For a complete list of acronyms only, go to Acronym
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A B C D E F G H I J K
M N O P
R S T U
- A -
|Academic Research Enhancement
Award (AREA - R15)
||Grant award stimulating research at health professional academic
institutions with less than $3 million of NIH support in total costs
in four or more of the last seven years. Go to AREA
||Related to electronic submission of applications, the Accession number
is the Agency tracking number provided for the application after Agency
||As used by the NIH
eRA Commons, a personal account an individual uses
to log into the NIH eRA Commons which is identified by
a unique combination of username and password.
||An individual typically in the grantee organization’s central
research administration office designated by a SO to facilitate the
administration of NIH
eRA Commons accounts. The AA can create, modify and/or remove the
necessary accounts for these types: AO, AA, FSR, PI or ASST. Although
the AA can create additional accounts, the AA cannot modify institutional
profile (IPF) information.
||Obtaining supplies or services by the federal government with appropriated
funds through purchase or lease. See Contract – R&D.
||A grant meeting the following criteria:
- Today's date is between the budget start and end dates.
- The grant has an eRA System (IMPAC II) application status code
of "Awarded. Non-fellowships only." or "Awarded.
||A three-digit code assigned by the National Institutes of Health
(NIH) to identify funding mechanisms (e.g. F32, K12, P01, R01, T32, etc.). General categories include:
For specific activity codes and definitions, go to IMPAC
Activity Codes, Organization Codes, and Definitions Used in Extramural
Programs (Tables 2-4).
Also see the Types of Grant Programs page to search activity codes and
for more information on selected grant programs.
||See Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration.
||Expenses incurred for the support of activities relevant to the award
of grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements and expenses incurred
for general administration of the scientific programs and activities
of the National Institutes of Health.
||The NIH Institute or Center to which the Center for Scientific Review
(CSR) routes NIH grant applications for a funding decision. An I/C may
request to change this assignment if the application is more suited
to another I/C. Also referred to as primary assignment.
||In the NIH Commons,
reviews the grant application for accuracy before the signing official
submits the final application to the NIH.
- May be the same person as the signing official.
- Resides in either the central research administration office or
- Create additional AO and PI accounts
- Not authorized to transmit
applications to the NIH.
||Go to OMB’s Grants Management Circulars.
||Monies added to a grant without peer review to pay for items within
the scope of an award but unforeseen when a grant application was submitted.
||See Council/Board, Advisory.
|Alcohol, Drug Abuse,
and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA)
||Effective FY 1993, the service components of the ADAMHA became the
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).
The three research components of the ADAMHA--the National Institute
on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), the National Institute on Drug
Abuse (NIDA), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)--became
part of the NIH.
||A DHHS system for disseminating information to appropriate PHS officials
to facilitate informed decisions on the award of Federal monies to organizations
or persons charged with or found to have engaged in misconduct. Go to PHS
Administrative Actions Listing.
||Commonly known as a "Green Card." Shows a person's status
as a permanent resident with a right to live and work permanently in
the U.S. Also called Form I-551. Go to U.S.
Citizenship and Immigration Services.
|Alteration and Renovation
||Changes the interior arrangements or other physical characteristics
of an existing facility or of installed equipment so that it can be
used more effectively for its currently designated purpose or adapted
to an alternative use to meet a programmatic requirement. Major A&R
(including modernization, remodeling, or improvement) of an existing
building is permitted under an NIH grant only when the authorizing statute
for the program specifically allows that activity. Go to Allowability
of Costs/Activities—Selected Items of Cost—Alteration and
Renovation and Allowability of Costs/Activities—Selected Items of Cost—Construction.
or revised applications)
||Resubmission of an unfunded application revised
in response to a prior review.
|Animal Welfare Assurance
||Document an institution and all performance sites involving animals
in research must have on file with the Office
of Laboratory Animal Welfare before a PHS Agency
may award a grant or contract.
|Animals in Research
||Any live, vertebrate animal used for research, research training,
biological testing, or related purposes.
Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals for information
and links to legislation and the Office
of Laboratory Animal Welfare Animal Welfare Regulations tutorial.
||See Administrative Official.
||See Authorized Organization Representative.
||A procedure for contesting the peer review of a grant application.
Synonymous with rebuttal.
||A request for financial support of a project or activity submitted
to NIH on specified forms and in accordance with NIH instructions. [For
detailed information about the application process (including an explanation
of the types of applications), go to Application
and Review Processes.]
||The application number identifies:
- type of application (1)
- activity code (R01)
- organization to which it is assigned (AI)
- serial number assigned by the Center for Scientific Review (CSR)
- suffix showing the support year for the grant (-01)
- other information identifying a supplement (S1),
amendment (A1), or a fellowship's institutional
allowance. For contracts, the suffix is replaced by a modification
Sample Application Identification Number
1 R01 AI 183723 -01 A1 S1
||Competing continuation (a.k.a. renewal, re-competing)
||Application for additional (supplemental) support
||Competing extension for an R37 award or first non competing year
of a Fast Track SBIR/STTR award
||Change of grantee institution
||Change of NIH awarding Institute or Division (competing continuation)
Amended - See Resubmission
Contract types - See Contract Transaction Types
||Law authorizing Federal Agencies to obligate funds and make payments
from the treasury for specified purposes. Appropriations are in annual
acts and permanent law.
||The financial expenditure plan for the grant-supported project or
activity, including revisions approved by NIH as well as permissible
revisions made by the grantee. The approved budget consists of Federal
(grant) funds and, if required by the terms and conditions of the award,
non-Federal participation in the form of matching or cost sharing. The
approved budget specified in the Notice of Grant Award may be shown
in detailed budget categories or as total costs without a categorical
breakout. Expenditures charged to an approved budget that consists of
both Federal and non-Federal shares are deemed to be borne by the grantee
in the same proportion as the percentage of Federal/non-Federal participation
in the overall budget.
||See Academic Research Enhancement Award.
||See Receipt, Referral, and Assignment of Applications.
||The award of money, property, or services to a recipient to accomplish
a public purpose as authorized by Federal statute. Assistance relationships
(e.g., grants) are expressed in less detail than are acquisition relationships
(contracts), and responsibilities for ensuring performance rest largely
with the recipient or are shared with the Government.
|Assistant Role (ASST)
||In the NIH
Commons the role designed to allow PIs to delegate certain responsibilities
for data entry of grant information and upkeep of their personal profiles.
The ASST does not have any other functions in the system.
||The individual authorized
by the applicant organization to act for the applicant and to assume
the obligations imposed by the Federal laws, regulations, requirements,
and conditions that apply to grant applications or grant awards. This
official is equivalent to the SO in NIH’s eRA Commons.
- Submitting the grant on behalf of the company, organization, institution,
- Signing grant applications and the required certifications and/or
assurances necessary to fulfill the requirements of the application
||The dollar amount a grant award is reduced from the amount recommended
by the study section (scientific review group). This is done so Institutes
can maintain a sufficient number of grants in their portfolio and to
combat inflation of grant costs.
||The provision of funds by NIH, based on an approved application and
budget or progress report, to an organizational entity or an individual
to carry out a project or activity.
||See Application Types.
|Awarded Direct Costs
||See Direct Costs.
|Awarded Indirect Costs
||See Indirect Costs.
|Awarded Total Costs
||See Total Project Costs.
||The NIH I/C responsible for the award, administration, and monitoring
of particular grants. See Funding Organizations.
- B -
||A law encouraging universities and researchers to develop their
inventions into marketable products.
|Best and Final Offer (BAFO)
||See Final Proposal Revision.
||A general science agreement between the U.S. and a foreign country.
Grant applications from institutions in these countries that have been
recommended for approval by the scientific review group are given special
funding consideration by Council.
||The focus of bioengineering issues at the NIH which consists of senior-level
representatives from each of the NIH Institutes, Centers, and Divisions
plus representatives of other Federal Agencies concerned with biomedical
research and development. Go to Bioengineering Consortium (BECON).
|Biomedical Research and
Development Price Index (BRDPI)
||Measures real annual changes
in the prices of items and services required for research and development
||Provides one year of funding so investigators can continue research
while reapplying for an R01 grant or enables new investigators to gather
preliminary data to improve their applications. Investigators do not
apply for Bridge Awards but are selected from R01 grants at the pay-line
margin. A Bridge Award is made as an R21 with one year of funding, which
the PI can choose to spend over a two-year period. This enables the
PI to submit an amended R01 application for the next receipt date while
receiving interim (bridge) funding under the R21 mechanism.
||The yearly amount given to a Government Agency by Congress.
||The NIH I/C assigned by the Center for Scientific Review (CSR) to
decide whether to fund a grant application. An I/C may request
to change this assignment if the application is more suited to another
I/C. Also referred to as primary assignment.
||Identifies the sub-mechanism category of the award for reporting purposes.
||The intervals of time (usually 12 months each) into which a project
period is divided for budgetary and funding purposes.
