||See contract, R&D.
|R&R forms for electronic application
||See Research and Related Budget components and the other R&R forms that follow it.
||Standard NIH research project grant. For details, see NIAID's R01 Investigator Resources.
|R34, Clinical Trial Planning Grant
||See Investigator-Initiated Clinical Trial Planning and Implementation Grants.
Interim award that
investigators continue research while
reapplying for an R01 grant,
or enables new investigators to
gather preliminary data to improve their grant
applications. Investigators do not apply for these awards; they
are selected from R01 applications at
the payline margin.
R56-Bridge award recipients receive one year of funding, which ends after they succeed
in obtaining an R01 or after one year.
Go to NIAID's Budget and Funding, NIAID R56-Bridge Award SOP, NIAID May Approve Special Funding tutorial page, and R56 and Selective Pay and Funding Decisions questions and answers.
| Racial and ethnic categories
||Human subjects terms defined by the Office of Management and Budget and used by NIH to allow comparisons to national databases. Also see subpopulations.
||See initial peer review criteria.
||See Research Centers in Minority Institutions.
||See recombinant DNA.
Peer reviewer who serves as a backup for a primary peer reviewer and secondary peer reviewer. A reader reads a grant application thoroughly before an initial peer review meeting but does not necessarily prepare a written critique.
Go to NIAID's SROs Assess Completeness, Assign Reviewers and associated tutorial pages.
||See grant rebudgeting.
| Receipt date
For electronic applications, same as submission date, the Grants.gov due date for a funding opportunity announcement. Submission date differs from closing date.
For paper applications, date
due to the NIH Center
for Scientific Review; differs from submission date.
Investigator-initiated applications have three receipt dates (except NIAID T32 training grants, due September 25 only). Applications and proposals responding to initiatives are due on the date stated in the Guide announcement.
Go to NIH's Submission Policies and Standard Due Dates for Competing Applications. Go to NIAID's Council, NIAID R01 Application to Award Timeline, Assignment SOPs, and How to Submit Electronically on Time tutorial page.
| Receipt, referral, and assignment of applications
Routing of grant applications arriving at NIH. The referral section of the Center for Scientific Review is the central receipt point for competing applications.
CSR referral officers assign each application to an NIH institute and refer it to an integrated review group using NIH referral criteria. Alternatively, NIH encourages PIs to self-assign. Go to NIAID's Applications Are Assigned to an Institute and IRG tutorial page and Peer Review of Applications -- CSR questions and answers.
Go to CSR and CSR's Standard Due Dates for Competing Applications and Division of Receipt and Referral.
| Recombinant DNA
||Molecules that are either constructed outside living cells by joining natural or synthetic DNA segments to DNA molecules that can replicate in a living cell or DNA resulting from that replication. See institutional biosafety committee. Go to NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules.
1. Designation by a scientific review group that a grant application merits funding. Such an application gets a priority score and summary statement as a result of initial peer review.
Roughly the top half of applications reviewed are recommended for funding. See also initial peer review, not recommended for further consideration, streamlined review, and unscored.
Go to NIAID's Assigning a Priority Score and Noncompetitive Applications Get a Streamlined Review tutorial pages.
2. Action by an advisory Council recommending funding based on program priorities and balance and lack of barriers such as human subjects issues. Go to NIAID's Part 9. Second-Level Review tutorial page.
| Recommended levels of future support
Funding level recommended for each year of a non-modular budget by an initial peer review scientific review group. The actual amount is subject to NIAID's annual financial management plan and scientific progress (for a renewal).
See escalation factor. Go to NIAID's Budget and Funding.
| Reconciliation bill
Bill containing changes in law recommended in the instructions of a budget resolution. If instructions pertain to only one committee, that committee reports the reconciliation bill.
If the instructions pertain to more than one committee, the Budget Committee reports an omnibus reconciliation bill, but it may not make substantive changes to recommendations of the other committees.
