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Glossary & Acronym List

For a complete list of acronyms only, go to Acronym List.

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 - A -

Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA - R15) Grant award stimulating research at health professional academic institutions with less than $3 million of NIH support in total costs in four or more of the last seven years. Go to AREA
Accession Number Related to electronic submission of applications, the Accession number is the Agency tracking number provided for the application after Agency validations.
Account As used by the NIH eRA Commons, a personal account an individual uses to log into the NIH eRA Commons which is identified by a unique combination of username and password.
Account Administrator (AA) An individual typically in the grantee organization’s central research administration office designated by a SO to facilitate the administration of NIH eRA Commons accounts. The AA can create, modify and/or remove the necessary accounts for these types: AO, AA, FSR, PI or ASST. Although the AA can create additional accounts, the AA cannot modify institutional profile (IPF) information.
Acquisition Obtaining supplies or services by the federal government with appropriated funds through purchase or lease. See Contract – R&D.
Active Grant A grant meeting the following criteria:
  1. Today's date is between the budget start and end dates.
  2. The grant has an eRA System (IMPAC II) application status code of "Awarded. Non-fellowships only." or "Awarded. Fellowships only."
Activity Code A three-digit code assigned by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to identify funding mechanisms (e.g. F32, K12, P01, R01, T32, etc.). General categories include: For specific activity codes and definitions, go to IMPAC Activity Codes, Organization Codes, and Definitions Used in Extramural Programs (Tables 2-4). Also see the Types of Grant Programs page to search activity codes and for more information on selected grant programs.
ADAMHA See Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration.
Administrative Expenses Expenses incurred for the support of activities relevant to the award of grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements and expenses incurred for general administration of the scientific programs and activities of the National Institutes of Health.
Administrative I/C The NIH Institute or Center to which the Center for Scientific Review (CSR) routes NIH grant applications for a funding decision. An I/C may request to change this assignment if the application is more suited to another I/C. Also referred to as primary assignment.
Administrative Official (AO) In the NIH Commons, reviews the grant application for accuracy before the signing official submits the final application to the NIH.
  • May be the same person as the signing official.
  • Resides in either the central research administration office or academic departments.
  • Create additional AO and PI accounts
  • Not authorized to transmit applications to the NIH.
Administrative Standards Go to OMB’s Grants Management Circulars.
Administrative Supplement Monies added to a grant without peer review to pay for items within the scope of an award but unforeseen when a grant application was submitted.
Advisory Council/Board See Council/Board, Advisory.
Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA) Effective FY 1993, the service components of the ADAMHA became the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The three research components of the ADAMHA--the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)--became part of the NIH.
ALERT System A DHHS system for disseminating information to appropriate PHS officials to facilitate informed decisions on the award of Federal monies to organizations or persons charged with or found to have engaged in misconduct. Go to PHS Administrative Actions Listing.
Alien Registration Receipt Card Commonly known as a "Green Card." Shows a person's status as a permanent resident with a right to live and work permanently in the U.S. Also called Form I-551. Go to U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services.
Alteration and Renovation (A&R) Changes the interior arrangements or other physical characteristics of an existing facility or of installed equipment so that it can be used more effectively for its currently designated purpose or adapted to an alternative use to meet a programmatic requirement. Major A&R (including modernization, remodeling, or improvement) of an existing building is permitted under an NIH grant only when the authorizing statute for the program specifically allows that activity. Go to Allowability of Costs/Activities—Selected Items of Cost—Alteration and Renovation and Allowability of Costs/Activities—Selected Items of Cost—Construction.
Amendment (amended or revised applications) Resubmission of an unfunded application revised in response to a prior review.
Animal Welfare Assurance Document an institution and all performance sites involving animals in research must have on file with the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare before a PHS Agency may award a grant or contract.
Animals in Research Any live, vertebrate animal used for research, research training, biological testing, or related purposes. See PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals for information and links to legislation and the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare Animal Welfare Regulations tutorial.
AO See Administrative Official.
AOR See Authorized Organization Representative.
Appeal A procedure for contesting the peer review of a grant application. Synonymous with rebuttal.
Application A request for financial support of a project or activity submitted to NIH on specified forms and in accordance with NIH instructions. [For detailed information about the application process (including an explanation of the types of applications), go to Application and Review Processes.]
Application Identification Numbers The application number identifies:

  • type of application (1)
  • activity code (R01)
  • organization to which it is assigned (AI)
  • serial number assigned by the Center for Scientific Review (CSR) (183723),
  • suffix showing the support year for the grant (-01)
  • other information identifying a supplement (S1), amendment (A1), or a fellowship's institutional allowance. For contracts, the suffix is replaced by a modification number.