- C -
|Career Development Awards
(CDA K Series)
||Award supporting Ph.D.s and clinicians who wish to develop a career
in biomedical research.
|Catalog of Federal Domestic
||A database which helps the Federal Government track all programs it
has domestically funded. Federal programs are assigned a number
in the Catalog of Federal
Domestic Assistance (CFDA) which is referred to as the "CFDA
|Category (New, Renewals,
||See Application Types.
||The cost of an asset (land, building, equipment), including the cost
to put it in place. A capital expenditure for equipment includes the
net invoice price and the cost of any modifications, attachments, accessories,
or auxiliary apparatus to make it usable for the purpose for which it
was acquired. Other charges, such as taxes, in-transit insurance, freight,
and installation, may be included in capital expenditure costs in accordance
with the recipient’s regular accounting practices consistently applied
regardless of the source of funds. Go to Administrative
Requirements—Changes in Project and Budget
—Prior-Approval Requirements—Capital Expenditures.
||As indicated by the Notice of Award (NoA), carryover authority provides
grantees permission to carry over funds unobligated at the end of a
budget period to the next budget period. For awards under the Streamlined
Non-Competing Award Process (SNAP), funds are automatically carried
over and are available for expenditure during the entire project period.
However, under those awards, the grantee will be required to indicate,
as part of its non-competing continuation request, whether its estimated
un-obligated balance (including prior year carryover) is expected to
be greater than 25 percent of the current year's total budget. If so,
the grantee must provide an explanation and indicate plans for expenditure
of those funds if carried forward.
||See Central Contractor Registration Database.
||See Career Development Awards.
|Center for Scientific
||The NIH component responsible for the receipt and referral of applications
to the PHS, as well as the initial review for scientific merit of most
applications submitted to the NIH.
||Center grants are awarded to institutions on behalf of program directors
and groups of collaborating investigators. They support
long-term, multi-disciplinary programs of research and development.
Registration (CCR) Database
||The main vendor database for the U.S. Federal Government. Grant-applicant
institutions need to register with the CCR to
apply for a grant through Grants.gov. The CCR stores organizational
information, allowing Grants.gov to verify the organization's identity
and to pre-fill organizational information on its grant application. Institutions
must have a DUNS number to register in the CCR.
||Any committee formed for advisory purposes composed not wholly of
Federal officials. Under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, standing
committees must be chartered, i.e., approved by their parent Agency
in collaboration with the U.S. General Services Administration to ensure a properly
balanced representation (geographical, women, minorities) and meet other
||The number used when citing papers falling under the Public Access Policy on applications, proposals, or progress reports. The citation ID will be a PMCID or an alternative when the PMCID has not been assigned yet.
||Patient-oriented research, including epidemiologic and behavioral
studies, outcomes research, and health services research. Patient-oriented
research is research conducted with human subjects (or on material of
human origin such as tissues, specimens, and cognitive phenomena) in
which a researcher directly interacts with human subjects. It includes
research on mechanisms of human disease, therapeutic interventions,
clinical trials, and development of new technologies, but does not include
in vitro studies using human tissues not linked to a living
individual. Studies falling under 45 CFR 46.101(b) (4) are not considered
clinical research for purposes of this definition.
||A biomedical or behavioral research study of human subjects designed
to answer specific questions about biomedical or behavioral interventions
(drugs, treatments, devices, or new ways of using known drugs, treatments,
or devices). Clinical trials are used to determine whether new biomedical
or behavioral interventions are safe, efficacious, and effective.
Clinical trials of an experimental drug, treatment, device, or intervention
may proceed through four phases:
Phase I. Testing in a small group
of people (e.g. 20-80) to determine efficacy and evaluate safety (e.g.,
determine a safe dosage range and identify side effects).
Study in a larger group of people (several hundred) to determine efficacy
and further evaluate safety.
Phase III. Study to determine efficacy
in large groups of people (from several hundred to several thousand)
by comparing the intervention to other standard or experimental interventions,
to monitor adverse effects, and to collect information to allow safe
Phase IV. Studies done after the intervention has been marketed.
These studies are designed to monitor the effectiveness of the approved
intervention in the general population and to collect information
about any adverse effects associated with widespread use.
||A procedure to officially conclude a grant. Institute staff must ensure
necessary scientific, administrative, and financial reports have been
received, implemented and documented in compliance with Federal records
management policy. This includes the Final Financial Status Report (FSR),
Final Invention Report, and Final Progress Report.
|Code of Federal Regulations
||An annually revised codification of the general and permanent rules
published in the Federal Register.
||Funding arrangement through which two or more Institutes or Centers
pay for a grant.
||An individual involved with the PI in the scientific development or
execution of a project. The co-investigator (collaborator) may be employed
by, or be affiliated with, the applicant/grantee organization or another
organization participating in the project under a consortium agreement.
A co-investigator typically devotes a specified percentage of time to
the project and is considered “key personnel.” The designation of a
co-investigator, if applicable, does not affect the PI’s roles and responsibilities
as specified in the NIH Grants Policy Statement (NIH GPS).
||Funds used for non-competing (type 5 or ongoing awards), typically
70-80 percent of the dollars spent for research project grants.
NIH CMO: The NIH Committee Management Officer
is responsible for the oversight of all NIH Federal advisory committees
under the auspices of the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The NIH
CMO is responsible for directing and managing all phases of committee
management policy and procedure development and dissemination to all
NIH I/C staff as well as to Federal advisory committee members.
I/C CMO: Each I/C has a CMO or uses the resources of a service center to support the committee management function within the Institute or Center. The I/C CMO is responsible for developing charters for committees, preparing nomination and appointment documents for membership to committees, providing technical assistance to committee members, providing initial review of conflict of interest disclosures and other responsibilities.
||See Electronic Research Administration.
||Either new or re-competing applications that must undergo initial peer review.
||An application requiring competitive peer review and Institute/Center
action to continue beyond the current competitive segment. (Also known
as a Renewal or Type 2.)
||An application for a Research Project Grant requiring competitive
peer review. Also, a number of obligations which serve as an input for
determining success rates.
||A contracting term denoting a group of proposals considered acceptable
by the initial peer review group which are potential candidates for
||The initial project period recommended for support (in general, up
to 5 years) or each extension of a project period resulting from a competing
of Information on Scientific Projects (CRISP)
||A searchable biomedical database of federally-supported proposed research
conducted at universities, hospitals, and other research institutions.
Go to CRISP.
||The earliest planning stage of an initiative [request for applications
(RFA), request for proposals (RFP), or program announcement (PA)]. Concepts
are brought before the Advisory Council for concept clearance. Not all
concepts cleared by Council are published as initiatives depending on
the availability of funds.
|Conflict of Interest
||Regulations to ensure Government employees, scientific review group
members, Council members, or others having the ability to influence
funding decisions have no personal interest in the outcome.
||A territorial division of a state from which a member of the United
States House of Representatives is elected.
||A formalized agreement whereby a research project is carried out by
the grantee and one or more other organizations that are separate legal
entities. Under the agreement, the grantee must perform a substantive
role in the conduct of the planned research and not merely serve as
a conduit of funds to another party or parties. Go to Consortium
||Dollar amounts adjusted for inflation, based on buying power in a
selected base year. The BRDPI is used to determine constant dollars
from current dollars.
||An individual providing professional advice or services on the basis
of a written agreement for a fee. These individuals are not normally
employees of the organization receiving the services. Consultants also
include firms providing professional advice or services. Go to Allowability
of Costs/Activities—Selected Items of Cost—Consultant Services.
|Consumer Price Index
||Measurement of changes in prices of a broad range of consumer items.
||An award instrument establishing a binding legal procurement relationship
between NIH and a recipient obligating the latter to furnish a product
or service defined in detail by NIH and binding the Institute to pay
for it. Go to Office of Acquisition Management and Policy (OAMP) Web site for information on contracts and contract opportunities.
||Continuation of an incrementally (typically, in one year increments)
||Task orders and subsequent modifications relating to existing
||Exercise of option
|Contract Under a Grant
||A written agreement between a grantee and a third party to acquire
routine goods and services. Go to Office of Acquisition Management and Policy (OAMP) Web site for information on contracts and contract opportunities.
||Government employee authorized to execute contractual agreements on
behalf of the Government.
||A support mechanism used when there will be substantial Federal scientific
or programmatic involvement. Substantial involvement means that, after
award, scientific or program staff will assist, guide, coordinate, or
participate in project activities.
and Development Agreement (CRADA)
||Any agreement between one or more NIH laboratories and one or more
non-Federal parties under which the PHS, through its laboratories, provides
personnel, services, facilities, equipment, or other resources with
or without reimbursement (but not funds to non-Federal parties) and
the non-Federal parties provide funds, personnel, services, facilities,
equipment, or other resources toward the conduct of specified research
or development efforts which are consistent with the missions of the
||Any amount charged in excess of the Federal share of costs for the
project period (competitive segment).
||See Matching or Cost Sharing.
||National Advisory Council or Board, mandated by statute, providing
the second level of review for grant applications for each Institute/Center
awarding grants. The Councils/Boards are comprised of both scientific
and lay representatives. Council/Board recommendations are based on
scientific merit (as judged by the initial review groups) and the relevance
of the proposed study to an institute's programs and priorities. With
some exceptions, grants cannot be awarded without recommendations for
approval by a Council/Board.
||At the NIH, there are at least three, and sometimes four, council
rounds each fiscal year: October, January, May, and sometimes August.
