± 24.6
-PAEE MET conversion 6117 ± 3270
-TEE MET conversion 13,445 ± 4342
-TEE reporting accuracy (AAFQmet vs DLW) 37.3 ± 29.0
The AAFQ TEE was significantly correlated with TEE from DLW when the RMR was calculated using the Mifflin et al. equation or MET conversion technique (r2=0.45 and r2=0.58). P-values not given in table.

Summary Legend:
PAEE = Physical activity energy expenditure
TEE = Total energy Expenditure

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Table 3. Validation Studies of the Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey (ADNFS)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Brownbill et al. 2002(3) Relation between past physical Activity (ADNFS) and BMD by DPX-MD and walking speed (in hallway), and stair climbing (two sample t-tests) 136 generally healthy Caucasian women; 57.4-88.6 years of age No significant differences in BMD between brisk walking speed, stair climbing and past physical activity (ADNFS)

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Table 4. Auckland Heart Study (AHS) Physical Activity Questionnaire

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Elley et al. 2003(4) Relation between the AHS PAQ administered twice, and a 7-day activity diary (7-d AD) and pedometer (PED) (Spearman’s correlation coefficients) 34 “less active” old men and women; 10% Maori, 90% European; 40-79 years of age
  7-d AD PED
1st AHS
TEE 0.59 0.22
Total Moderate 0.50** 0.37*
Leisure Moderate 0.52**  
Leisure vigorous 0.39**  
2nd AHS
TEE 0.74*** 0.49***
Total moderate activity 0.72*** 0.51***
Leisure moderate 0.59***  
Leisure vigorous 0.65***  
* p < 0.05   ** p < 0.01   *** p < 0.001

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Table 5. Validation Studies of the Baecke Activity Questionnaire (BAQ)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Philippaerts et al 1999(5) Relation of the BAQ and 2 other PAQs to physical activity level (PAL) and average daily metabolic rate (ADMR) as measured with DLW (Pearson correlations) 19 Flemish males aged 40 years of age
  ADMR PAL
BAQ
-work index
0.37 0.52*
sport index
0.46* 0.55*
-leisure time index
0.50* 0.22
-total activity index
0.68** 0.69***
* p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01 *** p < 0.001
Philippaerts and Lefevre 1998(6) Relation of physical activity between 3 levels of professional status of the BAQ and 2 other PAQs (the TCQ and FCQ) Relation of principal-components of BAQ and 2 other PAQs (component loading matrix)- no p values provided 90 Flemish males; 30, 35 and 40 years of age
Component
BAQ
1 2 3 4 5 6
-Work index
0.70 0.09 0.03 -0.03 0.24 -0.41
-Total activity index
0.23 0.87 0.15 -0.02 0.23 -0.06
-Leisure time index
-0.09 0.60 0.10 0.20 0.20 -0.04
Work index of BAQ (0.70) scored high loadings and can be interpreted as a dimension of PA at work. BAQ total activity index (0.87) and leisure time index (0.60) loaded highly with physical activity during sports activities
Pols et al 1996(7) Relation between BAQ and EPIC PAQ to a physical activity diary (12 d) as the main reference method, a single 24-h Caltrac accelerometer score, and energy intake estimated from a 24-h dietary recall repeated 12 times (Pearson correlation) 33 women; 51-71 years of age
  BAQ
Pre-EPIC
0.45*
Diary
0.51*
Caltrac
0.22
EI-recall
-0.21
* p < 0.05
Richardson et al 1995(8) Relation between BAQ And peak oxygen consumption (VO2 pk), % Body fat (%BF), Caltrac accelerometer and 48 hr diaries (PA) (Pearson partial correlations adjusted for age) 28 men and 50 women- Caucasian- in the ‘The Athero-sclerosis Risk in Communities’ (ARIC); 20-59 years of age
  VO2 pk %BF Caltrac
Men:
Leisure
0.13 -0.05 -0.05
Total
0.57* -0.30 0.24
Women:
Leisure
0.38* -.51* 0.06
Total
0.46* -0.51* 0.19
* p < 0.05   ** p < 0.01   *** p < 0.001
Miller et al 1994(9) Relationship between BAQ and kcal estimates from Caltrac accelerometer and 2 other PAQs (correlations) 26 women and 7 men-Physical Therapists-mean age 28±6 years
Caltrac
0.40
3-day record
0.13
7-day recall
0.07
Godin
0.61**
NASA
0.54
* p < 0.05   ** p < 0.01   *** p < 0.001
Jacobs et al 1993(10) Relationships between BAQ and VO2 max, % body fat (%BF), Caltrac accelerometer (CAL) and 4 wk activity history (FWH) (Spearman correlations) 28 men and 50 women-Caucasian-20-59 years of age.
  VO2 max %BF CAL FWH
Total
0.54 -0.49 0.19 0.37*
Work
0.23 -0.17 0.11 0.05
Leisure
0.26* -0.39* 0.01 0.28*
* p < 0.05   ** p < 0.01   *** p < 0.001
Ainsworth et al 1993(11) Relationships between Baecke Occupational question and PA record scores (activity units) and other PAQs. (Age- and gender-adjusted correlation coefficients) 65 men and women; 23 to 59 years of age
PA Record Scores (activity units)
.74
TOQ
.09
HIP
.38
Lipid Res Clinics
.45
Minn Heart Health
.16
Cardia
.02
Rauh et al 1992(12) Relationship between items on the Baecke and Caltrac (Pearson correlations) 45 Latino (Spanish/English-speaking) adults, 53% male; mean age 33 years
Baecke:
Work
0.42*
Sport
0.39*
Leisure
0.41*
* p < 0.05
Albanes et al 1990(13) Relationship between BAQ and EI, REE and 7 other PAQs (Spearman correlations) 21 men; 28-55 years of age
EE
0.38
EI-REE
0.21
5-City Project
0.16
Framingham
0.57
Minn Leisure Time
0.36
Health Insurance Plan
0.78
Lipid Res Clinics
0.68
Paffenbarger:
Harvard U. Alumni
0.56
U. Penn Alumni
0.59
(No P-values provided)

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Table 6. Modified Baecke Questionnaire (MBAQ)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Bonnefoy et al 2001(14) Relationships between MBAQ and DLW and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) (Pearson and Spearman's correlation coefficients) 19 men; mean age 73.4 ± 4.1 years
  DLW-TEE VO2 max
MBAQ:
-Questionnaire score
0.21(0.28) 0.32(0.11)
all NS
Spearman's correlation coefficients in parenthesis
Pols et al 1995(15) Relationship between MBAQ and 3-day activity diary at two times (Pearson correlations and tertile % agreement (Agrmnt) 64 Dutch men and 62 Dutch women ages 20-70 years of age
  Pearson Agrmnt %
Men
Time 1
0.56* 56.7
Time 2
0.66* 58.3
Women
Time 1
0.44* 40.0%
Time 2
0.42 44.0%
* p < 0.05   ** p < 0.01   *** p < 0.001
Voorrips et al 1991(16) Relationship between MBAQ total activity score and the average of 3-24 hr activity recalls over a 3-wk period and pedometer (PED) (3 consecutive days) 14 men and 17 women- healthy and indepen-dently living; 63-80 years of age
  24 hr PED
MBAQ
Total activity score:
0.78 0.72