Go to NIAID's Planning and Budget
Cycle: NIAID Budget and Planning tutorial page.
||Formerly used term -- see resetting a grant's start date.
| Reduced to practice
State in which an inventor has specified an invention in words, drawings, or other means so anyone familiar with the field would be able to make, implement, or perform the invention. It does not mean the inventor has made or performed the invention.
||See Receipt, referral, and assignment of applications.
|| Legal commitment by a government agency to reimburse another agency for goods or services, e.g., interagency and intra-agency agreements.
| Relatedness of adverse event to an intervention
estimate of the causal relationship between an intervention and adverse
event. Go to NIH's Adverse
||NIH Guide term for the date a funding
opportunity announcement is posted at Grants.gov and
in the NIH
Guide. The release date may be earlier than the open
date, so you
can begin working on the application. See the equivalent Grants.gov term posted
||Grant application that must undergo initial
peer review to continue the funding of a research project. See application
type, Part 12. Renewal Application in our NIH Grant Cycle, Renewal
Applications questions and answers, and NIAID's Renewal Funding SOP.
||See alterations and renovations.
||Reallocation of unused balances from an extramural program division's set aside funds (for initiatives or selective pay or R56-Bridge awards) to other high-priority areas. Go to the Repooling and Reprogramming SOP. Also see reprogramming.
| Representations and certifications
||Required statements by an offeror or contractor that must accompany federal contracts and proposals, such as details of its accounting procedures and compliance with small business and trade agreements. Go to NIAID's R&D Contracts.
Reallocation of funds between grant mechanisms or from a contract to a grant, which must approved by the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Management and Budget , and Congress. Go to the Repooling and Reprogramming SOP. Also see reprogramming.
| Request for applications
Initiative sponsored by one or more NIH
institutes or centers that stimulates targeted research by
applications in a well-defined scientific area.
RFAs have a single receipt date and identify funds set
aside and the number of awards likely
to be made. Institutes publish RFAs in the NIH Guide and in Grants.gov as funding opportunity announcements.
Go to NIAID's Opportunities and Announcements, Requests for Applications SOP, RFAs and NIAID's Peer Review Process questions and answers, and NIAID Funding Opportunity Planning and the Budget Cycle and How Funding Opportunities Work and subsequent tutorial pages.
| Request for contracts
||See acquisition plan.
| Request for proposals
Initiative sponsored by an NIH institute that requests proposals for a contract to meet a specific need, such as the development of an animal model.
RFPs have a single proposal receipt date and are published in FedBizOpps: Federal Business Opportunities and sometimes in the NIH Guide. Go to NIAID's RFPs on R&D Contracts and Request for Proposals SOP.
| Request for information
Notice used to obtain price, delivery, market information, or capabilities for planning purposes. May be used by the government to collect information before plans to award a contract.
Go to Solicitation and Receipt of Proposals and Information section 15.201e and NIAID's R&D Contracts.
| Requirements contract
provides for purchasing supplies or services during a period
of performance, with deliverables scheduled
by placing orders with a contractor. Go to FAR
16.503 and NIAID's R&D
|| Congressional bill that requires a federal agency to return appropriated funds. A rescission may be passed to meet unforeseen expenses or prevent government overspending.
1. Search to achieve new or fuller knowledge or practically apply knowledge.
2. Human subjects term for a systematic investigation, including development, testing, and evaluation, to develop generalizable knowledge. Go to definition 45 CFR 46.102 and
| Research and development (R&D)
Research -- search to achieve new or fuller knowledge or practically apply knowledge.
Development -- use of knowledge gained from research to create useful materials or methods.
| Research and Related Budget component form
Required budget form for nonmodular electronic grant applications.
Depending on the funding opportunity announcement, level of support (see modular budget), and use of a subaward, investigators use one of the following components of the Grant Application Package:
Go to NIAID's Strategy
for Planning a Budget in the NIH Grant Cycle: Application to Renewal.
| Research and Related Other Project Information form
Required form for electronic grant
applications that includes information on human
subjects and research
animals and attachments for Project
and References Cited,
Go to NIAID's NIH Grant Application:
Section by Section and subsequent tutorial pages.
| Research and Related Project/Performance Site Locations form
|| Required form for electronic grant
applications that includes identifying information on the project sites. Go to NIAID's NIH Grant Application: Section by Section and subsequent tutorial
Research and Related Senior/Key Person Profile form
and Research and Related Senior/Key Person Profile Expanded form
Required form for electronic grant applications that includes information on the project director/principal investigator and key personnel, the eRA Commons ID field (called agency login), and biographical sketch fields and attachments.