Application receipt dates, initial review dates, and council review
dates all fall within one of these council rounds. Incoming grant applications
all are assigned to a council round.
||Unless noted, the total number of grants shown, excluding administrative
||See Consumer Price Index.
||See Cooperative Research and Development agreement.
||See Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific
||An overall evaluation of a grant application prepared by a reviewer
before an initial peer review meeting and presented to a Scientific
Review Group at the meeting.
||See Center for Scientific Review.
||Actual dollars awarded, without adjustment for inflation.
- D -
|Data Universal Numbering
||The DUNS number is a unique nine-digit number assigned by Dun and
Bradstreet Information Services. It is recognized as the universal standard
for identifying and keeping track of more than 92 million businesses
worldwide. Grants.gov requires a DUNS number for registration. For applicants,
the DUNS number in the application must match the DUNS number in the
Institutional Profile in Commons.
||Refers to the delay in the review of an application by a scientific
review group, usually to the next review cycle, due to insufficient
|Department of Health
and Human Services (HHS)
Federal Executive Department of which the U.S. Public Health Service
(PHS) is a component and the NIH is an agency of the PHS. Go to HHS.
||Costs that can be specifically identified with a particular project
||Funds for salary and other administrative costs.
||An application with a portion (or subproject)
funded as a separate grant.
||A public (including a State or other Governmental Agency) or private
non-profit or for-profit organization located in the United States or
its territories which is subject to U.S. laws and assumes legal and
financial accountability for awarded funds and for the performance of
the grant-supported activities.
|Division of Extramural Activities
support activities for grants management, program and peer review activities.
Before the advent of DEAS, these activities were carried out by extramural
staff located at individual Institutes and Centers.
||Applications simultaneously assigned to two Institutes, Centers,
or Divisions. The primary Institute has complete responsibility for
administering and funding the application; the secondary assumes this
responsibility only if the primary is unable or unwilling to support
|Dual Review System
||Peer review process used by NIH. The first level of review provides
a judgment of scientific merit. The second level of review (usually
conducted by an ICD's advisory Council) assesses the quality of the
first review, sets program priorities, and makes funding recommendations.
||See Data Universal Numbering System.
- E -
|Early Stage Investigator (ESI)
||A New Investigator within 10 years of completing his/her terminal research degree or medical residency. A traditional NIH research grant (R01) application from an ESI will be identified and the career stage of the applicant will be considered at the time of review and award.
||A requirement by Congress that a Federal Agency spend a specified
amount of money for a stated purpose (e.g. to establish a centers
program or conduct a clinical trial).
||NIH's electronic invention reporting system. Go to iEdison.
||See Employer Identification Number.
|Electronic Research Administration
||The NIH's infrastructure for conducting interactive electronic transactions
for the receipt, review, monitoring, and administration of NIH grant
awards to biomedical and behavioral investigators worldwide. Registration
is required. Go to eRA.
||Identification of a business to the U.S. Internal Revenue Service;
also known as a Federal tax identification number. Entered on the SF
424 form of a grant application.
||Provides race and ethnicity data for the cumulative number of human
subjects enrolled in an NIH-funded clinical research study since the
protocol began. This data is provided in competing continuation applications
and annual progress reports.
||An article of tangible nonexpendable personal property that has a
useful life of more than 1 year and an acquisition cost per unit that
equals or exceeds $5,000 or the capitalization threshold established
by the organization, whichever is less.
||A secure meeting place on the Web where research organizations
and grantees electronically receive and transmit information about
the administration of biomedical and behavioral research grants. Registration
At this site:
Go to eRA Commons.
- Applicants access the status of their applications.
- Grantees access the status of their awards, submit reports and
make requests electronically.
||Any condition causing an electronically-submitted application
to be deemed unacceptable for further consideration. Generally, errors
will indicate significant inaccuracies, inconsistencies, omissions or
incorrect formatting. The error needs to be corrected by the applicant
and the application submitted again as a changed/corrected application
Non-competing Award Process (eSNAP)
||Process allowing an institution to review non-competing grant data
and submit a progress report online.
||Operating authorities provided to grantees that waive the requirement
for NIH prior approval for specified actions. Go to Administrative
Requirements—Changes in Project and Budget—Expanded Authorities.
||The date signifying the end of the current budget period, after which
the grantee is not authorized to obligate grant funds regardless of
the ending date of the project period or "completion date."
||Funds provided by the NIH to researchers and organizations outside
||Research supported by NIH through a grant, contract, or cooperative
||A staff member who assists scientific review administrators (SRAs)
in peer-review related work. Formerly called Grants Technical Assistant.
- F -
|Facilities and Administrative
||Costs that are incurred by a grantee for common or joint objectives
and cannot be identified specifically with a particular project or program.
These costs are also known as "indirect costs."
|Federal Acquisition Regulations
||Laws regulating government contracting. Go to FAR.
|Federal Advisory Committee
||A law regulating Federal advisory committees to ensure an appropriate
balance of scientists and lay persons and minority, geographical, and
||A cooperative initiative among some Federal Agencies (including NIH)
and select organizations receiving Federal funding for research and
certain professional organizations. Its efforts include a variety of
demonstration projects intended to simplify and standardize Federal
requirements in order to increase research productivity and reduce administrative
||A Cabinet-level Department or independent Agency of the Executive
Branch of the Federal Government or any component organization of such
a Department or Agency.
||An official, daily publication communicating proposed and final regulations
and legal notices issued by federal agencies, including announcements
of the availability of funds for financial assistance. Go to Federal
Transfer Act (FTTA)
||Authorizes Government Agencies to enter into CRADAs with private companies.
||Online form every institution and collaborating institution conducting
human subjects research must file with the Office
for Human Research Protections--HHS to establish policies and procedures
to protect human subjects as required by 45
||An amount (in addition to actual, allowable costs) paid to an organization
providing goods or services consistent with normal commercial practice.
This payment also is referred to as “profit.” Go to Grants
to For-Profit Organizations—Small Business Innovation Research and Small
Business Technology Transfer Programs—Allowable Costs and Fee—Profit
||An NIH training program award where the NIH specifies the individual
receiving the award. Fellowships comprise the F activity codes.
|Final Peer-reviewed Manuscript
||The author’s final manuscript of a peer-reviewed article accepted for journal publication, including all modifications from the peer review process.
|Final Proposal Revision
||After completion of negotiations, offerors are asked to submit a final
proposal revision which documents all cost and technical agreements
reached during negotiations.
|Final Published Article
||The journal’s authoritative copy of the article, including all modifications from the publishing peer review process, copyediting and stylistic edits, and formatting changes.
||Transfer by NIH of money or property to an eligible entity to support
or stimulate a public purpose authorized by statute.
||A policy to establish consistency in funding which specifies levels
for items such as the payline, programmatic reductions, and caps for
|Financial Status Report
||A financial report due 90 days after the end of each budget period
for those awards not under SNAP, and at the end of the competitive segment
for those awards under SNAP, showing the status of awarded funds for
that period. The report is mandatory for continued funding of the grant.
The form numbers for FSRs are SR 269 and SF 269A.
|Fiscal Year (FY)
||The annual period established for Government accounting purposes.
A Fiscal Year begins on October 1 and ends September 30 of the following
year. Example: FY2007 – Started October 1, 2006 and ends September 30,
||The performance of any significant scientific element or segment of
a project outside of the United States, either by the grantee or by
a researcher employed by a foreign organization, whether or not grant
funds are expended. Activities meeting this definition include, but
are not limited to, (1) the involvement of human subjects or animals,
(2) extensive foreign travel by grantee project staff for the purpose
of data collection, surveying, sampling, and similar activities, or
(3) any activity of the grantee having an impact on U.S. foreign policy
through involvement in the affairs or environment of a foreign country.
Foreign travel for consultation is not considered a foreign component.
Go to Grants
to Foreign Institutions, International Organizations, and Domestic Grants
with Foreign Components.
||An organization located in a country other than the United States
and its territories that is subject to the laws of that country, regardless
of the citizenship of the proposed PI.
||An organization, institution, corporation, or other legal entity that
is organized or operated for the profit or financial benefit of its
shareholders or other owners. Such organizations also are referred to
as "commercial organizations."
|Freedom of Information
||Requires dissemination, upon request, of Government documents while ensuring protection of proprietary and other privacy act information. Go to FOIA.
|Financial Status Report
||In the NIH Commons,
allows members of your staff to process Financial Status Reports (FSRs)
for submission to the NIH electronically. An account with only the FSR
Role assigned can perform FSR tasks. An account can include multiple
roles, including that of FSR.
||The number of days per week and/or months per year representing full-time
effort at the applicant/grantee organization, as specified in organizational
policy. The organization's policy must be applied consistently regardless
of the source of support.
