National Cancer Institute
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Risk Factor Monitoring & Methods
Cancer Control and Population Sciences


Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

Absolute Risk Prediction

  • van den Bergh RC, Roobol MJ, Wolters T, van Leeuwen PJ, Schröder FH. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial and European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer risk calculators indicating a positive prostate biopsy: a comparison. BJU Int 2008 Aug 18.
  • Nam RK, Toi A, Klotz LH, Trachtenberg J, Jewett MA, Loblaw A, Pond GR, Emami M, Sugar L, Sweet J, Narod SA. Nomogram prediction for prostate cancer and aggressive prostate cancer at time of biopsy: utilizing all risk factors and tumor markers for prostate cancer. Can J Urol 2006 Apr;13 Suppl 2:2-10.
  • Thompson IM, Ankerst DP, Chi C, Goodman PJ, Tangen CM, Lucia MS, Feng Z, Parnes HL, Coltman CA Jr. Assessing prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006 Apr 19;98(8):529-34.
  • Ohori M, Swindle P. Nomograms and instruments for the initial prostate evaluation: the ability to estimate the likelihood of identifying prostate cancer. Semin Urol Oncol 2002 May;20(2):116-22.
  • Eastham JA, May R, Robertson JL, Sartor O, Kattan MW. Development of a nomogram that predicts the probability of a positive prostate biopsy in men with an abnormal digital rectal examination and a prostate-specific antigen between 0 and 4 ng/mL. Urology 1999 Oct;54(4):709-13.
  • Bruner DW, Baffoe-Bonnie A, Miller S, Diefenbach M, Tricoli JV, Daly M, Pinover W, Grumet SC, Stofey J, Ross E, Raysor S, Balshem A, Malick J, Engstrom P, Hanks GE, Mirchandani I. Prostate cancer risk assessment program. A model for the early detection of prostate cancer. Oncology (Williston Park) 1999 Mar;13(3):325-34; discussion 337-9, 343-4 pas.
  • Optenberg SA, Clark JY, Brawer MK, Thompson IM, Stein CR, Friedrichs P. Development of a decision-making tool to predict risk of prostate cancer: the Cancer of the Prostate Risk Index (CAPRI) test. Urology 1997 Nov;50(5):665-72.

Last modified:
04 Dec 2008
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