The expanded version accommodates more key personnel. Eventually NIH will use that version in all Grant Application Packages.
Go to NIAID's Senior/Key
Person Profile Form: Prepare the Biographical Sketches in the NIH Grant Cycle: Application to Renewal.
||See animals in research.
| Research center grant
Grant in the P series supporting shared resources for a multidisciplinary research group of investigators focused on a common research topic.
See NIAID's Other Grant Types and go to Instructions for Preparing a Multiproject Grant Application.
|Research Centers in Minority Institutions
||Program that enhances research capacity and infrastructure at minority institutions that offer doctorates in health sciences. Go to RCMI.
| Research data,
|| See final
Research Design and Methods
Section of an NIH grant application's Research Plan describing the design, procedures, and analyses to accomplish a project's specific aims. Read Research
Design and Methods -- Writing and Research
Design and Methods -- Evaluating in the NIH Grant Cycle: Application to Renewal.
| Research Integrity Officer
|| IC official who represents an IC on matters of research integrity policy. RIO also notifies Agency Extramural Research Integrity Officer (AERIO) about allegations of research misconduct involving biomedical or behavioral research or research training supported by the Public Health Service.
or plagiarism in proposing, performing, reviewing, or reporting research.
- Fabrication -- making up data or results.
- Falsification -- manipulating
research resources or processes, or changing or omitting data or results
to make the research record inaccurate.
- Plagiarism -- appropriating another
person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving credit.
misconduct does not include honest error or differences of opinion.
Also see Office
of Research Integrity and PHS
Alert System. Go to NIAID's Bars
to Grant Awards -- Research
Misconduct SOP and Research Misconduct
Main part of an NIH grant application describing the importance of a principal investigator's proposed research and how the project will be conducted.
A typical Research Plan has four main sections: Specific Aims, Background and Significance, Preliminary Studies/Progress Report, and Research Design and Methods.
Go to NIAID's Part 5. Research Plan in the NIH Grant Cycle: Application to Renewal and PHS
398 Research Plan form (for electronic applications).
| Research plan, PHS 398
||See PHS 398 Research Plan form (for electronic grant applications).
| Research portfolio
||Cohort of grants supported by an NIH organization and administered by an institute program officer.
| Research project grant
Budget term referring to the following grant
R03, R21, R23, R37, R41, R42, R43, R44, R55, P01, P42, U01, U19, U43,
and U44. RPGs are research grants awarded
to an institution.
R series are single research
project grants; P series are multiproject
grants. U series cooperative
agreements can be either single project -- U01, U43, U44 -- or multiproject
-- U19. Unlike a multiproject
award, a single project award addresses
one research topic even if it involves several sites.
of these activity
codes, go to NIAID's Grants portals.
| Research supplement
Monies that add funds to an existing grant to support and promote diversity, people with disabilities, and people returning to work from family responsibilities.
Go to NIAID's Research Supplements and Training and Career Awards. Also see administrative supplement.
| Research supplement for underrepresented minorities
||See research supplements to promote diversity in health-related research.
| Research supplements for people with disabilities
||See research supplements to promote diversity in health-related research.
| Research supplements for reentry into a research career
||Monies that add funds to an existing grant to support scientists who have taken time off to care for children or parents, or attend to other family responsibilities. Go to NIAID's Reentry supplements and Training and Career Awards.
| Research supplements to promote diversity in health-related research
||Monies that add funds to an existing grant to support graduate students who are disabled or from underrepresented groups, postdocs, and faculty. Go to NIAID's Research Supplements to Promote Diversity in Health-Related Research and Training and Career Awards.
using human specimens or data
subjects research involving individually
specimens or data and subject to federal and state regulatory
requirements. For example, this would include research
- Bodily materials such as cells, blood, urine, tissues, organs, hair
or nail clippings, even if collected by others.
- Residual diagnostic specimens, including those from routine patient
care, that are kept for research rather than discarded.
information, such as medical information,
even if the information was not collected for the study in question.