For components of the funding organizations, go to IMPAC
Activity Codes, Organization Codes, and Definitions Used in Extramural
Programs (Table 1).
||A publicly available document by which a Federal Agency makes known
its intentions to award discretionary grants or cooperative agreements,
usually as a result of competition for funds. Funding opportunity announcements
may be known as program announcements, requests for applications, notices
of funding availability, solicitations, or other names depending on
the Agency and type of program. Funding opportunity announcements can
be found at Grants.gov/FIND and
in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts.
- G -
||See General Accounting Office.
||Human subject term indicating a classification of research subjects
into women and men.
||An oversight organization reporting to Congress. Go to GAO.
|Government Printing Office
||Produces and distributes Federal Government information products.
Go to GPO.
||See Government Printing Office.
||Financial assistance mechanism providing money, property, or both
to an eligible entity to carry out an approved project or activity.
A grant is used whenever the NIH Institute or Center anticipates no
substantial programmatic involvement with the recipient during performance
of the financially assisted activities.
||A DHHS policy providing for an appeal by the grantee institution of
post award administrative decisions made by awarding offices. The two
levels of appeal are an informal NIH procedure and a formal DHHS procedure.
The grantee must first exhaust the informal procedures before appealing
to the DHHS Appeals Board.
||A procedure to officially conclude a grant. Institute staff must assure
that necessary scientific, administrative, and financial reports have
been received, implemented and documented in compliance with Federal
records management policy. This includes the Final Financial Status
Report (FSR), Final Invention Report, and Final Progress Report.
|Grant Compliance Review
||An evaluation by grants management staff to assess an institution's
business and financial management systems to ensure that regulations
and policies are being followed.
|Grant Project Period
||Total period a project has been recommended for support which may
include more than one competitive segment. For example, a project period
for a grant begun in 1990 can be divided into competitive segments 1990
to 1994, 1994 to 1998, etc.
||With the advent of modular grants, grantees no longer have to request
permission from NIH for re-budgeting (formerly moving money from one
budget category to another). For non-modular grants, permission is still
needed for some items.
|Grant Start Date
||Official date a grant award begins; same as the first day of the first
||See Application Types.
||The organization or individual awarded a grant or cooperative agreement
by NIH that is responsible and accountable for the use of the funds
provided and for the performance of the grant-supported project or activities.
The grantee is the entire legal entity even if a particular component
is designated in the award document. The grantee is legally responsible
and accountable to NIH for the performance and financial aspects of
the grant-supported project or activity.
|Grants Management Officer
||An NIH official responsible for the business management aspects of
grants and cooperative agreements, including review, negotiation, award,
and administration, and for the interpretation of grants administration
policies and provisions. Only GMOs are authorized to obligate NIH to
the expenditure of funds and permit changes to approved projects on
behalf of NIH. Each NIH Institute and Center awarding grants has one
or more GMOs with responsibility for particular programs or awards.
|Grants Management Specialist (GMS)
||A NIH staff member who oversees the business and other non-programmatic
aspects of one or more grants and/or cooperative agreements. These activities
include, but are not limited to, evaluating grant applications for administrative
content and compliance with statutes, regulations, and guidelines; negotiating
grants; providing consultation and technical assistance to grantees;
and administering grants after award.
||Go to Grants Process At-A Glance.
||An access point through which any person, business,
or State, local, or Tribal government may electronically find and
apply for more than 1,000 competitive grant opportunities from the
26 Federal grant-making Agencies.
The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is the managing
partner for the Federal Grants.gov initiative, one of 24 initiatives
of the overall E-Government program for improving access to Government
services via the Internet. Registration is required to apply. Go to Grants.gov.
||Those programmatic activities specified or described in a grant application
or in a subsequent submission(s) approved by an NIH Institute or Center
for funding, regardless of whether Federal funding constitutes all or
only a portion of the financial support necessary to carry them out.
||See Alien Registration Receipt Card.
- H -
||See Historically Black College or University.
|Health Insurance Portability
and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
||Law from 1996 that amends the Internal Revenue Code to improve portability
of health insurance coverage, promote medical savings accounts, improve
access to long-term care services and coverage, and simplify administration
of health insurance. Go to HIPAA.
||See Department of Health and Human Services.
|High Risk/High Impact
||A category of applications identified by a scientific review group
as having a high degree of uncertainty in approach but also a high potential
for impact. NIH tracks how many of these applications are identified
|Historically Black College
||Any historically black college or university established prior to
1964 whose principal mission was and is the education of black Americans,
and is accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting Agency or Association
determined by the Secretary [of Education] to be a reliable authority
as to the quality of training offered or is, according to such an Agency
or Association, making reasonable progress toward accreditation.
||A non-profit or for-profit hospital or medical care provider component
of a non-profit organization (for example, a foundation). The term includes
all types of medical, psychiatric and dental facilities, such as clinics,
infirmaries, and sanatoria.
||A living individual about whom an investigator (whether professional
or student) conducting research obtains data through intervention or
interaction with the individual or obtains identifiable private information.
Regulations governing the use of human subjects in research extend to
use of human organs, tissues, and body fluids from identifiable individuals
as human subjects and to graphic, written, or recorded information derived
from such individuals. Go to Requirements
Affecting the Rights and Welfare of Individuals as Research Subjects,
Patients, or Recipients of Services—Human Subjects.
|Human Subjects Assurance
||A document filed by an institution conducting research on human subjects
with the Office for Human Research
Protections--HHS which formalizes its commitment to protect the
human subjects prior to receiving any HHS grant funding.
- I -
||See Institutional Animal Care & Use Committee.
||See Internet Assisted Review.
||See Institutional Development Awards.
Information linking specimens or data to individually identifiable
living people or their medical information. Examples include names,
social security numbers, medical record numbers, and pathology accession
||See Information for Management, Planning, Analysis,
||See Facilities and Administrative Costs (F&A).
|Individual Ruth L. Kirschstein
||See Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award
|Information for Management,
Planning, Analysis, and Coordination (IMPAC)
IMPAC is a computer database system developed and maintained by the
Office of Extramural Research for information concerning PHS extramural
For definitions of each item in IMPAC, go to IMPAC Activity Codes, Organization Codes, and Definitions Used in Extramural Programs.
||Person's voluntary agreement, based upon adequate knowledge and
understanding, to participate in human subjects research or undergo
a medical procedure.
In giving informed consent, people may not waive legal rights or
release or appear to release an investigator or sponsor from liability
for negligence. Go to 21
CFR 50.20 and 50.25
|Initial Peer Review
||Significance - Is the topic important? Will it advance Scientific
Approach - Are the hypothesis, design, and methods well developed and
appropriate? Are potential problems addressed?
Innovation - Does the proposal involve new ideas or methods; does it
challenge existing paradigms?
Investigator - Does the investigator and collaborators have the training
and experience to do the work?
Environment - Will the scientific environment contribute to success?
Is there institutional support for the project? Does the work take advantage
of existing opportunities including collaborations?
|Initial Review Group
||See Scientific Review Group.
||A request for applications (RFA), request for proposals (RFP), or
program announcement (PA) stating the Institute or Center's interest
in receiving research applications in a given area because of a programmatic
need or scientific opportunity. RFAs and RFPs generally have monies
set aside to fund the applications responding to them; program announcements
generally do not.
||The NIH organizational component responsible for a particular grant program or set of activities.
Go to IMPAC Activity Codes, Organization Codes, and Definitions Used in Extramural Programs (Table 1)
||Public or Private entity, including Government Agencies.
Care & Use Committee (IACUC)
||Established at institutions in accordance with the PHS
Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals with broad, and have broad
responsibilities to oversee and evaluate the institutions' animal programs,
procedures, and facilities. IACUC review and approval is required for
all PHS supported activities involving live vertebrate animals prior
||The annual compensation paid by an applicant/grantee organization
for an employee's appointment whether that individual's time is spent
on research, teaching, patient care, or other activities. The base salary
excludes any income that an individual is permitted to earn outside
of duties for the applicant/grantee organization. Base salary may not
be increased as a result of replacing organizational salary funds with
NIH grant funds. Go to Allowability
of Costs/Activities—Selected Items of Cost—Salaries and
|| Person working in a research organization's business office who has signature or other authority. That person is the same as Grants.gov's Authorized Organizational Representative (AOR) and the Commons' Signing Official (SO).
||Institutional Development Awards (IDeA) enhance biomedical and behavioral
research in specific geographic areas. The Division of Research Infrastructure
of the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) provides IDeA grants
to foster research within states that traditionally have not received
significant levels of competitive funding from the National Institutes
of Health (NIH).
||IRBs are set up by research institutions to ensure the protection
of rights and welfare of human research subjects participating in research
conducted under their auspices. IRBs make an independent determination
to approve, require modifications in, or disapprove research protocols
based on whether human subjects are adequately protected, as required
by federal regulations and local institutional policy.