Sample Application Identification Number 1 R01 AI 183723 -01 A1 S1
Application Types
Type l New
Type 2 Competing continuation (a.k.a. renewal, re-competing)
Type 3 Application for additional (supplemental) support
Type 4 Competing extension for an R37 award or first non competing year of a Fast Track SBIR/STTR award
Type 5 Non-competing continuation
Type 7 Change of grantee institution
Type 9 Change of NIH awarding Institute or Division (competing continuation)

Amended - See Resubmission
Contract types - See Contract Transaction Types

Appropriation Law authorizing Federal Agencies to obligate funds and make payments from the treasury for specified purposes. Appropriations are in annual acts and permanent law.
Approved Budget The financial expenditure plan for the grant-supported project or activity, including revisions approved by NIH as well as permissible revisions made by the grantee. The approved budget consists of Federal (grant) funds and, if required by the terms and conditions of the award, non-Federal participation in the form of matching or cost sharing. The approved budget specified in the Notice of Grant Award may be shown in detailed budget categories or as total costs without a categorical breakout. Expenditures charged to an approved budget that consists of both Federal and non-Federal shares are deemed to be borne by the grantee in the same proportion as the percentage of Federal/non-Federal participation in the overall budget.
AREA See Academic Research Enhancement Award.
Assignment See Receipt, Referral, and Assignment of Applications.
Assistance The award of money, property, or services to a recipient to accomplish a public purpose as authorized by Federal statute. Assistance relationships (e.g., grants) are expressed in less detail than are acquisition relationships (contracts), and responsibilities for ensuring performance rest largely with the recipient or are shared with the Government.
Assistant Role (ASST) In the NIH Commons the role designed to allow PIs to delegate certain responsibilities for data entry of grant information and upkeep of their personal profiles. The ASST does not have any other functions in the system.
Authorized Organizational Representative (AOR) The individual authorized by the applicant organization to act for the applicant and to assume the obligations imposed by the Federal laws, regulations, requirements, and conditions that apply to grant applications or grant awards. This official is equivalent to the SO in NIH’s eRA Commons.

Responsibilities include:

  • Submitting the grant on behalf of the company, organization, institution, or Government.
  • Signing grant applications and the required certifications and/or assurances necessary to fulfill the requirements of the application process.
Average Programmatic Reduction The dollar amount a grant award is reduced from the amount recommended by the study section (scientific review group). This is done so Institutes can maintain a sufficient number of grants in their portfolio and to combat inflation of grant costs.
Award The provision of funds by NIH, based on an approved application and budget or progress report, to an organizational entity or an individual to carry out a project or activity.
Award Type See Application Types.
Awarded Direct Costs See Direct Costs.
Awarded Indirect Costs See Indirect Costs.
Awarded Total Costs See Total Project Costs.
Awarding Office The NIH I/C responsible for the award, administration, and monitoring of particular grants. See Funding Organizations.


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 - B -

Bayh-Dole Act A law encouraging universities and researchers to develop their inventions into marketable products.
Best and Final Offer (BAFO) See Final Proposal Revision.
Bilateral Agreement A general science agreement between the U.S. and a foreign country. Grant applications from institutions in these countries that have been recommended for approval by the scientific review group are given special funding consideration by Council.
Bioengineering Consortium The focus of bioengineering issues at the NIH which consists of senior-level representatives from each of the NIH Institutes, Centers, and Divisions plus representatives of other Federal Agencies concerned with biomedical research and development. Go to Bioengineering Consortium (BECON).
Biomedical Research and Development Price Index (BRDPI) Measures real annual changes in the prices of items and services required for research and development (R&D) activities.
Bridge Awards Provides one year of funding so investigators can continue research while reapplying for an R01 grant or enables new investigators to gather preliminary data to improve their applications. Investigators do not apply for Bridge Awards but are selected from R01 grants at the pay-line margin. A Bridge Award is made as an R21 with one year of funding, which the PI can choose to spend over a two-year period. This enables the PI to submit an amended R01 application for the next receipt date while receiving interim (bridge) funding under the R21 mechanism.
Budget Appropriation The yearly amount given to a Government Agency by Congress.
Budget Authorization The NIH I/C assigned by the Center for Scientific Review (CSR) to decide whether to fund a grant application. An I/C may request to change this assignment if the application is more suited to another I/C. Also referred to as primary assignment.
Budget Mechanism Identifies the sub-mechanism category of the award for reporting purposes.
Budget Period The intervals of time (usually 12 months each) into which a project period is divided for budgetary and funding purposes.