This includes research
on genetic information.
| Resetting a grant start date
Procedure done during some fiscal years to shorten a grant's budget period by giving it a new grant anniversary date, generally to avoid having too many awards start at the end of a fiscal year.
Resetting a grant's start date may affect when a grantee would submit a renewal award. Go to NIAID'S Resetting Grant Start Dates questions and answers.
| Resolution, budget
||See budget resolution.
||See continuing resolution.
| Resources page
For electronic applications, the Facilities and Other Resources attachment is on the Research and Related Budget Other Project Information form.
For paper grant applications, Form page in PHS 398 grant application describing all essential resources in an application.
Go to NIAID's Other Project
Information Form: Facilities, Resources, and Equipment in Part 6. Other Application Sections.
and condition in a Notice of Award or article in a contract that does one of the following:
It may be lifted
or adjusted after requirements are met.
to award, and go to NIAID's Bars
to Grant Awards, Contracts Involving Human Subjects, and Contracts Involving Animals SOPs. Go to NIAID's Human
Subjects, Clinical Research, Research
Animals, and R&D
Grant application resubmitted to NIH after
an investigator who did not succeed in getting funded revises it based on
feedback from the initial
peer review. Resubmissions are indicated in the application
identification number, e.g., A1.
Applicants may resubmit applications submitted on January 25, 2009, and later only once. Applicants may resubmit applications submitted before that date twice and must do so by January 7, 2011.
Go to NIAID's Part 11b. Not Funded, Reapply in the NIH Grant Cycle: Application to Renewal. Go to NIAID's Unfunded Applicants and Resubmission Advice questions and answers.
| Review committee chairperson
Member of an NIH initial peer review committee who facilitates discussions of grant applications and contract proposals during the review.
Go to NIAID's At the Peer Review
Meeting: Basic Layout of Initial Peer Review tutorial page.
||See initial peer review criteria.
| Review cycle
Time span for one NIH Center for Scientific Review initial peer review round from the receipt of grant applications to the date of an initial peer review meeting. There are three cycles a year for investigator-initiated grants.
Go to CSR's Standard Due Dates for Competing Applications and NIAID R01 Application to Award Timeline.
||Formerly used term. NIH no longer mails review outcomes to PIs or their organizations. Instead, applicants find this information in the Commons.
| Review Policy Committee
NIH committee of senior peer review staff that advises NIH on extramural review issues. It has one voting member from each institute and several from the NIH Center for Scientific Review.
|| See peer reviewer.
|| See critique.
for money added to a grant to expand
its scope or
meet needs of a research protocol. Applicants must apply and undergo peer
review. NIH term has been "competing supplement." Former NIH
term "revision" is now resubmission in Grants.gov. Go to Revision of a Grant SOP.
||See request for applications.
||See request for contract.
||See request for information.
||See request for proposals.
||See Research Integrity Officer.
||Probability of harm or physical, psychological, social, or economic injury resulting from participation in a research study.
||See Review Policy Committee.
||See research project grants.
||Now called research supplements to promote diversity in health-related research.
| Safety reports for INDs and IDEs
Written reports from sponsors notifying FDA and investigators of
drug-associated or device-associated serious and unexpected adverse events. Go to NIAID's Data
and Safety Monitoring Boards SOP.
See 21 CFR 312.32 (c) and 21 CFR 812.150 (b).
||See Small Business Innovation Research.
|SBIR AT NIAID
||See NIAID Advanced Technology Small Business Innovation Research and NIAID Advanced Technology Small Business Technology Transfer.
|SBIR Fast Track
||See Small Business Innovation Research Fast Track.
| Scientific Initiative Management System
|| Internal database that integrates the creation and approval of concepts for subsequent development as a request for application, request for proposal, or program announcement, and the scheduling and tracking of initiatives by fiscal year. Go to Scientific Initiative Management System SOP and Phasing of Initiatives SOP.
||See research misconduct.
||Overlap of support that occurs when substantially similar research is proposed in more than one concurrent PHS grant application.
|Scientific review administrator
Formerly used term. See scientific review officer.
| Scientific review group
Chartered committee performing initial peer review in either the NIH Center for Scientific Review or an institute. SRGs are managed by a scientific review officer.