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Table 7. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System- New Walking Module

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Yore et al 2004 (Abstract)(17) Relationships between BRFSSA PA module and activity logs in two studies: 1) Participants answered the survey 4 times (twice in-person and twice by telephone) and completed an activity log for 3 weeks, and 2) participants answered the survey 3 times by telephone and completed an activity log for 1 week. Study 1 (n = 92) conducted in 1998-1999, Study 2 (n = 60) was conducted in 2000-2001; for both, partici-pants were 50% female, 80% white; mean age of 45 years Abstract summary: In Study 1, 29% reported recommended walking on the BRFSS survey and 50% reported recommended walking on the log, concurrent validity kappa = 0.07. In Study 2 48% reported recommended walking on the BRFSS survey and 38% reported recommended walking on the log (k = .19). The concurrent validity of these questions is poor (K<0.2)

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Table 8. Campbell Survey on Well-Being in Canada Physical Activity Monitor (PAM)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Craig et al 2002(18) Relationship of PAM to predicted VO2 max from step-test, BMI and self reported work and chore demands (Spearman correlation coefficients controlling for age and sex) 69 males and 66 females; mean age 42.6 ± 2.1 years
  Predict VO2 max BMI Work Chores
Total
0.36*** 0.34*** 0.37*** 0.36***
Male
0.30* 0.31* 0.33* 0.30*
Female
0.42** 0.39** 0.42** 0.41**
Age <45
0.43*** 0.45** 0.43** 0.43***
Age≥45
0.34** 0.28@ 0.36** 0.34**
@p < 0.05   * p < 0.01   ** p < 0.001   *** p < 0.0001

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Table 9. Central Sweden Physical Activity Questionnaire (CSPAQ)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Norman et al 2001(19) Relationship of CSPAQ to two 7-day activity records 111 men; 44-78 years of age
  SC C SD
44-64 years
0.63 0.63 0.65
65-78 years
0.47 0.38 0.50
BMI<26
0.68* 0.66* 0.73*
BMI>26
0.37 0.37 0.39
* p < 0.05   ** p < 0.01   *** p < 0.001

Summary Legend:
SC = Spearman correlations
C = Concordance
SD = Spearman adjusted for within and between-person variation in the record

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Table 10. CARDIA Physical Activity Questionnaire

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Jacobs et al 1993(20) Relationships between CARDIA and VO2 max (Spearman correlations) 28 men and 50 women-Caucasian; 20-59 years of age.
  VO2 max %BF CAL FWH
Moderate
0.08 -0.09 0.11 0.08
Summary Legend:
%BF = % body fat
CAL = Caltrac accelerometer
FWH = 4 wk activity history

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Table 11. CHAMPS Activities Questionnaire for Older Adults

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Resnicow et al 2003(21) Relationship between modified CHAMPS (and 3 other questionnaires) and Estimated VO2 max and BMI (Pearson Correlations) 138-African-American men and women (78% female) in the Healthy Body/Healthy Spirit Trial; 21-68 years of age
Age VO2 BMI
21-39 years
-all activities
0.31** 0.08
-mod/vigorous
0.35** 0.11
40+ years
-all activities
0.05** -0.02
-mod/vigorous
-0.00** 0.03
Men
-all activities
0.42* 0.15
-mod/vigorous
0.43* 0.19
Women
-all activities
0.07 -0.01
-mod/vigorous
0.05 0.02
* p < 0.05   ** p < 0.01
Stewart et al 2001(22) Relationship of CHAMPS moderate and greater (M) intensity measures and All activities measures (ALL) of EE and Frequency/week (FW), to physical activity measures and physical functioning measures (Pearson Correlations) 173 men and women from CHAMPS intervention trial (86 intervention and 87 control) plus 76 from the community; 65-90 years of age
  EE-M FW-M EE-ALL FW-ALL
BMI
-0.06 -0.17** 0.04 -0.21**
LBF
0.28** 0.20** 0.27** 0.15
6-mw
0.27** 0.21*** 0.22*** 0.10
PF
0.30*** 0.30*** 0.27*** 0.23***
EF
0.20** 0.23*** 0.17** 0.14*
P
0.11 0.17** 0.07 0.08
WB
0.09 0.14** 0.05 0.02
* p < 0.05   ** p < 0.01   *** p < 0.001

Summary Legend:
BMI = Body Mass Index
LBF = Low body functioning
6-mw = 6-min walk
PF = Self-reported physical functioning
EF = Self-reported energy/fatigue
P = Self reported Pain
WB = Self reported Psychological well-being
Harada et al 2001(23) Relationship between CHAMPS - moderate and all activities (Pearson Correlations) 87 older adults; 61% Japanese American, 34% white, 5% African American; 65-89 years of age
  CHAMPS All activities CHAMPS moderate
(All Subjects)
ML-
   
   ankle 0.36** 0.42**
   waist 0.42*** 0.48***
EPESE- LBF
0.46** 0.44**
6-M
0.46** 0.54**
BMI
0.006 -0.02
PF
0.39** 0.41**
GH
0.35** 0.42**
MH
0.25** 0.28**
P
0.26** 0.28**
** p < 0.01   *** p < 0.001

Summary Legend:
ML = Mini-logger Activity monitor
EPESE = a short physical performance battery
LBF = lower body functioning
6-M = 6-minute walk
BMI = Body Mass Index
PF = Self-report physical functioning
GH = Self-report general health perceptions
MH = Self-report mental health
P = Pain

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Table 12. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Physical Activity Questions

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Wareham et al 2003(24) Relationship of EPIC Physical Activity Index (PAI), and physical activity ratio (PAR) calculated from 4-day heart-rate monitoring; VO2 max, energy intake/BMR assessed by 7-day food diaries (EI/BMR). 173 men and women; 40 to 65 years of age
Physical Activity Index (EPIC)
  Inactive Mod Inactive Mod active Active
PAR*
2.34 2.25 2.45 2.6
VO2 max**
26 28 30 31
EI/BMR Men
1.26 1.3 1.33 1.42
* p for trend 0.003
** p for trend 0.001
Pols et al 1997(25) Relationship between EPIC PAQ items and 3-day activity diary, repeated four times (Spearman correlation) 126 men and women; 20 and 70 years of age
  Men Women
  1st diary 3rd diary 1st diary 3rd diary
Walking
0.32 0.26 0.33 0.33
Cycling
0.46 0.48 0.48 0.49
No p values
Pols et al 1997(26) Relationship between pre-EPIC PAQ repeated 3 times, and four-times-repeated 3-day activity diary (Spearman correlation) 126 Dutch adults; 64 men, 62 women; 21-59 years of age
  1st EPIC PAQ 3rd EPIC PAQ
Men
0.66
(0.49-0.78)
0.51
(0.28-0.68)
Women
0.43
(-0.18-0.63)
0.44
(0.20-0.64)
Pols et al 1996(27) Relation between pre-EPIC PAQ and BAQ to a physical activity diary (12 d) as the main reference method, a single 24-h Caltrac accelerometer score, and energy intake estimated from a 24-h dietary recall repeated 12 times (Pearson correlation) 33 women; 51-71 years of age
  Pre-EPIC
BAQ
77% agreement for classification below and above mean
Diary
0.64*
Caltrac
0.22
EI-recall
-0.43*
* p < 0.05