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 - C -

Career Development Awards (CDA K Series) Award supporting Ph.D.s and clinicians who wish to develop a career in biomedical research.
Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) A database which helps the Federal Government track all programs it has domestically funded. Federal programs are assigned a number in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) which is referred to as the "CFDA number."
Category (New, Renewals, Competing, etc.) See Application Types.
Capital Expenditure The cost of an asset (land, building, equipment), including the cost to put it in place. A capital expenditure for equipment includes the net invoice price and the cost of any modifications, attachments, accessories, or auxiliary apparatus to make it usable for the purpose for which it was acquired. Other charges, such as taxes, in-transit insurance, freight, and installation, may be included in capital expenditure costs in accordance with the recipient’s regular accounting practices consistently applied regardless of the source of funds. Go to Administrative Requirements—Changes in Project and Budget —Prior-Approval Requirements—Capital Expenditures.
Carryover As indicated by the Notice of Award (NoA), carryover authority provides grantees permission to carry over funds unobligated at the end of a budget period to the next budget period. For awards under the Streamlined Non-Competing Award Process (SNAP), funds are automatically carried over and are available for expenditure during the entire project period. However, under those awards, the grantee will be required to indicate, as part of its non-competing continuation request, whether its estimated un-obligated balance (including prior year carryover) is expected to be greater than 25 percent of the current year's total budget. If so, the grantee must provide an explanation and indicate plans for expenditure of those funds if carried forward.
CCR See Central Contractor Registration Database.
CDA See Career Development Awards.
Center for Scientific Review (CSR) The NIH component responsible for the receipt and referral of applications to the PHS, as well as the initial review for scientific merit of most applications submitted to the NIH.
Center Grants Center grants are awarded to institutions on behalf of program directors and groups of collaborating investigators. They support long-term, multi-disciplinary programs of research and development.
Central Contractor Registration (CCR) Database The main vendor database for the U.S. Federal Government. Grant-applicant institutions need to register with the CCR to apply for a grant through Grants.gov. The CCR stores organizational information, allowing Grants.gov to verify the organization's identity and to pre-fill organizational information on its grant application.  Institutions must have a DUNS number to register in the CCR.
Chartered Advisory Committee Any committee formed for advisory purposes composed not wholly of Federal officials.  Under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, standing committees must be chartered, i.e., approved by their parent Agency in collaboration with the U.S. General Services Administration to ensure a properly balanced representation (geographical, women, minorities) and meet other legal requirements.
Citation ID The number used when citing papers falling under the Public Access Policy on applications, proposals, or progress reports.  The citation ID will be a PMCID or an alternative when the PMCID has not been assigned yet.
Clinical Research Patient-oriented research, including epidemiologic and behavioral studies, outcomes research, and health services research. Patient-oriented research is research conducted with human subjects (or on material of human origin such as tissues, specimens, and cognitive phenomena) in which a researcher directly interacts with human subjects. It includes research on mechanisms of human disease, therapeutic interventions, clinical trials, and development of new technologies, but does not include in vitro studies using human tissues not linked to a living individual. Studies falling under 45 CFR 46.101(b) (4) are not considered clinical research for purposes of this definition.
Clinical Trial A biomedical or behavioral research study of human subjects designed to answer specific questions about biomedical or behavioral interventions (drugs, treatments, devices, or new ways of using known drugs, treatments, or devices). Clinical trials are used to determine whether new biomedical or behavioral interventions are safe, efficacious, and effective. Clinical trials of an experimental drug, treatment, device, or intervention may proceed through four phases:

Phase I. Testing in a small group of people (e.g. 20-80) to determine efficacy and evaluate safety (e.g., determine a safe dosage range and identify side effects).

Phase II. Study in a larger group of people (several hundred) to determine efficacy and further evaluate safety.

Phase III. Study to determine efficacy in large groups of people (from several hundred to several thousand) by comparing the intervention to other standard or experimental interventions, to monitor adverse effects, and to collect information to allow safe use.

Phase IV. Studies done after the intervention has been marketed. These studies are designed to monitor the effectiveness of the approved intervention in the general population and to collect information about any adverse effects associated with widespread use.

Close Out A procedure to officially conclude a grant. Institute staff must ensure necessary scientific, administrative, and financial reports have been received, implemented and documented in compliance with Federal records management policy. This includes the Final Financial Status Report (FSR), Final Invention Report, and Final Progress Report.
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) An annually revised codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register.
Co-funding Funding arrangement through which two or more Institutes or Centers pay for a grant.
Co-Investigator An individual involved with the PI in the scientific development or execution of a project. The co-investigator (collaborator) may be employed by, or be affiliated with, the applicant/grantee organization or another organization participating in the project under a consortium agreement. A co-investigator typically devotes a specified percentage of time to the project and is considered “key personnel.” The designation of a co-investigator, if applicable, does not affect the PI’s roles and responsibilities as specified in the NIH Grants Policy Statement (NIH GPS).
Commitment Base Funds used for non-competing (type 5 or ongoing awards), typically 70-80 percent of the dollars spent for research project grants.
Committee Management Officer (CMO)

NIH CMO: The NIH Committee Management Officer is responsible for the oversight of all NIH Federal advisory committees under the auspices of the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The NIH CMO is responsible for directing and managing all phases of committee management policy and procedure development and dissemination to all NIH I/C staff as well as to Federal advisory committee members.

I/C CMO: Each I/C has a CMO or uses the resources of a service center to support the committee management function within the Institute or Center. The I/C CMO is responsible for developing charters for committees, preparing nomination and appointment documents for membership to committees, providing technical assistance to committee members, providing initial review of conflict of interest disclosures and other responsibilities.