Institutes review grant applications with their own review requirements. Also see dual peer review, study section, and integrated review group.
Go to Scientific Review Program for a list of application types reviewed by NIAID.
Go to NIAID's NIH Grant Cycle: Application to Renewal and Peer Review Meetings -- CSR questions and answers.
| Scientific review officer
Federal scientist who presides over a scientific review group and coordinates and reports the initial peer review of each grant application assigned to it.
Scientific review officers act as intermediaries between applicants and reviewers and prepare summary statements for all applications reviewed. Also see scientific review group.
Go to NIAID's Who Peer Reviews Your Application? tutorial page and Peer Review of Applications -- CSR questions and answers.
| Scientific Review Program
NIAID organization in the Division of Extramural Activities that oversees initial peer review of grant applications and contract proposals with Institute-specific requirements:
For descriptions of these activity codes, go to NIAID's Grants portals. For contact information, go to SRP Contacts.
|Scientific technical peer review group for contracts
||See technical evaluation group.
| Scientifically acceptable or unacceptable
Human subjects term indicating an initial peer review group's determination whether gender and minority representation conform to NIH guidelines and pertain to the science.
A determination of unacceptable bars funding an application or proposal until NIH staff and the principal investigator resolve the issue. Criteria are different for clinical trials and other clinical research.
Scientific parameters of a funded research project. Grantees cannot change the scope of a project without NIAID approval because that would significantly alter the project the peer reviewers and Council recommended for funded.
See prior approval for grants, and go to What
Constitutes a Change in Scope? in the NIH Grant Cycle for the most common changes.
| Scored application
||Grant application a study section judges to be competitive, generally in the upper half of those being reviewed. It receives a priority score and may be funded by an IC. Also see unscored.
| Second-level review
Review generally conducted by an institute's advisory Council that results in funding recommendations to NIAID or
other NIH institute director.
Second-level review looks at program priorities and balance and a lack of barriers to funding such as unresolved human subjects issues. It does not reassess the
See also expedited
second-level review, initial
peer review, scientific
review group, integrated
review group, and NAAIDC. Go to NIAID's Part 9. Second-Level Review tutorial page, Council, and NIAID R01 Application to Award Timeline.
| Secondary assignment
Assignment of a grant
application by CSR to
an IC as
a backup for funding should the primary IC decide not to fund it. Either
officer or investigator can
request secondary assignment.
Also see primary
assignment, and receipt,
referral, and assignment of applications. Go to NIAID's Requesting an Institute, Applications Are Assigned to an Institute and Integrated Review Group, and Call If You Are Not Satisfied With a CSR Assignment in the NIH Grant Cycle: Application to Renewal.
| Secondary peer reviewer
Peer reviewer who serves as a backup for a primary peer reviewer. Both read a grant application thoroughly before an initial peer review meeting to lend their expertise to the group discussion. The secondary peer reviewer may also write a critique. Also see reader.
Go to NIAID's SROs Assess Completeness, Assign Reviewers tutorial page and Peer Review Meetings -- CSR questions and answers.
|Secure Payee Reimbursement System (SPRS)
Secure system peer reviewers use to receive electronic reimbursement for expenses and honoraria that result from participating in initial peer review meetings. SPRS is in the eRA Commons.
See NIAID's Reimbursement for Peer Reviewers SOP.
| Select agent
Biological agent or toxin listed in 42 CFR Part 73, 7 CFR Part 331 and 9
CFR Part 121, or the HHS and USDA Select Agents and Toxins List.
Investigators who possess or use a select agent must register with and get approval from either the CDC Select Agent Program or USDA APHIS Agricultural Select Agent Program, depending on the agent.
Also see overlap select agent, NIAID category A, B, and C priority pathogen, and highly pathogenic infectious agents. Go to NIAID's Biodefense Research and Development page and Select Agent Awards SOP.
| Selective pay
For R01 applications at
the margin of the payline, the funding of a small number of grant applications
that are programmatically important or from investigators who are new, as recommended by NIAID's advisory Council.
cannot apply for selective pay funding; rather, they are nominated
by NIAID program officers.