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Table 13. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk (EPIC2) Physical Activity Questions

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Wareham et al 2002(28) Relationship between ERIC-2 variables and Physical Activity Index (PAI), and four separate episodes of 4-day heart-rate monitoring (to obtain EE)and four repeated measures of sub-maximum oxygen uptake (to obtain mean VO2 max) (Pearson correlations adjusted for age and sex) 84 men (mean age 58.8 years) and 89 women (mean age 55.4 years) enrolled in European Prospec-tive Investiga-tion into Cancer Study-Norfolk cohort (EPIC-Norfolk)
  EE (kj/h) Mean VO2 max PAR >5 (%)
EPIC-2 Variables:
Activity/home
-0.04 0.09 -0.12
Activity/Work
0.17* 0.01 -0.17
Recreational Activity
0.13 0.16* -0.20**
PAI
0.28** 0.15* 0.05
* p < 0.05   ** p < 0.01   *** p < 0.001

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Table 14a. Health Insurance Plan of New York City (HIP) Activity Questionnaire

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Ainsworth et al 1993(11) Relationship between HIP Occupational Index and PA record scores (activity units) and other PAQs. (age- and gender-adjusted correlation coefficients) 65 men and women; 23 to 59 years of age
PA Record Scores (activity units) .83
Lipid Res Clinics .31
Minn Heart Health .26
Cardia .12
Baecke .38
Albanes et al 1990(13) Relationship between HIP total activity index, past-week kcal and EI, and summary estimates from other PAQs (Spearman correlations) 21 USDA employees;28-55 years of age
EI 0.19
EI-REE 0.05
5-City Project 0.40
Framinham 0.75
Minn Leisure 0.52
Lipid Res Clinics 0.68
Baecke 0.78
Paffenbarger:
Harvard U. Alumni 0.53
U. Penn Alumni 0.77
(No P-values provided)
Leon at al 1981(29) Relationship between Occupational PA using HIP job classification and treadmill duration performance 175 men from MRFIT cohort screening population; 36-59 years of age
HIP job class 0.070
HIP job class -light to moderate 0.028
job sweat 0.118
all ns

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Table 14b. Historical Leisure Activity Questionnaire (HLAQ)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Chasan-Taber 2002(30) Relationship between Modified HLAQ (to collect past year) and four 1-wk activity logs (PAL); attenuated (r) and deattenuated (rd) Pearson coefficients between each questionnaire and the average of up to four 1 wk PALs 131 women
  Baseline HLAQ and average of PALs Follow-up HLAQ and average of PALs
  r rd r rd
Total activity 0.24* 0.28* 0.26* 0.29*
Moderate 0.18* 0.23* 0.15 0.16
Vigorous 0.52* 0.62* 0.52* 0.63*
Age<50 yr (N=64)
Total activity     0.31*  
Moderate     0.16  
Vigorous     0.58**  
Age≥50 yr (N=67)
Total activity     0.19  
Moderate     0.12  
Vigorous     0.47**  
* p < 0.05   ** p < 0.01
Gregg et al 1999(31) Relation of HLAQ and MNLTPAQ and Quantitative ultrasound (QUS), assessment of bone speed of sound (SOS) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and bone mineral density (BMD)
ANOVA
393 women; 45-53 years of age
  PA PA PA
At ages: 14-21y 22-35y 35y
BUA -0.32 -0.73 0.72
p-value 0.73 0.52 0.48
SOS 0.34 0.74 1.00
p-value 0.42 0.14 0.02
Femoral Neck BMD 0.003 0.016 0.018
p-value 0.58 0.04 0.006
Summary Legend:
QUS = Quantitative ultrasound
SOS = Assessment of bone speed of sound
BUA = Broadband ultrasound attenuation
BMD = Bone mineral density
Kriska et al 1988(32) Relationship between Historical Physical Activity Survey (HPAS) and current PA (using Paffenbarger (Paf) and Large Scale Integrated Motor Activity Monitor (LSI)
Relationship between Historical Physical Activity Survey (HPAS) and baseline bone measurements
(Pearson Correlations)
223 postmenopausal women
Current PA Measures
  HPAS (kcals/wk)
  Include walking Exlcude walking
Paf
Mean blocks walked/d 0.22** 0.09
Sport index 0.41** 0.46**
Kcals expended/wk 0.41** 0.38**
LSI
Day counts/hr 0.12* 0.13*
Evening counts/hr 0.01 0.03
Grip strength 0.19* 0.23**

Relation between HPAS and Baseline Bone measures:
Age period (years) Area Density
14-21 0.14* 0.10
22-34 0.09 0.14*
35-50 0.14* 0.17**
50+ 0.06 0.09
Total historical activity 0.16* 0.16
* p < 0.05   ** p < 0.01

Summary Legend:
HPAS = Historical Physical Activity Survey
Paf = Current PA (using Paffenbarger)
LSI = Large Scale Integrated Motor Activity Monitor

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Table 15. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Craig et al. 2003(33) Relation between Short, last 7 day, telephone (S7T), Short, last 7 day, self-administered (S7S,) Short usual week, telephone (SUT), Short, usual week, self-administered (SUS), Long, last 7 day, telephone (L7T), Long, last 7 day, self-administered (L7S,) Long usual week, telephone (LUT), Long, usual week, self-administered (LUS) versions of (IPAQ) and CSA accelerometer total counts per registered time. *LUI, SUI left undefined (Spearman’s coefficients) Adults from 14 centers in 10 countries (BRA UK, FIN, USA1, USA2, NET, SW GU, SA, AUS, JAP 18- to 65-years of age.
  Site Total PA Total PA Using pace Total PA Excl slow pace ACC >150 min/wk
IPAQ Long Forms:
L7S UK1 0.43 0.42 0.38 0.83
FIN 0.52 0.52 0.49 0.89
USA1 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.31
USA2 0.32 0.36 0.34 0.81
NET 0.38 0.37 0.38 1.0
SW 0.24 0.25 0.29 0.82
LUT USA2 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.86
GU 0.59 0.59 0.57 0.80
GU 0.61 0.62 0.60 0.80
GU 0.39 0.43 0.41 0.75
LUI* SA 0.52 0.52 0.51 0.86
SA 0.46 0.45 0.44 0.85
LUS JAP 0.36 0.36 0.33 0.72
USA1 -0.02 -0.01 0.02 0.35
BRA -0.27 -0.26 -0.31 0.46
IPAQ Short Forms:
S7T AUS 0.12 0.14 0.23 0.74
S7S FIN 0.47 0.49 0.51 0.88
USA1 0.26 0.27 0.25 0.46
USA2 0.27 0.27 0.28 0.81
NET 0.32 0.30 0.34 0.93
SW 0.02 0.02 0.14 0.71
UK1 0.40 0.40 0.38 0.81
SUT USA2 0.57 0.57 0.57 0.86
SUI* GU 0.54 0.36 0.43 0.79
GU 0.45 0.45 0.01 0.77
GU 0.42 0.45 0.37 0.80
SA 0.45 0.45 0.43 0.85
SA 0.37 0.45 0.33 0.84
SUS JAP 0.32 0.45 0.30 0.65
USA1 0.13 0.45 0.13 0.50
BRA 0.12 0.45 0.17 0.75
No p values provided