Commons See Electronic Research Administration.
Competing Applications Either new or re-competing applications that must undergo initial peer review.
Competing Continuation An application requiring competitive peer review and Institute/Center action to continue beyond the current competitive segment. (Also known as a Renewal or Type 2.)
Competing Research Project Grant An application for a Research Project Grant requiring competitive peer review. Also, a number of obligations which serve as an input for determining success rates.
Competitive Range A contracting term denoting a group of proposals considered acceptable by the initial peer review group which are potential candidates for an award.
Competitive Segment The initial project period recommended for support (in general, up to 5 years) or each extension of a project period resulting from a competing continuation award.
Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects (CRISP) A searchable biomedical database of federally-supported proposed research conducted at universities, hospitals, and other research institutions. Go to CRISP.
Concept The earliest planning stage of an initiative [request for applications (RFA), request for proposals (RFP), or program announcement (PA)]. Concepts are brought before the Advisory Council for concept clearance. Not all concepts cleared by Council are published as initiatives depending on the availability of funds.
Conflict of Interest Regulations to ensure Government employees, scientific review group members, Council members, or others having the ability to influence funding decisions have no personal interest in the outcome.
Congressional District A territorial division of a state from which a member of the United States House of Representatives is elected.
Consortium Agreement A formalized agreement whereby a research project is carried out by the grantee and one or more other organizations that are separate legal entities. Under the agreement, the grantee must perform a substantive role in the conduct of the planned research and not merely serve as a conduit of funds to another party or parties. Go to Consortium Agreements.
Constant Dollars Dollar amounts adjusted for inflation, based on buying power in a selected base year. The BRDPI is used to determine constant dollars from current dollars.
Consultant An individual providing professional advice or services on the basis of a written agreement for a fee. These individuals are not normally employees of the organization receiving the services. Consultants also include firms providing professional advice or services. Go to Allowability of Costs/Activities—Selected Items of Cost—Consultant Services.
Consumer Price Index (CPI) Measurement of changes in prices of a broad range of consumer items.
Contract (R&D) An award instrument establishing a binding legal procurement relationship between NIH and a recipient obligating the latter to furnish a product or service defined in detail by NIH and binding the Institute to pay for it. Go to Office of Acquisition Management and Policy (OAMP) Web site for information on contracts and contract opportunities.
Contract Transaction Types
Type 1 New contract
Type 2 Renewal
Type 3 Modification
Type 4 Letter contract
Type 5 Continuation of an incrementally (typically, in one year increments) funded contract
Type 6 Task orders and subsequent modifications relating to existing ordering agreements
Type 7 Exercise of option
Contract Under a Grant A written agreement between a grantee and a third party to acquire routine goods and services. Go to Office of Acquisition Management and Policy (OAMP) Web site for information on contracts and contract opportunities.
Contracting Officer Government employee authorized to execute contractual agreements on behalf of the Government.
Cooperative Agreement (U Series) A support mechanism used when there will be substantial Federal scientific or programmatic involvement. Substantial involvement means that, after award, scientific or program staff will assist, guide, coordinate, or participate in project activities.
Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) Any agreement between one or more NIH laboratories and one or more non-Federal parties under which the PHS, through its laboratories, provides personnel, services, facilities, equipment, or other resources with or without reimbursement (but not funds to non-Federal parties) and the non-Federal parties provide funds, personnel, services, facilities, equipment, or other resources toward the conduct of specified research or development efforts which are consistent with the missions of the laboratory.
Cost Overrun Any amount charged in excess of the Federal share of costs for the project period (competitive segment).
Cost Sharing See Matching or Cost Sharing.
Council/Board, Advisory National Advisory Council or Board, mandated by statute, providing the second level of review for grant applications for each Institute/Center awarding grants. The Councils/Boards are comprised of both scientific and lay representatives. Council/Board recommendations are based on scientific merit (as judged by the initial review groups) and the relevance of the proposed study to an institute's programs and priorities. With some exceptions, grants cannot be awarded without recommendations for approval by a Council/Board.
Council Round At the NIH, there are at least three, and sometimes four, council rounds each fiscal year: October, January, May, and sometimes August. Application receipt dates, initial review dates, and council review dates all fall within one of these council rounds. Incoming grant applications all are assigned to a council round.
Count Unless noted, the total number of grants shown, excluding administrative supplements.
CPI See Consumer Price Index.
CRADA See Cooperative Research and Development agreement.
CRISP See Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects.
Critique An overall evaluation of a grant application prepared by a reviewer before an initial peer review meeting and presented to a Scientific Review Group at the meeting.
CSR See Center for Scientific Review.
Current Dollars Actual dollars awarded, without adjustment for inflation.


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 - D -

Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) The DUNS number is a unique nine-digit number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet Information Services. It is recognized as the universal standard for identifying and keeping track of more than 92 million businesses worldwide. Grants.gov requires a DUNS number for registration. For applicants, the DUNS number in the application must match the DUNS number in the Institutional Profile in Commons.
Deferred Refers to the delay in the review of an application by a scientific review group, usually to the next review cycle, due to insufficient information.
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)

Federal Executive Department of which the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) is a component and the NIH is an agency of the PHS. Go to HHS.

Previously DHHS.