Go to NIAID's Budget and Funding, Selective Pay SOP, NIAID May Approve Special Funding tutorial page, and R56 and Selective Pay and Funding Decisions questions and answers.
| Senior/Key Person Profile, Research and Related
||See Research and Related Senior/Key Person Profile.
| Sensitive information
Information that could have a serious adverse effect on a person or an organization's operations or assets if lost, stolen, or tampered with.
Examples include the following:
||See special emphasis panel.
| Serious adverse event
Adverse event that results in death, life-threatening experience, hospitalization or prolongation of hospitalization, significant disability, or a birth defect.
file serious adverse event reports with a sponsor and IRB,
which reports them to FDA. IND sponsors
must notify FDA and NIAID within 24 hours. If applicable, investigators
must also file an FDA Adverse Event
Go to FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System and NIAID's Human Subjects, Clinical Research.
||Monies budgeted for a defined purpose in a fiscal
year. Institute set-asides include selective
pay and R56-Bridge
awards. For congressional set asides, see earmark. Go to NIAID's Budget and Funding, Financial Management Plan SOP, and NIAID Funding Policy and Process SOP.
424 (Cover Page)
Cover page for an electronic Grant Application Package together with the PHS 398 Cover Page Supplement. Term may also be used to signify Grant Application Package.
Also see funding opportunity announcement. Go to NIAID's Grant Application portal and SF 424 (Cover
Page) in the NIH Grant Cycle: Application to Renewal.
|Sharing model organisms
See model organism sharing.
Predoctoral trainee supported for a two to three-month training experience, usually in the summer.
investigator signature assurance.
Term used in the Commons to denote person
with authority to legally bind an institution for grant matters.
In the Commons, SOs can register an institution, create and modify
institutional profile and user accounts, and view
all the institution's
grants, including status and award data.
| Significant difference
||Human subjects term indicating a difference of clinical or public health importance based on substantial scientific data. This definition differs from the commonly used one, which refers to statistical significance.
|Significant financial interest
||Investment, income, property, or equity as defined in 42 CFR 50.603. See also financial conflict of interest.
||See Scientific Initiative Management System.
| Small business
||Business independently owned and operated and not dominant in its field that meets a certain size standard. Go to 13 CFR part 121 and NIAID's Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Grants SOP, Small Business Awards questions and answers, Small Business Awards, and NIH Small Business Funding Opportunities.
| Small Business Administration
|| Organization that assists and protects the interests of small businesses and helps families and businesses recover from national disasters. Go to Small Business Administration.
|Small business award
||Grant under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) or Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR).
| Small business concern
||For-profit business located in the U.S., independently owned and operated, not dominant in its field of operation, and qualified as a small business using criteria in 13 CFR part 121. Go to FAR 19.102.
| Small Business Innovation Research
Government-wide program that promotes R&D with the potential for commercialization at small business concerns.
See SBIR AT NIAID, SBIR Fast Track, Small Business Technology Transfer, and Bayh-Dole Act. Go to the Small Business Act, NIAID's Small Business Awards, and NIH Small Business Funding Opportunities.
| Small Business Innovation Research Advanced Technology NIAID
|| See NIAID Advanced Technology Small Business Innovation Research and NIAID Advanced Technology Small Business Technology Transfer.
| Small Business Innovation Research contract
||Type of contract that fosters technological innovation by small businesses. Eligibility is limited to for-profit businesses that qualify as a small business concern.
| Small Business Innovation Research Fast Track
||SBIR award that allows concurrent submission and review of phase I and phase II grant applications to reduce a potential funding gap between phase I and phase II. Go to NIAID's Small Business Awards and NIH Small Business Funding Opportunities.
| Small Business Technology Transfer
Government-wide program that promotes R&D with the potential for commercialization at small business concerns. It differs from Small Business Innovation Research in requiring a formal collaborative relationship with a university or other non-profit research institution.