Summary Legend:
S7T = Short, last 7 day, telephone
S7S = Short, last 7 day, self-administered
SUT = Short, usual week, telephone
SUS = Short, usual week, self-administered
L7T = Long, last 7 day, telephone
L7S = Long, last 7 day, self-administered
LUT = Long, usual week, telephone
LUS = Long, usual week, self-administered

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Table 16. Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Ainsworth et al 2000(34) Relationship between KPAS physical Activity Scores (PAS) and Caltrac accelerometer and PA records; cardio respiratory fitness (VO2 peak) and % body fat; PA records for two 7-d periods, separated by 1 month (Spearman correlations) 50 women; 20-60 years of age
  KPAS-PAS Occupational Active Living
Indirect:
VO2 peak 0.04 0.37
% body fat -0.06 -0.41
Direct:
PA record 0.35 .22
Direct:
Caltrac-Kcal/d 0.30 -0.21
MET/min/d 0.16 0.34
PA record:
-walking 0.50  
-walk/cycle transport   0.04
-walk + 15 min   0.33
-bicycle+15 min   0.43
correlations>0.28 are p < 0.05; correlations>0.35 are p < 0.01

Summary Legend:
PAS = KPAS Physical Activity Scores
VO2 peak = Cardio respiratory fitness

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Table 17. Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA)-Physical Activity Questionnaire (LAPAQ)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Stel et al 2004(35) Relation between LAPAQ and 7-day diary and pedometer 439 older persons; 69-92 years of age
  Correlation of LAPAQ and 7-day Diary
Total activity 0.68*
Walking 0.50*
Bicycling 0.84*

  Correlation of LAPAQ and Pedometer
All subjects 0.43*
Cyclists and Swimmers excluded 0.56*
* p < 0.001

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Table 18. Minnesota Leisure-time Physical activity questionnaire (MLTPAQ)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Walsh et al 2004(36) Relation of TEE calculated from MLTPAQ and the Tecumseh Occupational questionnaire (TEC), to body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and free-living TEE (DLW) (ANOVA) 20 white and 21 black premeno-pausal women (over-weight, weight reduced and control); 20-46 years of age; 20 white and 14 black control women
Overestimation of EE (kcals/dy)-differences between TEC/ MNLTPAQ combined, and DLW
Overweight*
Black 981±284
White 869±388
Weight reduced*
Black 1016±521*
White 449±279
Control
Black 551±375
White 670±365
* p < 0.05

Relation between % body fat with over-estimation of EE by TEC/MNLTPAQ
Overweight 0.39*
Weight reduced NS
Controls NS
(NS-correlations not given)
Conway et al 2002(37) Relation between a 4-wk history version of the MLTPAQ and the TEC and doubly labeled water (DLW) 24 males; 42.0 ± 2.3 years of age
Mean estimates of EE from questionnaires and DLW
  Mean R2
EE MLTPAQ 3.03±0.41  
EE TEC 8.47±0.78  
EESLEEPMET 2.29±0.09  
EE GEN 1.17±0.12  
EEDLW 13.55±0.38  
EE total 1 13.79±0.89 0.38**
EE total 2 14.87±0.90 0.39**

EE total 1= EE MLTPAQ+ EE TEC EESLEEPMET
EE total2= EE MLTPAQ+ EE TEC EESLEEPMET+ EE GEN

** p < 0.001

Tuero et al 2001(38) Relation between MLTPAQ and fitness indicators: VO2 max and % BF (correlation coefficients) 44 male and 38 females, Hispanic; 18-59 years of age
MLTPAQ Baseline 12 month
  V02 max BF VO2 max BF
Light -0.119 0.166 -0.223 0.196
Moderate 0.163 0.198 -0.117 0.95
Heavy 0.586* -0.287* -0.494* 0.242*
Total 0.190 -0.019 0.064 0.039
* p < 0.001
Bonnefoy et al 2001(39) Relationships between MLTPAQ and DLW and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) (Pearson and Spearman’s Correlation coefficients) 19 men; mean age 73.4 ± 4.1 years
MLTPAQ: DLW-TEE VO2 max
-light intensity -0.15(-0.24) -0.05(-0.07)
-Moderate intensity 0.05*(0.19) 0.30(0.15)
-Heavy intensity 0.28(0.47)* 0.50*(0.54)*
-Total 0.23(0.17) 0.48*(0.38)
* p <0.05
Spearman’s correlation coefficients in parenthesis
Elosua et al 2000(40) Relation between EE in PA obtained by MLTPAQ and BMI, HR at rest, after 3 min of exercise test and after 6 min of exercise test. (Spearman correlation coefficients) 250 Spanish women; 18-60 years of age
EE-PA: BMI HR HR-3 HR-6 ET
Total -0.129* -0.078 -0.214* -0.175* 0.395*
-heavy -0.199* -0.158* -0.335 -0.283* -0.508*
-moderate -0.061 0.003 0.018 0.001 0.129*
-light -0.092 0.023 0.017 0.029 -0.017
-household -0.268* 0.034 0.139 0.105 -0.305*
* p < 0.05
Starling et al 1999(41) Relation between Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS) and MLTPAQ and Caltrac uniaxial accelerometer, and doubly labeled water (DLW) in conjunction with indirect calorimetry (ANOVA) 35 women and 32 men; 45- to 84years of age
Method: Physical Activity EE (kcals/d)
DLW
-men 1211±429
-women 873±244
MLTPAQ
-men 459±288*
-women 386±228*
CALTRAC
-men 554±242*
-women 379±162*
* p < 0.05 compared with DLW
Richardson et al 1994(42) Relation between MLTPAQ and six 48-hour physical activity records, fourteen 48-hour Caltrac accelerometer readings, 3 VO2 peak determinations and percent body fat (%BF)
(Age- and gender-adjusted Pearson partial correlation coefficients)
78 men and women; 20-59 years of age
  T H M L HH
%BF -0.24* -0.24* -0.01 -0.15 -0.01
  (n) (75) (76) (76) (76) (75)
V02peak 0.47** 0.43** 0.14 0.27* 0.14
  (n) (75) (76) (76) (76) (75)
* p < 0.05   ** p < 0.01