L. Kirschstein NRSA
||See Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service
Project Grant (IRPG)
||An award made to two or more investigators funded independently as
R01 grantees but brought together as a collaborative group receiving
additional support for collaborative work, shared resources, or the
exchange of ideas.
||Formal agreement among government agencies to collaborate on and fund
research; Y series activity code.
|Integrated Review Group (IRG)
||A cluster of study sections responsible for the review of grant applications
in scientifically related areas. These study sections share common intellectual
and human resources.
||An organization that identifies itself as international or intergovernmental,
and has membership from, and represents the interests of, more than
one country, without regard to whether the headquarters of the organization
and location of the activity are inside or outside of the United States.
|Internet Assisted Review (IAR)
||Allows reviewer to submit critiques and preliminary scores for applications
they are reviewing. Allows Reviewers, SRAs, and GTAs to view all critiques
in preparation for a meeting. IAR creates a preliminary summary statement
body containing submitted critiques for the SRA or GTA.
||Research conducted by, or in support of, employees of the NIH.
||Status given by the FDA to a new drug or biological product to be
used in a clinical investigation.
||Under regulation 21 CFR 312, application filed by a drug sponsor with
FDA on Form FDA 1571 to conduct clinical trials, including detailed
descriptions of all phases, protocols, IRB members, and investigators.
Once clinical evaluation is completed, a new drug application must be
submitted to FDA to obtain approval to market the drug.
||Research funded as a result of an investigator, on his or her own,
submitting a research application. Also known as unsolicited research.
Unsolicited applications are reviewed by chartered CSR review committees.
Its opposite is targeted research. See Targeted
- J -
||Within the Status module of the eRA Commons, users will find a feature
to submit Just-In-Time information when requested by the NIH. NIH policy
allows the submission of certain elements of a competing application
to be deferred. Through this module, institutions can electronically
submit the information that is requested after the review, but before
- K -
||The PI and other individuals who contribute to the scientific development
or execution of a project in a substantive, measurable way, whether
or not they receive salaries or compensation under the grant. Typically
these individuals have doctoral or other professional degrees, although
individuals at the masters or baccalaureate level may be considered
key personnel if their involvement meets this definition. Consultants
also may be considered key personnel if they meet this definition. “Zero
percent” effort or “as needed” is not an acceptable
level of involvement for key personnel.
- M -
|Matching or Cost Sharing
||The value of third party in-kind contributions and the portion of
the costs of a federally assisted project of program not borne by the
Federal Government. Matching or cost sharing may be required by law,
regulation, or administrative decision of an NIH Institute or Center.
Costs used to satisfy matching or cost sharing requirements are subject
to the same policies governing allowability as other costs under the
|Material Transfer Agreement (MTA)
||A legal document defining the conditions under which research or other
materials can be transferred and used among research laboratories.
||See Minority Biomedical Research Support.
||See Activity Code.
|Medical Scientist Training
Scientist Training Program (MSTP) supports the integrated medical
(or equivalent professional clinical) degree and graduate research
training required for the investigation of human diseases. MSTP assures
highly selected trainees a choice of a wide range of pertinent graduate
programs in the biological, chemical, and physical sciences which,
when combined with training in medicine, lead to the M.D.-Ph.D. degree.
||National Library of Medicine's database for scientific publications.
Go to Medline.
|Minority Access to Research
||A program to provide special research training opportunities in the
biomedical sciences for students and faculty at 4-year colleges and
health professional schools in which substantial student enrollments
are from minority groups.
|Minority Biomedical Research
||A program to strengthen the biomedical research and research training
capability of ethnic minority institutions. The intent is to increase
the involvement of minority faculty and students in biomedical research.
||Human subject term indicating a subset of the U.S. population distinguished
by racial, ethnic, or cultural heritage.
Categories are: American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian, black or
African American, Hispanic or Latino, and Native Hawaiian and other
Inclusion of a group should be determined by the scientific questions
under examination and their relevance. Not every study will include
all minority groups or subpopulations.
||Animal, plant, or other organism used to study basic biologic processes
to provide insight into other organisms. See Model
Go to NIH's Model Organism
for Biomedical Research
|Model Organism Sharing
||Policy stating a PI applicant must submit plans for sharing mammalian
and non-mammalian eukaryotic models to comply with the NIH
Policy on Sharing Model Organisms.
Go to NIH's Model Organism
for Biomedical Research
|Modified Summary Statement
||Former term for a summary statement containing reviewer critiques,
which is now standard practice. See Summary Statement.
||A type of grant application in which support is requested in specified
increments without the need for detailed supporting information related
to separate budget categories. When modular procedures apply,
they affect not only application preparation but also review, award,
and administration of the application/award. Go to Modular.
||A process whereby the programmatic and business management performance
aspects of a grant are reviewed by assessing information gathered from
various required reports, audits, site visits, and other sources.
||Individual research awards in which more than one Principal Investigator
(PI) is identified by the applicant or institution. Go to Multiple
- N -
|National Institutes of
||A Federal agency whose mission is to improve the health of the people
of the United States. NIH is a part of the Public Health Service, which
is part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Go to NIH
|National Research Service
||See Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service
|New Application (award,
||Refers to an application not previously proposed, or one that has
not received prior funding. Also known as a Type 1.
A new investigator is an individual who has not previously competed successfully for an NIH-supported research project other than the following small or early stage research awards:
- Pathway to Independence Award-Research Phase (R00)
- Small Grant (R03)
- Academic Research Enhancement Award (R15)
- Exploratory/Developmental Grant (R21)
- Clinical Trial Planning Grant (R34)
- Dissertation Award (R36)
- Small Business Technology Transfer Grant-Phase I (R41)
- Small Business Innovation Research Grant-Phase I (R43)
- Shannon Award (R55)
- NIH High Priority, Short-Term Project Award (R56)
Additionally, an individual is not excluded from consideration as a “New Investigator” if he/she has received an award from the following classes of awards:
- Training-Related and Mentored Career Awards
- Fellowships (F05, F30, F31, F32, F34, F37, F38)
- Mentored-career awards (K01, K08, K22, K23, K25, K99-R00)
- Other mentored career awards (developmental K02 as used by NINDS and the developmental K07)
- Loan repayment contracts (L30, L32, L40, L50, L60)
Note: Current or past recipients of non-mentored career awards that normally require independent research support (K02, K05, K24, and K26) are not considered new investigators.
Instrumentation, Construction, Education, or Meeting Awards
Also see Resources for New Investigators for more information.
- G07, G08, G11, G13, G20
- S10, S15
- X01, X02
- C06, UC6
- R13, U13
|NIH Commons Demo Facility
||Demo Facility allows you to try most of the capabilities of the NIH
eRA Commons in a sample environment.
|NIH Director’s Pioneer
||The NIH Director's Pioneer Award supports individual scientists of
exceptional creativity who propose pioneering approaches to major challenges
in biomedical and behavioral research. The term “pioneering” is
used to describe highly innovative – potentially transformative – approaches
having the potential to produce an unusually high impact, and the term “award” is
used to mean a grant for conducting research, rather than a reward for
past achievements. Biomedical and behavioral research is defined broadly
in this announcement as encompassing scientific investigations in the
biological, behavioral, clinical, social, physical, chemical, computational,
engineering, and mathematical sciences. Go to NIH
Director's Pioneer Award.
|NIH eRA Commons
||Systems enabling the electronic transmission of information between
NIH and the research community. See eRA
|NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts
||The official publication for NIH’s medical and behavioral research
grants policies, guidelines and funding opportunities. Go to Funding
Opportunities and Notices.
|NIH Manuscript Submission System (NIHMS)
||NIHMS is a system developed by NIH, and allows users to deposit and manage manuscripts. See http://www.nihms.nih.gov/.
||National Institutes of Health, Office of the Director
|NIHMS Reference Number (NIHMS ID)
||The reference number assigned to a final peer-reviewed manuscript when it is submitted to the NIHMS. It can be cited on applications, proposals or reports when the PMCID has not been assigned yet. See also “Citation ID”
|| Lower 50 percent of applications in the study section--no priority score is assigned to those applications.
users will find a feature to automatically extend grants eligible
for a one-time extension of the final budget period of a project period
without additional NIH funds through the eRA
Commons. The system will automatically change the end date
for the grant and notify the appropriate NIH staff.
||A year of continued support for a funded grant. Progress reports for
continued support do not undergo peer review but are administratively
reviewed by the Institute/Center and receive an award based on prior
award commitments. Also known as a Type 5.
||An ongoing grant whose award is contingent on the completion of a
progress report as the condition for the release of money for the following
|Notice of Award (NoA)
||The legally binding document
- notifying the grantee and others that
an award has been made
- contains or references all terms and conditions
of the award
- documenting the obligation of Federal funds
may be in letter format and may be issued electronically. Previously
known as Notice of Grant Award (NGA).
Previously known as Notice of Grant Award (NGA).
|Not Recommended for Further Consideration (NRFC)
||A judgment made by a scientific review group for applications when
the merit of the proposed research is not significant and substantial
enough to warrant a further review. The study section does not recommend
funding; the application cannot be funded by an Institute.