See SBIR AT NIAID and Bayh-Dole Act. Go to the Small Business Act, NIAID's Small Business Awards, and NIH Small Business Funding Opportunities.
| Small disadvantaged business
||Business that is at least 51 percent owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged U.S. citizens and shows potential for success. Companies are certified by the Small Business Administration under Section 8(a) of the Small Business Act.
| Small disadvantaged business concern
||Small business that is at least 51 percent unconditionally owned, or has at least 51 percent of its stock unconditionally owned, and is managed by one or more people who are socially and economically disadvantaged. Go to FAR 19.001.
||See streamlined noncompeting award process.
| Socially and economically disadvantaged
||Term used by the U.S. Small Business Administration for people who have been subjected to racial or ethnic prejudice or cultural bias, including blacks or African Americans, Hispanics or Latinos, American Indians or Alaskan Natives, and Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders, and Subcontinent Asian Americans.
| Sole source acquisition
||Contracting process to acquire supplies or
services after soliciting and negotiating with
only one source. Go to FAR
6.303 and NIAID's R&D
||Formal document that elicits proposals for acquisition or
financial assistance awards.
Go to NIAID's R&D
||See targeted research.
| Somatic cell
||All cells in an organism except germline cells.
| Somatic cell nuclear transfer
||Transfer of a nucleus from a somatic cell to an unfertilized egg that has had its nucleus removed. Also see cloning.
| Source selection
||Process for selecting a contractor after initial
peer review. Go to NIAID's R&D
Contracts and Negotiation, Source Selection, and Award SOPs.
| Source selection group
||Committee that reviews final proposals revisions from offerors in the competitive range, resulting in an award recommendation to NIAID. Go to NIAID's R&D Contracts.
| Sources sought
Notices in FedBizOpps that survey the market to determine if there are potential contractors that can satisfy government requirements. See the Federal Business Opportunities SOP. Go to NIAID's R&D Contracts.
||See statement of work.
||Single project assurance.
| Special emphasis panel
||Ad hoc initial peer review group with expertise to review a set of research grant applications or contract proposals. See also scientific review group, integrated review group, and study section. Go to NIAID's RFAs and NIAID's Peer Review Process questions and answers.
| Specific aims
||Section of an NIH grant application's Research Plan stating the objectives and milestones of a research project. Go to NIAID's Start With
Specific Aims in the NIH Grant Cycle: Application to Renewal.
Person or organization that initiates but does not conduct a clinical study, usually a drug or device manufacturer or the research institution that developed a drug.
Sponsors distribute drugs or devices to principal
investigators and ensure compliance with regulations, for example,
obtaining FDA approval
to conduct a trial and reporting results to FDA. Go to definition 21 CFR 50.3, definition 21 CFR 312.3, and definition 21 CFR 812.3.
| Sponsored research agreement
Negotiated contract usually between an academic institution and a private corporation giving the institution financial support in return for an option for the company to license patentable items coming from the research.
Go to NIAID's R&D Contracts and Office of Technology Development.
||Clinical investigator acting also as a sponsor, i.e., who both initiates and conducts a clinical investigation.
Go to definition 21 CFR 50.3, definition 21 CFR 312.3, and definition 21 CFR 812.3.
||See Secure Payee Reimbursement System.
||See scientific review officer.
|| See scientific review group.
|| See Scientific Review Program.
||Special study section.
||See grant start date.
| Statement of work
||Detailed description of work written in a proposal to be performed under a contract. Go to NIAID's R&D Contracts.
| Stem cell
||Cell that can divide indefinitely in cell culture and produce specialized cells. Usually derived from an early embryo or embryonic germ cell, but certain types can be derived from adult cells. Compare totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent, oligopotent, and unipotent stem cells. Go to NIH Stem Cell Information.
||Student financial support provided on training grants and fellowships for living expenses. Go to NIAID's Training and Career Awards and Salaries and Stipends questions and answers.
| Streamlined noncompeting award process (SNAP)
Called SNAP, streamlined process to continue support of a PHS-supported grant.
To continue funding, a grantee sends a PHS 2590 form to NIAID's Grants Management Program two months before the beginning of a new budget period, following SNAP procedures in the PHS 2590.
SNAP Financial status reports are due at the end of a competitive segment. A Notice of Award states whether a grant is awarded under SNAP.