Summary Legend:
T = Total
L = Light
M = Moderate
H = Heavy
HH = Household
%BF = Percent Body Fat
VO2 max = vital capacity
Jacobs et al 1993(10) Relation between MLTPAQ and 9 other PAQs, and treadmill exercise performance and vital capacity (VO2 max, Forced Expiratory Volume(FEV), work load), body fatness, the average of 14 4-wk physical activity histories (4WH) and the average of 14 2-d accelerometer readings (Caltrac) (age-adjusted correlation coefficients) 78 men and women; 20-59 years of age
MLTPAQ
  T L M H HH
CALTRAC
-kcal/d -0.06 -0.04 0.02 -0.01 0.08
-min/d 0.18 0.07 0.22 0.16 0.03
4WH
- T 0.74 0.13 0.25 0.52 0.55
-L 0.27 0.83 -0.02 0.12 -0.09
-M 0.15 -0.09 0.75 0.12 -0.03
-H 0.74 0.11 0.22 0.86 0.08
-HH 0.40 -0.10 0.03 0.06 0.74
WORKLOAD 0.45 0.32 0.17 0.45 0.00
%BF -0.24 -0.08 -0.07 -0.22 -0.08
FEV 0.09 0.10 -0.05 0.08 0.02
V02 0.43 0.11 0.15 0.39 0.16
Summary Legend:
T = Total
L = Light
M = Moderate
H = Heavy
HH = Household
VO2 max = vital capacity
FEV = Forced Expiratory Volume
4WH = the average of 14 4-wk physical activity histories
Caltrac = the average of 14 2-d accelerometer readings
Wilbur et al 1993(43) Relationship between MLTPAQ Leisure activities and Cardio respiratory fitness established with a Monarch bicycle ergometer, BP, Ponderosity, and Self Report activity. 375 women, 73% white, 22% black; 33-63 years of age
  Leisure EE
BP:
-systolic -.00
-diastolic -.06
Ponderosity -.11*
Cardiorespiratory Fitness .21**
Self report:
Activity compared to others .24***
Overall activity .23***
* p < 0.05   ** p < 0.001   *** p < 0.0001
Albanes et al 1990(13) Relationship between MLTPAQ past-week kcal and EI and summary estimates from other PAQs (Spearman correlations) 21 USDA employees;28-55 years of age
EI 0.13
EI-REE 0.17
5-City Project 0.48
Framinham 0.33
Health Insurance Plan 0.52
Lipid Res Clinics 0.63
Paffenbarger:
Harvard U. Alumni 0.54
U. Penn Alumni 0.47
(No P-values provided)

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Table 19. The Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ)/Pima Indian Questionnaire

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Kriska et al 1990(44) Relationships between the MAQ and past wk Caltrac activity monitor (counts/h) at test and retest (Spearman correlations) 17 Pima Indian men and women; 10- 59 year of age
  Walking included Walking excluded
  Test retest test retest
Leisure
-Past wk 0.80* 0.50* 0.62* 0.58*
-Past yr 0.69* 0.27 0.44 0.32
Occupation
-Past yr 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41
Total past Wk 0.59* 0.66* 0.53* 0.60*
* p < 0.05

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Table 20. The MONICA Optional Study of Physical Activity (MOSPA-Q)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Roeykens et al 1998(45) Relation between MOSPA-Q items by time scores (i.e. WORK) and EE spent in activity category (i.e. KWORK) and biometrical and physiological parameters: BMI, VO2 peak, LBM, %BF (Spearman rank order correlation coefficients) 167 physical education and physical therapy alumni.
Physiological and Biometrical Variables
MOSPA-Q BMI VO2 max LBM % BF
Items:
Time scores:
WORK 0.081 0.210* 0.201** -0.166*
TRANS 0.174* 0.161* 0.110 -0.133
LTA 0.043 0.29*** 0.192* -0.248
EE:
KWORK 0.081 0.216 0.199 -0.167*
KTRANS 0.176* 0.167 0.111 -0.134
KLTA 0.115 0.438*** 0.370*** -0.361***
TEE 0.304*** 0.387*** 0.529*** -0.264***
* p < 0.05   ** p < 0.01   *** p < 0.001

TRANS - transportation
LTA - Leisure time activity

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Table 21. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)-walking questions

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Rauh et al 1992(12) Relationship between items on the NHIS Walking items and Caltrac (Pearson correlations) 45 Latino (Spanish/English-speaking) adults, 53% male; mean age 33 years
NHIS walking 0.33
p < 0.05
Hovell et al 1992(46) Relationship of the level of change in walking for exercise (walking measured by two items from NHIS: “How many times in the past two weeks did you walk for exercise?” and “About how many minutes did you do the activity each times?”) collected twice over two years, and independent variables measuring “Change in Self-efficacy” (correlation coefficients) 1,701 adults, 58% male, 88% Caucasian; 48.25 ± 18.08 years of age
Significant coefficients for dynamic correlates of Walking for Exercise
  B p<
Change in Family Support .131 .0001
Change in Vigorous PA .084 .0009
Change in Heart Healthy Diet .074 .003
Change in Self-efficacy .069 .008
Change in Friend Support .131 .0001
Change in Cigarette Smoking -.060 .013
Weiss et al 1990(47) Relationships between NHIS calculated EE and individual questions from the 1985 supplement (Spearman correlations) 11,653-32,822 Men and women in the NHIS cohort: aged at least 18 years
Activity compared to peers-3 levels (n=32,822) 0.28*
Activity compared to peers-5 levels (n=32,415) 0.29*
Job-related activity (20,789) -0.02*
Main daily activity (11,653) 0.22*
* p < 0.05

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Table 22. Nurses Health Study II Activity and Inactivity Questionnaire (NHS II-PAQ)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Wolf et al 1994(48) Relation between NHS II-PAQ and past-week activity recalls and 7-day activity diaries (deattenuated correlations adjusted for within-person variation) Representative sample of 149 women (84 African American) from NHS II; 39 ± 4.3 years of age
Correlation of NHS II PAQ verses average response on 4 past week recalls
  crude deattenuated
Representative Sample 0.70
(0.60-0.77)*
0.79
(0.64-0.88)
African-American Sample 0.68
(0.54-0.78)
0.83
(0.49-0.95)

Correlation of NHS II PAQ verses average responses on 28 days of activity diaries
  crude deattenuated
Representative Sample
Activity 1 0.57
(0.46-0.67)
0.62
(0.44-0.75)
Activity 2 0.46
(0.32-0.58)
0.56
(0.36-0.71)
African-American Sample
Activity 1 0.47
(0.32-0.63)
0.59
(0.31-0.78)
Activity 2 0.54
(0.37-0.68)
0.63
(0.36-0.80)
Activity 1 = the sum of all moderate and vigorous recreational activities with MET values of >4.0
Activity 2 = the sum of all moderate and vigorous activities corresponding to those listed on the NHS II PAQ

* 95% CI

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Table 23. One-Page Questionnaire of Physical activity (VITAL- study)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Littman et al 2004(49) One-page questionnaire (VITAL) to capture data on usual recreational physical activity during the preceding 10 years and MET-hours estimated from a detailed comparison interview. (Age- and sex-adjusted Pearson Partial Correlation Coefficients) 217 men and women (112 men) enrolled in the Vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) study; 50 to 75 years of age
Correlation between the VITAL and Comparison Interview for Summary Recreational PA and Selected Activities
  Men Women All
All Activities 0.65
(.37-.68)*
0.70
(.59-.79)
0.63
(.36-.80)
Moderate and High Intensity 0.54
(.40-.66)
0.63
(.50-.74)
0.58
(.49-.66)
Moderate intensity 0.54
(-.05-.31)
0.46
(.3-.6)
0.27
(.14-.39)
Low intensity 0.43
(.27-.57)
0.44
(.28-.59)
0.44
(.32-.54)
Walking 0.49
(.33-.62)
0.64
(.52-.74)
0.55
(.45-.64)
* 95% CI