- O -
||Data based on NIH funds that have been awarded by an NIH Institute/Center.
||A contracting term denoting an applicant responding to a Request for
|Office of Extramural Research (OER)
||NIH office overseeing policies and guidelines for extramural research
grants. Go to OER.
|Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP)
||HHS office overseeing human subject protection for HHS-supported
research. Go to OHRP.
|Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare
||NIH office overseeing
compliance with the PHS
Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Go
to OLAW and PHS
|Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
||Executive Branch office assisting
the U.S. president in preparing the Federal budget, evaluating agency
programs and policies, and setting funding priorities. In setting
policy, OMB issues Government-wide policy directives, called circulars
that apply to grants.
|Office of Research Integrity (ORI)
||HHS office promoting integrity in biomedical and behavioral research
supported by the Public Health Service by monitoring institutional investigations
of scientific misconduct and facilitating the responsible conduct of
research. Go to ORI.
||Paper applications using “standard” submission dates
are on time if postmarked on or before the submission date.
applications are on time if successfully submitted to Grants.gov by
5 p.m. local time on the date indicated.
Go to NIH Policy
on Late Submission of Grant Applications.
- For both paper and
electronic submissions, when these dates fall on a weekend or holiday,
they are extended to the next business day.
- Requests for Applications
(RFAs) and Program Announcements with Special Referral Considerations
(PARs) with special receipt dates always must be received (by Grants.gov
for electronic applications and the Center for Scientific Review
for paper applications) on the dates designated in the announcement
to be on time.
||A generic term used to refer to an educational institution or other
entity, including an individual, which applies for or receives an NIH
grant or cooperative agreement.
A two-letter code in the grant number identifying the first major-level subdivision of the funding organization.
3 R01 CA 12921(9) -04 S1A1
In the example above, "CA" refers to the National Cancer Institute. For certain activities, DHHS organizations having Bureau status may use a Division-level code. An interagency agreement awarded by NCI, for instance, may be coded 1Y01CM00999-00, where CM refers to NCI's Division of Cancer Treatment. Organizational codes are translated in Table 1 of the IMPAC Activity Codes, Organization Codes, and Definitions Used in Extramural Programs .
Also referred to as an I/C Code or Admin PHS Org Code.
|Other Research Grants
||Research grants not classified as research projects or research centers.
||Includes all financial resources, whether Federal, non-Federal, commercial
or organizational, available in direct support of an individual’s
research endeavors, including, but not limited to, research grants,
cooperative agreements, contracts, or organizational awards. Other support
does not include training awards, prizes, or gifts.
|Overlap of Support
||Other support duplicating research or budgetary items already funded
by an NIH grant. Overlap also occurs when any project-supported personnel
has time commitments exceeding 12 person months. See Scientific
- P -
| Program Announcement Reviewed in an Institute ( PAR)
||Program Announcement with special receipt, referral and/or review
opportunity announcement enabling applicants to submit an
electronic investigator-initiated grant application for
a single grant mechanism, e.g., Research
Project Grant (Parent R01). Go to Parent
Announcements for Unsolicited or Investigator-Initiated Applications.
|Program Announcement with Set-Aside Funds ( PAS )
||Program Announcement with set-aside funds
||Document issued by the U.S. Patent
and Trademark Office containing
a description, specification, and claims that describe the subject matter
in detail and giving its owner a right to exclude others from making,
using, or selling it.
Only the inventor can obtain a patent; however,
employers often require employees to hand over patent rights.
||Time and effort fellows and T32 trainees
must repay the Government. During the first year, trainees owe one
month of payback for every month of support; then they start paying
back one month for every month worked.
||A percentile-based funding cutoff point determined at the beginning
of the fiscal year by balancing the projected number of applications
coming to an NIH Institute with the amount of funds available.
|Payment Management System (PMS)
||Automated system for
the delivery and tracking of funds which the HHS Division of Payment
Management (DPM) operated. Grant payments to non-Federal grantee institutions
are made available through PMS.
||See Presidential Early Career
Award for Scientists and Engineers.
||A system for evaluating research applications using reviewers who
are the professional equals of the applicant. See Dual
|Peer Review Criteria
||See Initial Peer Review Criteria.
||Represents the relative position or rank of each priority score (along
a 100.0 percentile band) among the scores assigned by a particular study
||Measurement of a person's effort in academic, summer, or calendar
months a year. Used on NIH applications and other forms instead of percent
effort. Go to Frequently
Asked Questions Regarding the Usage of Person Months.
|Phase III Clinical Trial
||As defined by NIH, a broadly based prospective Phase III clinical
investigation (usually involving several hundred or more human subjects)
to evaluate an experimental intervention in comparison with a standard
or control intervention or to compare two or more existing treatments.
The definition includes pharmacologic, non-pharmacologic, and behavioral
interventions given for disease prevention, prophylaxis, diagnosis,
or therapy. Community trials and other population-based intervention
trials also are included. Go to Clinical
||See Public Health Service
|PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals
||Term and condition of all PHS awards
involving live, vertebrate animals.
||An individual who has received a doctoral degree (or equivalent) and is engaged in a temporary and defined period of mentored advanced training to enhance the professional skills and research independence needed to pursue his or her chosen career path. (See the NIH-NSF Definition of a Postdoctoral Scholar. (PDF - 85 KB))
||A statement in summary form of the intent of the applicant to request
funds. It is used to determine the applicant's eligibility and how well
the project can compete with other applications and eliminate proposals
for which there is little or no chance for funding.
||The annual budget request submitted to Congress by the U.S. President.
The process begins with a budget request from the IC, which, as part
of the entire NIH budget request, is modified by the Office of Management
|Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE)
||The Presidential Award is the highest honor bestowed by the U.S. Government
on outstanding scientists and engineers beginning their independent
careers. Go to PECASE.
|Principal Investigator (PI)
||An individual designated by the grantee to direct the project or activity
being supported by the grant. He or she is responsible and accountable
to the grantee and NIH for the proper conduct of the project or activity.
Also known as Program Director or Project Director.
from the designated Grants Management Officer (GMO) required for
specified post award changes in the approved project or budget. Such
approval must be obtained before undertaking the proposed activity
or spending NIH funds. Go
Requirements—Changes in Project and Budget—Prior-Approval
||A numerical rating of an application reflecting the scientific merit
of the proposed research relative to stated evaluation criteria.
||A law protecting against needless collection or release of personal
data. Records maintained by NIH with respect to grant applications,
grant awards, and the administration of grants are subject to the provisions
of the Privacy Act.
||The acquisition of property or services for the direct benefit or
use of the Government, generally via a contract.
||A coherent assembly of plans, project activities, and supporting
resources contained within an administrative framework, the purpose
of which is to implement an organization’s mission or some specific
program-related aspect of that mission. For the NIHGPS, “program” refers
to those NIH programs carrying out their missions through the award
of grants or cooperative agreements to other organizations.
|Program Announcement (PA)
||An announcement by an NIH Institute or Center requesting applications
in the stated scientific areas. Program Announcements (PA) are published
in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts. Go to Program
||The need to balance an Institute's support of research in all its
programmatic areas with its high-quality applications eligible for funding.
|Program Classification Code (PCC)
|| An internal code unique for each I/C indicating the I/C's scientific interest and used to identify internal programs, branch classifications, the science or disease area, and sometimes program officials.
||Gross income earned
by a grantee directly generated by the grant-supported project or
activity or earned as a result of the award. Go to Administrative
Requirements—Management Systems and Procedures—Program
|Program Official (PO)
||The NIH official responsible for the programmatic, scientific, and/or
technical aspects of a grant.
||The dollar amount a grant award is reduced from the amount recommended
by the study section (scientific review group). This is done so Institutes
can maintain a sufficient number of grants in their portfolio and to
combat inflation of grant costs.
||Commonly referred to as the application number or grant number, depending
upon its processing status. This unique identification number for the
grant is composed of the type code, activity code, Institute code, serial
number, support year, and/or suffix code.
||Periodic, usually annual, report submitted by the grantee and used
by NIH to assess progress and, except for the final progress report
of a project period, to determine whether to provide funding for the
budget period subsequent to that covered by the report.
||An Institute staff member who coordinates the substantive aspects
of a contract from planning the request for proposal to oversight.
|| The total time for which support of a project has been programmatically approved. The total project period comprises the initial competitive segment, any subsequent competitive segment(s) resulting from a competing continuation award(s), and non-competing extensions.
||Formal description and design for a specific research project. A protocol
involving human subject research must be reviewed and approved by an
Institutional Review Board (IRB) if the research is not exempt, and
by an IRB or other designated institutional process for exempt research.
|Public Access Policy
||The NIH policy designed to ensure that the public has access to the published results of NIH-funded research. See http://publicaccess.nih.gov/
|Public Health Service (PHS)
in the U.S. Federal Government consisting of eight HHS health
Agencies, the Office of Public Health and Science, and the Commissioned
Corps (a uniformed service of more than 6,000 health professionals). The
NIH is the largest Agency within the PHS. Go to Office
of Public Health and Science, HHS.
||PubMed provides access to citations from biomedical literature. It includes over 17 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals for biomedical articles back to the 1950s, along with links to full text articles and other scientific resources. These citations are indexed with a PMID, a series of numbers.
|PubMed Central (PMC)
||PubMed Central (PMC) is the NIH digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed journal papers. These papers are indexed with a PMCID, a series of numbers preceded by ‘PMC’. PMC content is publicly accessible and integrated with other databases. See: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/.