Direct Costs Costs that can be specifically identified with a particular project or activity.
Direct Operations Funds for salary and other administrative costs.
Disaggregated Application An application with a portion (or subproject) funded as a separate grant.
Domestic Organization A public (including a State or other Governmental Agency) or private non-profit or for-profit organization located in the United States or its territories which is subject to U.S. laws and assumes legal and financial accountability for awarded funds and for the performance of the grant-supported activities.
Division of Extramural Activities Support (DEAS) Provides centralized support activities for grants management, program and peer review activities. Before the advent of DEAS, these activities were carried out by extramural staff located at individual Institutes and Centers.
Dual Assignments Applications simultaneously assigned to two Institutes, Centers, or Divisions. The primary Institute has complete responsibility for administering and funding the application; the secondary assumes this responsibility only if the primary is unable or unwilling to support it.
Dual Review System Peer review process used by NIH. The first level of review provides a judgment of scientific merit. The second level of review (usually conducted by an ICD's advisory Council) assesses the quality of the first review, sets program priorities, and makes funding recommendations.
DUNS Number See Data Universal Numbering System.


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 - E -

Early Stage Investigator (ESI) A New Investigator within 10 years of completing his/her terminal research degree or medical residency. A traditional NIH research grant (R01) application from an ESI will be identified and the career stage of the applicant will be considered at the time of review and award.
Earmark A requirement by Congress that a Federal Agency spend a specified amount of money for a stated purpose (e.g. to establish a centers program or conduct a clinical trial).
Edison NIH's electronic invention reporting system. Go to iEdison.
EIN See Employer Identification Number.
Electronic Research Administration (eRA) The NIH's infrastructure for conducting interactive electronic transactions for the receipt, review, monitoring, and administration of NIH grant awards to biomedical and behavioral investigators worldwide. Registration is required. Go to eRA.
Employer Identification Number (EIN) Identification of a business to the U.S. Internal Revenue Service; also known as a Federal tax identification number. Entered on the SF 424 form of a grant application.
Enrollment Data Provides race and ethnicity data for the cumulative number of human subjects enrolled in an NIH-funded clinical research study since the protocol began. This data is provided in competing continuation applications and annual progress reports.
Equipment An article of tangible nonexpendable personal property that has a useful life of more than 1 year and an acquisition cost per unit that equals or exceeds $5,000 or the capitalization threshold established by the organization, whichever is less.
eRA Commons A secure meeting place on the Web where research organizations and grantees electronically receive and transmit information about the administration of biomedical and behavioral research grants.  Registration is required.
At this site:
  • Applicants access the status of their applications.
  • Grantees access the status of their awards, submit reports and make requests electronically.
Go to eRA Commons.
Error Any condition causing an electronically-submitted application to be deemed unacceptable for further consideration. Generally, errors will indicate significant inaccuracies, inconsistencies, omissions or incorrect formatting. The error needs to be corrected by the applicant and the application submitted again as a changed/corrected application via Grants.gov.
Electronic Streamlined Non-competing Award Process (eSNAP) Process allowing an institution to review non-competing grant data and submit a progress report online.
Expanded Authorities (EA) Operating authorities provided to grantees that waive the requirement for NIH prior approval for specified actions. Go to Administrative Requirements—Changes in Project and Budget—Expanded Authorities.
Expiration Date The date signifying the end of the current budget period, after which the grantee is not authorized to obligate grant funds regardless of the ending date of the project period or "completion date."
Extramural Awards Funds provided by the NIH to researchers and organizations outside the NIH.
Extramural Research Research supported by NIH through a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement.
Extramural Support Assistant A staff member who assists scientific review administrators (SRAs) in peer-review related work. Formerly called Grants Technical Assistant.
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 - F -