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Table 24. Perceived Functional Ability (PFA) Questionnaire/ Physical Activity Rating (PA-R) Questionnaire

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
George et al 1996(50) Relation between Perceived Functional Ability (PFA) questions and Physical Activity rating (PA-R) questions, to non-exercise (N-Ex) VO2 max estimations. Multiple regression coefficients 50 male and 50 female college students; 22.3 ± 3.0 years of age
N-Ex VO2 max regression equations:
  MODEL 1 MODEL 2
  B B-weight B B-weight
PFA 0.738** 0.46** 0.724** 0.45**
PA-R 0.688* 0.17* 0.788* 0.20*
* p < 0.001   ** p < 0.0001

Summary Legend:
Model 1: Self-report predictor variables
Model 2: Self-report and measured (BMI) predictor variables
B = multiple regression coefficients
B-weight = standardized multiple regression coefficients
PFA = Perceived Functional Ability
PA-R = Physical Activity rating
N-Ex = Non-exercise VO2

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Table 25. Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire/College Alumnus Questionnaire (CAQ)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Resnicow et al 2003(21) Relationship between modified Paffenbarger (Paf) Walking Items (and 3 other questionnaires) and Estimated VO2 max and BMI (Pearson Correlations) 138-African-American men and women (78% female) in the Healthy Body/Healthy Spirit Trial; 21-68 years of age
  VO2 BMI
Paf Walking Items--Males
-City blocks walked -0.03 0.29
-Pace of walking 0.02 0.06
-flights of stairs climbed 0.13 -0.25
-minutes walking per day 0.32 -0.21
Paf Walking Items--Females
-City blocks walked -0.06 0.11
-Pace of walking 0.01 0.00
-flights of stairs climbed 0.12 0.03
-minutes walking per day 0.02 0.12
all values NS
Bonnefoy et al 2001(39) Relationships between CAQ items and DLW and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) (Pearson and Spearman’s Correlation coefficients) 19 men; mean age 73.4 ± 4.1 years
  DLW-TEE VO2 max
CAQ:
-walking -0.32(-0.32) -0.28(-0.21)
-stairs -0.18(-0.02) -0.19(0.01)
-total activity 0.39(0.37) 0.21(0.17)
all ns
Spearman’s correlation coefficients in parenthesis
Singh et al 2001(51) Relationships between PAQ and 7-d activity recalls, pedometer readings, treadmill test 165 black (118 female) Seventh-day Adventists; mean age female: 50 (15) years, male: 47 (14) years This article states the PA questionnaire used is the same as that used in the Singh 1996 validation study (which does appear to be the Paffenbarger). But in fact, the two questionnaires (which are provided in both articles) don’t appear to be the same; and the Singh 2001 version does not ask specific walking questions.
Bassett et al 2000(52) Relationship between measurements of daily walking distance on the CAQ and a pedometer ANOVA 48 men (mean age 40.9 ± 11.2 years) and 48 women (mean age 39 ± 11.5 years); 4% African American 92% Caucasian
Physical Activity Index (PAI) and Walking measures from CAQ
  W S PAI pedometer
Men
-MET min/wk 471±297 101±104 1656±1008 1223*±473
-kcals/ wk 677±442 142±148 2387±1487 1772*±714
Women
-MET min/wk 398±308 59±56 1318±1195 1317*±516
-kcals/ wk 433±326 61±54 1445±1359 1445*±513
All subjects
-MET min/wk 435±303 80±86 1487±1113 1270*±494
-kcals/ wk 555±405 101±118 1916±1490 1608*±640
W = walking
S = stairs
* significant difference between CAQ and pedometer (p = 0.0001)
Gregg et al 1999(31) Relation of recent PA from CAQ and Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) assessment of bone (Speed of sound (SOS and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and bone mineral density (BMD) (ANOVA) 393 women; 45-53 years of age
  Recent Physical Activity
BUA:
Z score 0.11
p-value 0.03
SOS:
Z score 0.12
p-value 0.001
Femoral Neck BMD:
Z score 0.11
p-value 0.001
Singh et al 1996(53) Relationship between selected CAQ items and components of the CAQ Physical Activity Index (PAI) and maximal treadmill time (Partial correlation coefficients) 56 Adventists Males (AM), 59 Non-Adventist (NM) males, 56 Adventist females (AF) and 34 non- Adventist females (NF) mean age approximately 52 years
  AM NM AF NF
Pace 0.10 0.00 0.16 0.39**
PAI:
Stairs (MET/min/wk) 0.25 0.08 0.14 0.08
Blocks (MET/min/wk) 0.16 0.10 -0.07 0.22
Speed <3mph 0.01 -0.07 -0.07 0.01
** p < 0.05
Ainsworth et al 1993(54) Relationships between CAQ items, the CAQ Physical Activity Index -PAI and PA record items, Caltrac, VO2 max, %BF (Age-adjusted correlations) 28 men and 50 women; 21-59 years of age
CAQ Items Stairs City Blocks PAI
PA Record
-stairs 0.79** 0.09 0.17
-city blocks 0.06 0.34** 0.24*
Caltrac
-kcals/dy -0.00 0.17 0.17
-Caltrac METs/d 0.07 0.21 0.29
VO2 max 0.17 0.16 0.60**
%BF 0.22 -0.12 -0.44**
* p <0.05   ** p <0.01
Rauh et al 1992(12) Relationship between items on the CAQ and Caltrac (Pearson correlations) 45 Latino (Spanish/English-speaking) adults, 53% male; mean age 33 years
CAQ:
Flights climbed 0.11
Blocks walked 0.02
Kcals/wk 0.34*
* p < 0.05
Jacobs et al 1993(10) Relationships between CAQ items (Physical Activity Index-PAI, Stairs and City blocks) and VO2 max, % body fat (%BF), Caltrac accelerometer (CAL) and 4 wk activity history (FWH) (Spearman correlations) 28 men and 50 women-Caucasian-20-59 years of age.
CAQ Items Stairs City Blocks PAI
VO2 0.02 -0.01 0.52*
%BF -0.14 0.00 -0.30*
Caltrac -0.01 0.16 0.30
FWH 0.25 0.08 0.31
* p < 0.05
Washburn et al 1990(55) Relationships between CAQ (Harvard Alumni Activity Survey-HAAS) scores and self-report sweat hours per week, BMI and HDL cholesterol (Pearson correlation coefficients) 732 randomly selected adults; 25 to 65 years
  HAAS scores
Sweat hrs/week 0.24**
Sweat hrs # 0.23**
Log sweat hr/wk 0.39**
Log sweat hrs/wk # 0.38**
BMI -0.08
HDL cholesterol -0.07
HAAS# and BMI r = -0.09*
HAAS# and HDL-C r = -0.13*

* p < 0.05   ** p < 0.01  
# Partial correlation adjusted for sex and age
Siconolfi et al 1985(56) Relationship between Paffenbarger Physical Activity Index-PAI, and VO2 max and sweating (correlation coefficients) 36 men (mean age 41 years) and 32 women (mean age 42 years)
PAI: Total Men Women
VO2 max 0.29* 0.26 0.08
Sweat 0.57** 0.54** 0.60**
* p < 0.05   ** p < 0.01
Laport et al 1983(57) Relationship between the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Index-PAI, and Large Scale Integrated activity monitor (correlation coefficients) 76 post-menopausal women; 44-74 years of age R = 0.23
p < 0.05