PubMed Central Reference Number (PMCID)
|The reference number assigned to an article or manuscript archived in PubMed Central. The PMCID is the number that must be cited on applications, proposals or reports as part of compliance with the Public Access Policy. See also “Citation ID.”
|PubMed ID Number (PMID)
||The unique number assigned to a PubMed citation for an article published in a journal. This number does NOT indicate compliance with the Public Access Policy.
- R -
||See Initial Peer Review Criteria.
||Land, including land improvements, structures, and appurtenances,
but not movable machinery and equipment.
||Procedure for contesting the peer review of a grant application.
Synonymous with appeal.
|Receipt, Referral, and Assignment of Applications
||Routing of applications arriving at NIH. The referral section
of CSR is the central receipt point for competing applications. CSR
referral officers assign each application to an Institute and refer
it to a scientific review group, notifying applicants of these assignments
by mail. Alternatively, NIH encourages applicants to self assign.
||Organizational entity or individual receiving a grant or cooperative
agreement. See Grantee.
|| D esignation given by a study section advising funding of an application. The application gets a priority score and summary statement. Roughly the top half of applications being reviewed are recommended for funding.
|Recommended Levels of Future Support
||Funding level recommended for each future year approved by the scientific
review group, subject to availability of funds and scientific progress.
||Grant whose term (e.g., four years) is over and for which the applicant
is again seeking NIH support.
Also known as type 2, competing continuation
application, and renewal.
||See Competing Continuation and Application
|Request for Application (RFA)
||The official statement inviting grant or cooperative agreement applications
to accomplish a specific program purpose. RFAs indicate the amount of
funds set aside for the competition and generally identify a single
application receipt date.
|Request for Proposals (RFP)
||Announces that NIH would like to award a contract to meet a specific
need, such as the development of an animal model. RFPs have a single
application receipt date and are published in the NIH Guide for Grants
||A systematic, intensive study intended to increase knowledge or understanding
of the subject studied, a systematic study specifically directed toward
applying new knowledge to meet a recognized need, or a systematic application
of knowledge to the production of useful materials, devices, and systems
or methods, including design, development, and improvement of prototypes
and new processes to meet specific requirements. Also termed “research
|Research Career Awards (RCA)
||See Career Development Awards.
|Research and Development (R& D) Contract
||A funding mechanism by which the NIH procures specific services. These
are negotiated contracts which may be funded from intramural or extramural
accounts. Excluded are inter/intra-Agency agreements (Y01 and Y02),
resource and support contracts (N02), and station support contracts
|Research Facilities Improvement Program (RFIP)
||The National Center for Research Resources supports the Research
Facilities Improvement Program (RFIP). RFIP grants are provided to public and nonprofit
private biomedical institutions to expand, remodel, and renovate or
alter existing research and animal facilities or construct new research
and animal facilities. Improvements under this program must support
basic and/or clinical biomedical and behavioral research, and they may
also support research training.
| Research Grants
Extramural awards made for Other Research Grants, Research Centers , Research Projects, and SBIR/STTRs. Includes the following:
- R,P,M,S,K,U series (excluding UC6)
- DP1, DP2, D42, G12.
||Fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing,
or reporting research, or in reporting research results.
is making up data or results and recording or reporting them.
is manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or
changing or omitting data or results such that research is not accurately
represented in the research record.
- Plagiarism is the appropriation of another
person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate
credit. The term does not include honest error or honest differences
||The cohort of grants supported by a given NIH organization.
Includes the following selected Research Grant and Cooperative Agreement activities:
- R01, R03, R15, R21, R22, R23, R29, R33, R34, R35, R36, R37, R55, R56, RC1, P01, P42, PN1, U01, U19, UC1, NIGMS P41.
- In 1980 & 1981 activity code, U01 was not a research project
- From 1989 until 1992 activity code, R55 was not a research project
- In 1986 NINR did not have any research projects
- From 1984 until 1989 NCRR did not have any research projects
- FIC did not have any research projects until 1994
- From 1991 until 1996 NCRR did not consider R21's research projects
- NLM never had any research projects
- In FY 2002, P41s not RPG for NIGMS.
| Research Project Grant ( RPG )
|| Supports discrete, specified, circumscribed projects to be performed by named investigators in areas representing their specific interest and competencies. See Research Project s.
||Monies adding funds to an existing grant to support and promote
diversity, people with disabilities, and people returning to work
from family responsibilities.
||Special term and condition in a Notice of Award or article in a contract
that limits activities and expenditures for human subjects or animal
research. It may be lifted or adjusted after the award if the requirements
Grants.gov term for a grant application resubmitted to NIH after a PD/PI applicant who did not succeed in getting funded revises it based on feedback from the initial peer review. Previous NIH term was "revision." A resubmission has an entry in its application identification number, e.g., A1.
See Resubmission Policy.
||Refers to the Center for Scientific Review's thrice yearly initial
peer review cycle, from the receipt of applications to the date of the
review. See Standard Receipt Dates.
||Grants.gov term for money added to a grant to expand its scope
or meet needs of a research protocol. Applicants must apply and undergo
The NIH term has been "competing supplemental." NOTE:
The former NIH term, "revision," is now “resubmission” in
|Roadmap Initiative (RM)
applications which are responsive to the NIH Roadmap initiative. Go
to NIH Roadmap.
|Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Awards (NRSA)
||Awards to both individuals and institutions to provide research training in specified health-related areas. Go to Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award Research Training Grants and Fellowships .
- S -
||A legislatively-mandated provision limiting the direct salary (also known as salary or institutional base salary, but excluding any fringe benefits and F&A costs) for individuals working on NIH grants, cooperative agreement awards, and extramural research and development contracts. For current and historical salary cap levels, go to Salary Cap Summary.
||Overlap of support occurs when substantially similar research is proposed
in more than one concurrent PHS grant application.
|Scientific Review Officer (SRO)
||A Federal scientist who presides over a scientific review group and
is responsible for coordinating and reporting the review of each application
assigned to it. The SRO serves as an intermediary between the applicant
and reviewers and prepares summary statements for all applications reviewed.
|Scientific Review Group (SRG)
||The first level of a two-stage peer review system. These legislatively
mandated panels of subject matter experts are established according
to scientific discipline or medical specialty. Their primary function
is the review and rating of research grant applications for scientific
and technical merit. They make recommendations for the appropriate level
of support and duration of award. See also Dual Review
Also known as Study Section.
||In the peer review process, applications judged by a study section
to be competitive, i.e., generally in the upper half of the applications
reviewed. These applications are assigned a priority score and forwarded
to the appropriate Institute/Center for the second level of review.
||Biological agent or toxin listed in 42
CFR Part 73, 7 CFR Part 331 and 9
CFR Part 121, or the HHS
and USDA Select Agents and Toxins List.
Investigators who possess or use a select agent must register with and get approval
from either the CDC Select Agent Program or USDA APHIS Agricultural Select Agent Program, depending on the agent.
||The funding of a small number of programmatically important applications
at the margin of the payline as recommended by Council.
||Money taken out of the budget for a specific purpose, for example,
to fund a congressionally mandated program.
|Sharing Model Organisms
||See Model Organism Sharing.
||A threshold reached when expenditures in a single direct cost budget
category deviate (increase or decrease) from the categorical commitment
level established for the budget period by more than 25 percent of the
total costs awarded. Significant re-budgeting is one indicator of change
|Signing Official (SO)
||A Signing Official
(SO) has institutional authority to legally bind the institution in
grants administration matters. The individual fulfilling this role
may have any number of titles in the grantee organization. The label, "Signing
Official," is used in conjunction with the NIH
eRA Commons. The SO can register the institution, and create
and modify the institutional profile and user accounts. The SO also
can view all grants within the institution, including status and award
information. An SO can create additional SO accounts as well as accounts
with any other role or combination of roles. For most institutions,
the Signing Official (SO) is located in its Office of Sponsored Research
|Small Business Concern
||A business independently owned and operated and not dominant in its
field of operation; has its principal place of business in the United
States and is organized for profit; is at least 51 percent owned, or
in the case of a publicly owned business, at least 51 percent of its
voting stock is owned by U.S. citizens or lawfully admitted permanent
resident aliens; has, including its affiliates, not more than 500 employees;
and meets other regulatory requirements established by the Small Business
Administration at 13 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 121.
|Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)
A program designed to support small business concerns conducting innovative research/research & development with potential for commercialization. For the computation of success rates, SBIR
awards are not included in the count of RPGs. Go to Small
Business Funding Opportunities.
|Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR)
A program designed to support cooperative research/research & development with potential for commercialization, through a formal cooperative effort between a small business and a U.S. research institution. For
the computation of success rates, STTR awards are not included in
the count of RPGs. Go
to Small Business
| Streamlined Non-Competing Award Process (SNAP)
Simplified process for the submission of information prior to the issuance of a non-competing award. Funds are automatically carried over and are available for expenditure during the entire project period. All NIH award notices identify whether the grant is subject to or excluded from SNAP.