Facilities and Administrative Costs (F&A) Costs that are incurred by a grantee for common or joint objectives and cannot be identified specifically with a particular project or program. These costs are also known as "indirect costs."
Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR) Laws regulating government contracting. Go to FAR.
Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) A law regulating Federal advisory committees to ensure an appropriate balance of scientists and lay persons and minority, geographical, and racial representation.
Federal Demonstration Partnership (FDP) A cooperative initiative among some Federal Agencies (including NIH) and select organizations receiving Federal funding for research and certain professional organizations. Its efforts include a variety of demonstration projects intended to simplify and standardize Federal requirements in order to increase research productivity and reduce administrative costs.
Federal Institution A Cabinet-level Department or independent Agency of the Executive Branch of the Federal Government or any component organization of such a Department or Agency.
Federal Register An official, daily publication communicating proposed and final regulations and legal notices issued by federal agencies, including announcements of the availability of funds for financial assistance. Go to Federal Register.
Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA) Authorizes Government Agencies to enter into CRADAs with private companies.
Federal-Wide Assurance (FWA) Online form every institution and collaborating institution conducting human subjects research must file with the Office for Human Research Protections--HHS to establish policies and procedures to protect human subjects as required by 45 CFR 46.
Fee An amount (in addition to actual, allowable costs) paid to an organization providing goods or services consistent with normal commercial practice. This payment also is referred to as “profit.” Go to Grants to For-Profit Organizations—Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs—Allowable Costs and Fee—Profit or Fee.
Fellowship An NIH training program award where the NIH specifies the individual receiving the award. Fellowships comprise the F activity codes.
Final Peer-reviewed Manuscript The author’s final manuscript of a peer-reviewed article accepted for journal publication, including all modifications from the peer review process.
Final Proposal Revision (FPR) After completion of negotiations, offerors are asked to submit a final proposal revision which documents all cost and technical agreements reached during negotiations.
Final Published Article The journal’s authoritative copy of the article, including all modifications from the publishing peer review process, copyediting and stylistic edits, and formatting changes.
Financial Assistance Transfer by NIH of money or property to an eligible entity to support or stimulate a public purpose authorized by statute.
Financial Management Plan A policy to establish consistency in funding which specifies levels for items such as the payline, programmatic reductions, and caps for re-competing grants.
Financial Status Report (FSR) A financial report due 90 days after the end of each budget period for those awards not under SNAP, and at the end of the competitive segment for those awards under SNAP, showing the status of awarded funds for that period. The report is mandatory for continued funding of the grant. The form numbers for FSRs are SR 269 and SF 269A.
Fiscal Year (FY) The annual period established for Government accounting purposes. A Fiscal Year begins on October 1 and ends September 30 of the following year. Example: FY2007 – Started October 1, 2006 and ends September 30, 2007.
Foreign Component The performance of any significant scientific element or segment of a project outside of the United States, either by the grantee or by a researcher employed by a foreign organization, whether or not grant funds are expended. Activities meeting this definition include, but are not limited to, (1) the involvement of human subjects or animals, (2) extensive foreign travel by grantee project staff for the purpose of data collection, surveying, sampling, and similar activities, or (3) any activity of the grantee having an impact on U.S. foreign policy through involvement in the affairs or environment of a foreign country. Foreign travel for consultation is not considered a foreign component. Go to Grants to Foreign Institutions, International Organizations, and Domestic Grants with Foreign Components.
Foreign Institution An organization located in a country other than the United States and its territories that is subject to the laws of that country, regardless of the citizenship of the proposed PI.
For-Profit Organization An organization, institution, corporation, or other legal entity that is organized or operated for the profit or financial benefit of its shareholders or other owners. Such organizations also are referred to as "commercial organizations."
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Requires dissemination, upon request, of Government documents while ensuring protection of proprietary and other privacy act information. Go to FOIA.
Financial Status Report (FSR) Role In the NIH Commons, allows members of your staff to process Financial Status Reports (FSRs) for submission to the NIH electronically. An account with only the FSR Role assigned can perform FSR tasks. An account can include multiple roles, including that of FSR.
Full-Time Appointment The number of days per week and/or months per year representing full-time effort at the applicant/grantee organization, as specified in organizational policy. The organization's policy must be applied consistently regardless of the source of support.
Funding Organizations

For components of the funding organizations, go to IMPAC Activity Codes, Organization Codes, and Definitions Used in Extramural Programs (Table 1).

Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) A publicly available document by which a Federal Agency makes known its intentions to award discretionary grants or cooperative agreements, usually as a result of competition for funds. Funding opportunity announcements may be known as program announcements, requests for applications, notices of funding availability, solicitations, or other names depending on the Agency and type of program. Funding opportunity announcements can be found at Grants.gov/FIND and in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts.


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 - G -

GAO See General Accounting Office.
Gender Human subject term indicating a classification of research subjects into women and men.
Government Accountability (GAO) An oversight organization reporting to Congress. Go to GAO.
Government Printing Office (GPO) Produces and distributes Federal Government information products. Go to GPO.
GPO See Government Printing Office.
Grant Financial assistance mechanism providing money, property, or both to an eligible entity to carry out an approved project or activity. A grant is used whenever the NIH Institute or Center anticipates no substantial programmatic involvement with the recipient during performance of the financially assisted activities.
Grant Appeals A DHHS policy providing for an appeal by the grantee institution of post award administrative decisions made by awarding offices. The two levels of appeal are an informal NIH procedure and a formal DHHS procedure. The grantee must first exhaust the informal procedures before appealing to the DHHS Appeals Board.
Grant Closeout A procedure to officially conclude a grant. Institute staff must assure that necessary scientific, administrative, and financial reports have been received, implemented and documented in compliance with Federal records management policy. This includes the Final Financial Status Report (FSR), Final Invention Report, and Final Progress Report.
Grant Compliance Review An evaluation by grants management staff to assess an institution's business and financial management systems to ensure that regulations and policies are being followed.
Grant Project Period Total period a project has been recommended for support which may include more than one competitive segment. For example, a project period for a grant begun in 1990 can be divided into competitive segments 1990 to 1994, 1994 to 1998, etc.
Grant Re-budgeting With the advent of modular grants, grantees no longer have to request permission from NIH for re-budgeting (formerly moving money from one budget category to another). For non-modular grants, permission is still needed for some items.
Grant Start Date Official date a grant award begins; same as the first day of the first budget period.
Grant Type See Application Types.
Grantee The organization or individual awarded a grant or cooperative agreement by NIH that is responsible and accountable for the use of the funds provided and for the performance of the grant-supported project or activities. The grantee is the entire legal entity even if a particular component is designated in the award document. The grantee is legally responsible and accountable to NIH for the performance and financial aspects of the grant-supported project or activity.
Grants Management Officer (GMO) An NIH official responsible for the business management aspects of grants and cooperative agreements, including review, negotiation, award, and administration, and for the interpretation of grants administration policies and provisions. Only GMOs are authorized to obligate NIH to the expenditure of funds and permit changes to approved projects on behalf of NIH. Each NIH Institute and Center awarding grants has one or more GMOs with responsibility for particular programs or awards.
Grants Management Specialist (GMS) A NIH staff member who oversees the business and other non-programmatic aspects of one or more grants and/or cooperative agreements. These activities include, but are not limited to, evaluating grant applications for administrative content and compliance with statutes, regulations, and guidelines; negotiating grants; providing consultation and technical assistance to grantees; and administering grants after award.
Grants Process Go to Grants Process At-A Glance.
Grants.gov An access point through which any person, business, or State, local, or Tribal government may electronically find and apply for more than 1,000 competitive grant opportunities from the 26 Federal grant-making Agencies. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is the managing partner for the Federal Grants.gov initiative, one of 24 initiatives of the overall E-Government program for improving access to Government services via the Internet. Registration is required to apply. Go to Grants.gov.
Grant-Supported Project/Activities Those programmatic activities specified or described in a grant application or in a subsequent submission(s) approved by an NIH Institute or Center for funding, regardless of whether Federal funding constitutes all or only a portion of the financial support necessary to carry them out.
Green Card See Alien Registration Receipt Card.