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Table 26. Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Harada et al 2001(23) Relationship between PASE and Mini-logger Activity monitor (ML), a short physical performance battery (EPESE): lower body functioning (LBF), 6-minute walk (6M), BMI and self-report functioning/ well being measures: Physical functioning (PF), general health perceptions (GH), mental health (MH) and pain (P) (Pearson Correlations) 87 older adults; 61% Japanese American, 34% white, 5% African American; 65-89 years of age
  PASE total score (All subjects)
ML-
ankle 0.59***
waist 0.52***
EPESE-
LBF 0.57**
6-M 0.58**
BMI -.007
PF 0.30**
GH 0.326*
MH 0.23*
P 0.17
* p < 0.05   ** p < 0.01   *** p < 0.001

Summary Legend:
ML = Mini-logger Activity monitor
EPESE = Short physical performance battery
LBF = Lower body functioning
6M = 6-minute walk BMI
PF = Physical functioning and self-report functioning / well being measures
GH = General health perceptions
MH = Mental health
P = Pain
Bonnefoy et al 2001(39) Relationships between PASE and DLW and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) (Pearson and Spearman’s Correlation coefficients) 19 men; mean age 73.4 ± 4.1 years
  DLW-TEE VO2 max
PASE:
Total score 0.28(0.23) 0.33(0.16)
all NS
Spearman’s correlation coefficients in parentheses
Washburn et al 1999(58) physiologic and performance characteristics: peak oxygen uptake, resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure, percent body fat, and balance scores. (Pearson product moment correlation coefficients) 56 men, 134 women-sedentary adults; mean age 66.5 years
Peak O2 uptake 0.20**
Systolic BP -0.18*
Diastolic BP 0.003
Resting HR 0.02
%BF -0.01
Balance score 0.20**
* p < 0.05   ** p < 0.01
Washburn et al 1999(59) Relationship between PASE and CSA portable accelerometer (Spearman correlations) 20 adults (17 women and 3 men); 67-80 years of age
PASE score:
Total PASE 0.49*
Leisure exercise 0.11
Occupation 0.32
* p < 0.05
Washburn et al 1993(60) Relationships between PASE cores and perceived health, sickness impact profile (SIP) total score, heart rate, grip strength, static balance and dominant leg strength (Pearson correlations) 222 men and women at least 65 years of age
-perceived health -0.34*
-(SIP) total score -0.42*
-heart rate -0.13*
-grip strength 0.37*
-static balance 0.33*
-dominant leg strength 0.25*
* p < 0.05

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Table 27. Physical Activity Scale (PAS)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Aadahl et al 2003(61) Relation between PAS and 4 d of accelerometry (CSA 7164) and physical activity diary in 40 volunteer men (Spearman rank-order correlation) 40 men and women between 20 and 60 years of age
CSA 0.20 P=NS
physical activity diary 0.74 p < 0.000

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Table 28. Postmenopausal Osteopenia PAQ (Activity Questionnaire-AQ)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Suleiman and Nelson 1997(62) Relationships between AQ and four day activity diary and VO2 max using treadmill ergometer (Pearson correlation coefficients) 26 perimeno- pausal women; 43-54 years of age
Correlation coefficients of PA based on diaries and AQ
Walking 0.06 NS

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Table 29. Quantitative physical activity recall questions (QPAR)-Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study-1982 and baseline

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Oliveria et al 1996(63) Relationship between PA levels (created from weekly energy expenditure from QPAR) and Maximal exercise treadmill time (correlation coefficients) 7579 predomin-antly white, married, college-educated men; 20-80 years of age
Baseline PA levels 0.41
Follow-up PA levels in 1982 0.32
Kohl et al 1988(64) Relationship between QPAR questions and treadmill time (Pearson correlations) 375 males; mean age = 47 years
Bicycling 0.06 p=0.77
Runners, walkers and joggers
-Miles per workout 0.35 p < 0.01
-Workouts per week 0.29 p < 0.01
-Average time per mile -0.39 p < 0.01

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Table 30. The Short Questionnaire to assess Health´┐Żenhancing Physical activity (SQUASH)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Wendel-Vos et al 2003(65) Relationship between SQUASH and CSA Activity Monitor (Spearman correlations) 36 men and 14 women; 27-58 years of age
Correlation: Mean activity counts (counts/min) and SQUASH activity scores
0.45 P=0.005

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Table 31. Stanford Usual Physical Activity Questionnaire (SUPAQ)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Bonnefoy et al 2001(39) Relationships between Stanford Usual PAQ and DLW and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) (Pearson and Spearman’s Correlation coefficients) 19 men; mean age 73.4 ± 4.1 years
  DLW-TEE VO2 max
SUPAQ:
-moderate activity 0.65*(0.46) 0.51*(0.35)
-vigorous activity 0.63*(0.64)* 0.62*(0.61)
* p < 0.05
Spearman’s correlation coefficients in parentheses

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Table 32.Techumseh Occupational Physical Activity Questionnaire (TOQ)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Walsh et al 2004(36) Relation of TEE calculated from MLTPAQ and the Tecumseh Occupational questionnaire (TOQ), to body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and free-living TEE (DLW) (ANOVA) 20 white and 21 black premeno-pausal women (over-weight, weight reduced and control); 20-46 years of age; 20 white and 14 black control women
Overestimation of EE (kcals/dy)-differences between TEC/ MNLTPAQ combined, and DLW
Overweight*
Black 981±284
White 869±388
Weight reduced*
Black 1016±521*
White 449±279
Control
Black 551±375
White 670±365
* p < 0.05

Relation between % body fat with over-estimation of EE by TEC/MNLTPAQ
Overweight 0.39*
Weight reduced NS
Controls NS

(NS-correlations not given)

Ainsworth et al 1999(66) Relationship between Tecumseh Occupational questionnaire (TOQ) and direct (7-day occupational activity records and Caltrac accelerometer) and indirect (maximal oxygen uptake and percent body fat) measures of physical activity status 46 women; 20-60 years of age

Correlations between TOQ (other than standing) and direct Caltrac and indirect (VO2 max) were NS