See eSNAP, and go to NIAID's eSNAP (Electronic Streamlined Noncompeting Award Process) SOP and Progress Reports and eSNAP questions and answers.
| Streamlined review
Practice through which grant applications judged unanimously by the peer reviewers as unlikely to be funded are not discussed and do not receive a priority score.
These are roughly in the bottom half of applications being reviewed, though the percentage varies by study section and grant type. NIH sends the investigator the primary and secondary reviewers' critiques as feedback.
Formerly called triage. See also recommended, unscored, and summary statement.
Go to NIAID's Noncompetitive Applications Get a Streamlined Review and Part 11b. Not Funded, Reapply in the NIH Grant Cycle: Application to Renewal.
||See Small Business Technology Transfer.
| Study section
Component of an NIH Center for Scientific Review integrated review group organized around a scientific area, which conducts initial peer review in that field.
Composed of scientific experts, study sections are managed by CSR scientific review officers. Also called scientific review group. See also initial peer review and dual peer review.
Go to NIAID's Requesting a Study Section and Peer Review Meetings -- CSR questions and answers. Go to CSR's Study Section Rosters.
Collaborative arrangement in support of a research project in which part of an activity is carried out through a formal agreement between a grantee and one or more other organizations. Also known as consortium agreement.
Go to NIAID's Subawards for Grants SOP, Consultants
or Collaborators -- How They Differ, and Where to
Add Consortium and Contractual Agreements.
the Subaward Budget Attachment Form of the SF
||Contract between a prime contractor and a subcontractor to furnish supplies or services for a prime contract or subcontract. Go to Providing Consent to Subcontract SOP.
||Healthy person or patient who participates in a clinical
investigation, either as a recipient of an investigational
drug or as a recipient of treatment with an investigational device, or as a control. Go to definition 21 CFR 312.3 and
definition 21 CFR 812.3. Go to NIAID's R&D Contracts.
| Subject invention
||Invention defined by the Bayh-Dole Act 37 CFR 401.2 as emanating from government funding conceived of or first reduced to practice under the award. Go to full 37 CFR 401.
| Submission date
For electronic applications, date Grants.gov must receive the application. That date differs from a funding opportunity announcement's closing date. Go to NIAID's How to Submit Electronically on Time tutorial page.
For paper grant applications, date by which an applicant must mail an application to (not date received by) the Center for Scientific Review. Go to the Submission Policies section of Standard Due Dates for Competing Applications. This term differs from but is sometimes used interchangeably with receipt date.
Human subjects term indicating a group further defined by geographic origins, national origins, or cultural differences. Subpopulation data can be defined and reported by self-reporting or other means.
Mixed racial or ethnic descent also applies to subpopulations, and such combinations may have biomedical or cultural implications for the science.
| Success rate
Roughly the number of grant
applications funded by an NIH institute,
divided by the number of applications referred to it that were peer
reviewed. Applications resubmitted during
year are counted only once.
To learn more, go to Part 10. Funding Decisions of the NIH Grant Cycle: Application to Renewal.
| Summary statement
Official document showing the outcome of initial peer review, including priority score (and percentile for an R01), codes if areas of concern (e.g., human subjects research), and a recommended budget.
Most summary statements also have a short synopsis prepared by a scientific review officer using peer reviewer critiques.
Go to NIAID's Know What a Summary Statement Means and Summary Statements Have Their Limitations in the NIH Grant Cycle: Application to Renewal.
||Monies that add funds to an existing grant, including research supplements, administrative supplements, and revisions. Go to NIAID's Supplements and Supplements to Grants questions and answers.
||See administrative supplement.
|Supplement, diversity in health-related research
See research supplements to promote diversity in health-related research.
See research supplement.
| Supplemental funds
|| Monies added to a budget appropriation bill. Supplemental funds bolster an existing appropriation deemed insufficient by Congress or pay for activities not covered by an appropriation. Go to NIAID's Planning and Budget Cycle: NIAID Budget and Planning tutorial page.
| Suspension, contracts
||Action taken to disqualify a contractor temporarily from government contracting and subcontracting. Go to FAR 9.407 and R&D Contracts.
| Suspension, grants
||Temporary withdrawal of a grantee's authority to use grant funds, pending either corrective action by a grantee or a decision by NIH to terminate the award.