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 - H -

HBCU See Historically Black College or University.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Law from 1996 that amends the Internal Revenue Code to improve portability of health insurance coverage, promote medical savings accounts, improve access to long-term care services and coverage, and simplify administration of health insurance. Go to HIPAA.
HHS See Department of Health and Human Services.
High Risk/High Impact (HR/HI) A category of applications identified by a scientific review group as having a high degree of uncertainty in approach but also a high potential for impact. NIH tracks how many of these applications are identified and funded.
Historically Black College or University(HBCU) Any historically black college or university established prior to 1964 whose principal mission was and is the education of black Americans, and is accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting Agency or Association determined by the Secretary [of Education] to be a reliable authority as to the quality of training offered or is, according to such an Agency or Association, making reasonable progress toward accreditation.
Hospital A non-profit or for-profit hospital or medical care provider component of a non-profit organization (for example, a foundation). The term includes all types of medical, psychiatric and dental facilities, such as clinics, infirmaries, and sanatoria.
Human Subject A living individual about whom an investigator (whether professional or student) conducting research obtains data through intervention or interaction with the individual or obtains identifiable private information. Regulations governing the use of human subjects in research extend to use of human organs, tissues, and body fluids from identifiable individuals as human subjects and to graphic, written, or recorded information derived from such individuals. Go to Requirements Affecting the Rights and Welfare of Individuals as Research Subjects, Patients, or Recipients of Services—Human Subjects.
Human Subjects Assurance A document filed by an institution conducting research on human subjects with the Office for Human Research Protections--HHS which formalizes its commitment to protect the human subjects prior to receiving any HHS grant funding.


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IACUC See Institutional Animal Care & Use Committee.
IAR See Internet Assisted Review.
IC See Institute/Center.
IDeA See Institutional Development Awards.

Information linking specimens or data to individually identifiable living people or their medical information. Examples include names, social security numbers, medical record numbers, and pathology accession numbers.

IMPAC See Information for Management, Planning, Analysis, and Coordination.
Indirect Costs See Facilities and Administrative Costs (F&A).
Individual Ruth L. Kirschstein NRSA See Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA).
Information for Management, Planning, Analysis, and Coordination (IMPAC)

IMPAC is a computer database system developed and maintained by the Office of Extramural Research for information concerning PHS extramural programs. For definitions of each item in IMPAC, go to IMPAC Activity Codes, Organization Codes, and Definitions Used in Extramural Programs.

Informed Consent Person's voluntary agreement, based upon adequate knowledge and understanding, to participate in human subjects research or undergo a medical procedure.

In giving informed consent, people may not waive legal rights or release or appear to release an investigator or sponsor from liability for negligence. Go to 21 CFR 50.20 and 50.25
Initial Peer Review Criteria Significance - Is the topic important? Will it advance Scientific Knowledge?
Approach - Are the hypothesis, design, and methods well developed and appropriate? Are potential problems addressed?
Innovation - Does the proposal involve new ideas or methods; does it challenge existing paradigms?
Investigator - Does the investigator and collaborators have the training and experience to do the work?
Environment - Will the scientific environment contribute to success? Is there institutional support for the project? Does the work take advantage of existing opportunities including collaborations?
Initial Review Group (IRG) See Scientific Review Group.
Initiative A request for applications (RFA), request for proposals (RFP), or program announcement (PA) stating the Institute or Center's interest in receiving research applications in a given area because of a programmatic need or scientific opportunity. RFAs and RFPs generally have monies set aside to fund the applications responding to them; program announcements generally do not.
Institute/Center (IC) The NIH organizational component responsible for a particular grant program or set of activities.