Correlations between TOQ activities and occupational Activity records:
-Walking, not carrying anything heavier than a briefcase
-METS/min/wk 0.73***
-hours/wk 0.32*
Total Light
-MET/min/wk 0.46***
-hours/wk 0.43**
Total moderate
-MET/min/wk 0.37**
-hours/wk 0.51***
* p < 0.05   ** p < 0.01   *** p < 0.001
Philippaerts and Lefevre 1998(6) Relationship between the TOQ and 2 other PAQs (the BAQ and FCQ) and principal-components of TOQ and 2 other PAQs (component loading matrix)- no p values provided 90 Flemish males; 30, 35 and 40 years of age
Component
TOQ 1 2 3 4 5 6
-EE Work 0.91 -0.03 -0.03 0.33 0.09 -0.08
-Work index 0.86 0.04 0.15 -0.25 0.13 -0.25
-total activity index 0.84 0.06 0.47 0.05 0.11 0.08
-EE daily 0.81 -0.09 0.36 0.07 0.07 0.21
-time active during leisure 0.10 0.16 0.93 -0.01 0.08 -0.18
-EE during active leisure 0.21 0.14 0.92 0.05 0.06 0.19
Wilbur et al 1993(43) Relationship between Tecumseh Occupational questionnaire (TOQ) and Cardiorespiratory fitness established with a Monarch bicycle ergometer, BP, Ponderosity, and Self Report activity. 375 women, 73% white, 22% black; 33-63 years of age
  Occupational EE
BP
-systolic -.14*
-diastolic .01
Ponderosity .02
Cardiorespiratory Fitness .03
Self report:
Activity compared to others .07
Overall activity -.10*
* p < 0.05
Ainsworth et al 1993(11) Relation of TOQ categories (walking) and Comparable physical activity record book occupational activities 75 men and women; 23 to 59 years of age
  Activity Units/wk hrs/wk
Walking, not carrying anything heavier than a briefcase .41* .38*
* p < 0.05

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Table 33. Walking Adherence Questionnaire

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Konradi and Lyon 2000(67) Relationship of questionnaire designed to measure adherence to walking regime and walking survey book and walking for exercise log book. (Total adherence scores: actual walking behaviors/intended walking behaviors, i.e. miles or minutes or days walked) 68 female 34 male; age 18 years or older.
  Range M SD
TAS-Miles 0-1.54 0.79 0.32
TAS-Minutes 0-1.55 0.86 0.30
TAS-All 0-1.55 0.83 0.29
TAS-Miles= total adherence scores for persons reporting miles walked
TAS-Minutes= total adherence scores for persons reporting minutes walked
TAS-All= total adherence scores for entire sample

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Table 34. Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Kruskall et al 2004(68) Relationship between YPAS and derived energy expenditure due to physical activity (EEPA): Resting energy expenditure (REE) was determined using indirect calorimetry. Thermic effect of feeding (TEF) was estimated to be 10% of the Metabolizable Energy Intake (MEI). The EEPA was derived by the formula: EEPA=MEI-REE-TEF (ANOVA) 11 men and 17 women; 55 to 78 years of age
  *EEPA *YPAS *YPAS-EEPA % diff
M 595±103 625±93 30±123 -7
F 412±68 565±63** 177±74 51
M&F 486±59 588±53 117±66 47
* in Kcals/d
** difference than EEPA p < 0.05
M = Male
F = Female

Summary Legend:
EEPA = Energy expenditure due to physical activity
REE = Resting energy expenditure
TEF = Thermic effect of feeding was estimated to be 10% of the
MEI = Metabolizable Energy Intake

The EEPA was derived by the formula: EEPA = MEI - REE - TEF
Resnicow et al 2003(21) Relationship between YPA Dimension indices (Leisurely Walking and Moving) and Estimated VO2 max and BMI (Pearson Correlations) 138-African-American men and women (78% female) in the Healthy Body/Healthy Spirit Trial; 21-68 years of age
  VO2 max BMI
Women
--Leisurely walking 0.05 0.18
-Moving 0.04 -0.08
Men
--Leisurely walking na na
-Moving 0.16 0.16
all ns
Young et al 2001(69) Relationship between YPAS and 7-day PA recall scores, VO2 max, resting pulse rate, and body mass index (BMI). 59 individuals (45% African-American(AA), 79% women); 60-80 years of age
  YPAS Walking index
7-day PA recall scores
AA:
-Daily EE (kcals/y) -0.12 (P=0.56)
-Light activity -0.10 (P=0.64)
-moderate activity 0.09 (P=0.65)
Non-AA
Daily EE (kcals/y) 0.04 (P=0.83)
-Light activity -0.17 (P=0.36)
-moderate activity 0.05 (P=0.80)

  YPAS Leisurely Walking index (units/month)
VO2 max 0.10 (P=0.45)
Resting pulse Rate -0.10 (P=0.47)
BMI 0.03 (P=0.80)
Schuler et al 2001(70) Relationships between two administrations of YPAS and 3- or 7 day physical activity diaries; maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) and sum of three skinfold measurements. (Spearman Correlation coefficients) 56 men and women; 56 to 86 years of age
  YPAS Walking Index (1st and 2nd Administration)
  1 2
PA diary
-MET/day .06 .03
Skinfold
-Mm .16 .07
VO2 max .07 .35
All ns
De Abajo et al 2001(71) Relationships between a Spanish version of the (YPAS) and Caltrac activity units, BMI, %BF, and weight (correlation coefficients) 108 (38 men and 70 women); 61-80 years of age
  YPAS Leisure Walking (units/month)
  R p
Weight 0.03 0.771
BMI 0.05 0.658
%BF 0.30 0.003
Caltrac 0.26 0.013
Harada et al 2001(23) Relationships between YPAS and Mini-logger Activity monitor (ML), a short physical performance battery (EPESE): lower body functioning (LBF), 6-minute walk (6M), BMI and self-report functioning/ well being measures: Physical functioning (PF), general health perceptions (GH), mental health (MH) and pain (P) (Pearson Correlations) 87 older adults; 61% Japanese American, 34% white, 5% African American; 65-89 years of age
  YPAS total score (All subjects)
ML-
ankle 0.46***
waist 0.52***
EPESE-
LBF 0.49**
6-M 0.58**
BMI -0.10
PF 0.31**
GH 0.31**
MH 0.24*
P 0.23*
* p < 0.05   ** p < 0.01   *** p < 0.001

Summary Legend:
ML = Mini-logger activity monitor
EPESE = Short physical performance battery
LBF = Lower body functioning
6M = 6-minute walk
BMI = Self-report functioning/ well being measures
PF = Physical functioning
GH = General health perceptions
MH = Mental health
P = Pain
Dipietro et al 1993(72) Relationships between YPAS and VO2 max, body fat, Caltrac and BMI (Spearman rank correlation coefficients) 14 men and 11 women; 60-86 yrs
  YPAS Leisure Walk index (units/month)
  r P-value
Est VO2 max 0.11 0.62
Diastolic BP 0.02 0.90
BMI -0.17 0.42
%BF -0.19 0.35
Caltrac 0.31 0.18
-counts (2.5 weekdays)

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Table 35. Zutphen Physical Activity Questionnaire (ZPAQ)

Reference Methods Sample Summary Results
Westerterp et al 1992 (abstract)(73) Relationships between ZPAQ administered twice (2nd administration 4 months later=ZPAQ+4) and TEE calculated with RMR and DLW over 14 days. (correlations) 21 survivors of the 1985 survey of the Zutphen cohort 65-84 years of age in 1985 Abstract only:
Correlation between measured activity level (TEE/RMR) and ZPAQ+4 was significant (r=0.61; p < 0.01)

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Abbreviations of Terms

  • BF - body fat
  • BMI - body mass index
  • CSA - Computer Science and Applications, Inc. Monitor
  • Caltrac - Caltrac accelerometer
  • DLW - doubly labeled water
  • EE - energy expenditure
  • EI - energy intake
  • PA - physical activity
  • PAQ - physical activity questionnaire
  • REE - resting energy expenditure
  • TEE - total energy expenditure
  • VO2 max - maximum oxygen consumption

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