- Routinely applied to:
- all R series grant mechanisms except for Outstanding Investigator Grants (R35s), Phase 1 Small Business Innovation Research Grants (R43) and Phase 1 Small Business Technology Transfer Grants (R41).
NOTE: For Phase I SBIR/STTR awards that exceed one year, grantees should review the Notice of Grant Award to determine if their project is subject to or excluded from the SNAP provisions.
- Career award mechanisms (Ks)
- Not routinely applied to:
- those mechanisms not having the authority to automatically carry over un-obligated balances (centers, cooperative agreements, Kirschstein-NRSA institutional training grants, non-Fast Track Phase I SBIR and STTR awards)
- clinical trials (regardless of mechanism)
- Program Project Grants (P01s)
- and Outstanding Investigator Grants (R35s)
||A contracting term denoting the review process by which a contractor
||A component of an application’s Research Plan which describes concisely and realistically what the proposed research or activity intends to accomplish by the end of the grant. Includes broad, long-term goals; hypothesis or hypotheses to be tested; and specific time-phased research objectives (e.g., to test a stated hypothesis, create a novel design, solve a specific problem, challenge an existing paradigm or clinical practice, address a critical barrier to progress in the field, or develop a product or new technology).
|Scientific Review and Evaluation Award ( SREA )
||Scientific Review and Evaluation Award is a payment made to a Scientific
Review Group (SRG) reviewer. SREA funds are used to reimburse travel,
lodging, per diem and honoraria for review group members. Also refers
to the process by which the award is generated.
|| The Government of any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any U.S. territory or possession, or any A gency or instrumentality of a State exclusive of local Governments. For purposes of NIH grants, federally recognized I ndian T ribal Governments generally are considered State Governments. State institutions of higher education and State hospitals are not considered State Governments for HHS's general administrative requirements for grants and the NIHGPS.
|Statement of Work (SOW)
||In a contract proposal, the detailed description of the work to be
performed under the contract.
|| Allows Principal Investigators to review the current status of all their grant applications and review detailed information associated with their grants. Institution Officials [ i.e., Signing Official (SO) or Administrative Official (AO) associated with the institution ] can see a summary view of grant applications, review the Notice of Grant Award, and access the Progress Report face page.
||A payment made to an individual under a fellowship or training
grant in accordance with pre-established levels to provide for the
individual's living expenses during the period of training. A stipend
is not considered compensation for the services expected of an employee.
|Streamlined Review (formerly Triage)
||In the CSR peer review process, applications judged by a study section
to be in the lower half of the applications evaluated in a given review
round. These applications are generally not reviewed during the study
section meeting, but returned to the applicant with the assigned reviewers'
||See Small Business Technology Transfer.
||See Initial Review Group.
||Collaborative arrangement in support of a research project in which
part of an activity is carried out through a formal agreement between
a grantee and one or more other organizations.
Also known as consortium agreement.
||A subproject may include a scientific investigation, the provision
of a service or resource, or a combination of activities and receives
a specific review assignment and assessment (score and/or descriptor).
Most commonly, subprojects are part of the M, P, S, and U mechanisms.
||Indicates the percentage of reviewed RPG applications receiving funding
computed on a fiscal year basis. It is determined by dividing the number
of competing applications funded by the sum of the total number of competing
applications reviewed and the number of funded carryovers.
having one or more amendments in the same fiscal year are only counted
once. Success rate computations exclude SBIR/STTRs.
|Success Rate Base
||The basis for computing the Research Project Grant (RPG) success rate.
It includes the total number of competing applications reviewed (the
number of applications subjected to a streamlined review process).
Also known as Rate Base.
||A combination of the reviewers' written comments and the SRA's
summary of the members' discussion during the study section meeting.
It includes the recommendations of the study section, a recommended
budget, and administrative notes of special considerations.
||A request for additional funds either for the current operating year
or for any future year recommended previously.
Also known as a Type 3 application or award, a supplement can be either non-competing (administrative) or competing (subject to peer review).
of a grantee's authority to obligate grant funds, pending either
corrective action by the grantee, as specified by NIH, or a decision
by NIH to terminate the award. This meaning of the term "suspension" differs
from that used in conjunction with the debarment and suspension process. Go
Policy Requirements and Objectives—Ethical and Safe Conduct
in Science and Organizational Operations—Debarment and Suspension and Administrative
- T -
|Targeted/Planned Enrollment Data
||Provides race and ethnicity data for projected number of human subject participants to be enrolled in an NIH-funded clinical research study. The data is provided in competing applications and annual progress reports.
|| Research funded as a result of an I nstitute set aside of dollars for a specific scientific area. Institutes solicit applications using research initiatives (RFAs for grants, RFPs for contracts). Targeted research applications are reviewed by chartered peer review committees within I nstitutes. The opposite is Investigator-Initiated Research .
|| Sharing of knowledge and facilities among F ederal laboratories, industry, universities, G overnment, and others to make federally generated scientific and technological advances accessible to private industry and S tate and local G overnments. Go to NIH Office of Technology Transfer .
||Permanent withdrawal by NIH of a grantee's authority to obligate previously
awarded grant funds before that authority would otherwise expire, including
the voluntary relinquishment of that authority by the grantee.
|Terms and Conditions of Award
||All legal requirements imposed on a grant by NIH, whether based
on statue, regulation, policy, or other document referenced in the
grant award, or specified by the grant award document itself. The
Notice of Award may include both standard and special conditions that
are considered necessary to attain the grant's objectives, facilitate
post award administration of the grant, conserve grant funds, or otherwise
protect the Federal Government's interests.
||When applications are submitted for multiple PI's from multiple organizations,
the application from the partnering Institutions are associated and
reviewed as a single project. If an award is made, each of the involved
institutions will receive a separate grant to fund the collaborative
project. All applications are linked by a common project title and by
cross-references within each application.
|Total Project Costs
||The total allowable costs (both direct costs and facilities and administrative
costs) incurred by the grantee to carry out a grant-supported project
or activity. Total project costs include costs charged to the NIH grant
and costs borne by the grantee to satisfy a matching or cost-sharing
designed to support the research training of scientists for careers
in the biomedical and behavioral sciences, as well as help professional
schools to establish, expand, or improve programs of continuing professional
education. Training awards consist of institutional training
grants (T) and individual fellowships (F). Go to NIH
Research Training Opportunities.
||Translational research includes two areas of translation. One is the process of applying discoveries generated during research in the laboratory, and in preclinical studies, to the development of trials and studies in humans. The second area of translation concerns research aimed at enhancing the adoption of best practices in the community. Cost-effectiveness of prevention and treatment strategies is also an important part of translational science.
||See Streamlined Review.
||See Application Types.
- U -
||Group underrepresented in biomedical research, such as people with
disabilities, people from disadvantaged backgrounds, and racial and
ethnic groups such as blacks or African Americans, Hispanics or Latinos,
American Indians or Alaskan Natives, and Native Hawaiians and other
Used as an eligibility requirement for diversity
supplements, fellowships (F31), and other NIH programs. Also see human
subjects and minority group.
||The 50 States, territories, and possessions of the United States,
the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Trust Territory of the Pacific
Islands, and the District of Columbia.
Funds not used by the completion of a grant's project period. Grantees must report un-obligated balances over 25 percent of total costs to the grants management specialist.
Grants awarded under expanded authorities may carry over un-obligated funds from one budget period to another within an approved project period without prior approval, as stated in the Notice of Award.
||In the Center for Scientific Review peer review process, applications
judged by a study section to be noncompetitive are generally in the
lower half of the applications to be reviewed. These applications are
not given a priority score, although they are reviewed and applicants
receive a summary statement. Between FY 1992 and FY 1995 the term "Not
Recommended for Further Consideration" (NRFC) referred to noncompetitive
|See Investigator-Initiated Research.
|USA Patriot Act
||Public law to deter
and punish terrorism inside and outside the U.S. and provide investigatory
and other tools, which include restricting access to select agents. Go
Patriot Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 and USA
Patriot Act of 2001.
- V -
||The systematic check of applications against the NIH application guide
and Funding Opportunity Announcement instructions. The process can generate
errors or warnings.
- W -
|| Any condition in an electronically-submitted grant application acceptable but worthy of bringing to the applicant's attention. It is left to the applicant's discretion to take any corrective action. The application goes forward even if the warnings are not corrected. NOTE: Some warnings may need to be addressed later in the process or the review stages.
|Withholding of Support
||A decision by NIH not to make a non-competing continuation award within
the current competitive segment.