Full Name
Organizational Code
CLC Clinical Center
CSR Center for Scientific Review
FIC John E. Fogarty International Center


National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine 



National Cancer Institute 



National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities 



National Center for Research Resources 



National Eye Institute 



National Human Genome Research Institute 



National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 



National Institute on Aging 



National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism 



N National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases 



National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases 



National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering 



National Institute of Child Health and Human Development 



National Institute on Drug Abuse 



National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders 



National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research 



National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases 



National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences 



National Institute of General Medical Sciences 



National Institute of Mental Health 



National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke 



National Institute of Nursing Research 



National Library of Medicine 



Office of the Director 


Go to IMPAC Activity Codes, Organization Codes, and Definitions Used in Extramural Programs (Table 1)
Institution Public or Private entity, including Government Agencies.
Institutional Animal Care & Use Committee (IACUC) Established at institutions in accordance with the PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals with broad, and have broad responsibilities to oversee and evaluate the institutions' animal programs, procedures, and facilities. IACUC review and approval is required for all PHS supported activities involving live vertebrate animals prior to funding.
Institutional Base Salary The annual compensation paid by an applicant/grantee organization for an employee's appointment whether that individual's time is spent on research, teaching, patient care, or other activities. The base salary excludes any income that an individual is permitted to earn outside of duties for the applicant/grantee organization. Base salary may not be increased as a result of replacing organizational salary funds with NIH grant funds.  Go to Allowability of Costs/Activities—Selected Items of Cost—Salaries and Wages.
Institutional Business Official Person working in a research organization's business office who has signature or other authority. That person is the same as Grants.gov's Authorized Organizational Representative (AOR) and the Commons' Signing Official (SO).
Institutional Development Awards (IDeA) Institutional Development Awards (IDeA) enhance biomedical and behavioral research in specific geographic areas. The Division of Research Infrastructure of the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) provides IDeA grants to foster research within states that traditionally have not received significant levels of competitive funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Institutional Review Board (IRB) IRBs are set up by research institutions to ensure the protection of rights and welfare of human research subjects participating in research conducted under their auspices. IRBs make an independent determination to approve, require modifications in, or disapprove research protocols based on whether human subjects are adequately protected, as required by federal regulations and local institutional policy.
Institutional Ruth L. Kirschstein NRSA See Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA).
Interactive Research Project Grant (IRPG) An award made to two or more investigators funded independently as R01 grantees but brought together as a collaborative group receiving additional support for collaborative work, shared resources, or the exchange of ideas.
Interagency Agreement Formal agreement among government agencies to collaborate on and fund research; Y series activity code.
Interagency Edison See Edison.
Integrated Review Group (IRG) A cluster of study sections responsible for the review of grant applications in scientifically related areas. These study sections share common intellectual and human resources.
International Organization An organization that identifies itself as international or intergovernmental, and has membership from, and represents the interests of, more than one country, without regard to whether the headquarters of the organization and location of the activity are inside or outside of the United States.
Internet Assisted Review (IAR) Allows reviewer to submit critiques and preliminary scores for applications they are reviewing. Allows Reviewers, SRAs, and GTAs to view all critiques in preparation for a meeting. IAR creates a preliminary summary statement body containing submitted critiques for the SRA or GTA.
Intramural Research Research conducted by, or in support of, employees of the NIH.
Investigational New Drug(IND) Status given by the FDA to a new drug or biological product to be used in a clinical investigation.
Investigational New Drug Application Under regulation 21 CFR 312, application filed by a drug sponsor with FDA on Form FDA 1571 to conduct clinical trials, including detailed descriptions of all phases, protocols, IRB members, and investigators. Once clinical evaluation is completed, a new drug application must be submitted to FDA to obtain approval to market the drug.
Investigator-Initiated Research Research funded as a result of an investigator, on his or her own, submitting a research application. Also known as unsolicited research. Unsolicited applications are reviewed by chartered CSR review committees. Its opposite is targeted research. See Targeted Research.


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 - J -

Just-In-Time (JIT) See Just-In-Time.
Just-In-Time Within the Status module of the eRA Commons, users will find a feature to submit Just-In-Time information when requested by the NIH. NIH policy allows the submission of certain elements of a competing application to be deferred. Through this module, institutions can electronically submit the information that is requested after the review, but before award.


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Key Personnel The PI and other individuals who contribute to the scientific development or execution of a project in a substantive, measurable way, whether or not they receive salaries or compensation under the grant. Typically these individuals have doctoral or other professional degrees, although individuals at the masters or baccalaureate level may be considered key personnel if their involvement meets this definition. Consultants also may be considered key personnel if they meet this definition. “Zero percent” effort or “as needed” is not an acceptable level of involvement for key personnel.


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 - M -

Matching or Cost Sharing The value of third party in-kind contributions and the portion of the costs of a federally assisted project of program not borne by the Federal Government. Matching or cost sharing may be required by law, regulation, or administrative decision of an NIH Institute or Center. Costs used to satisfy matching or cost sharing requirements are subject to the same policies governing allowability as other costs under the approved budget.
Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) A legal document defining the conditions under which research or other materials can be transferred and used among research laboratories.
MBRS See Minority Biomedical Research Support.
Mechanism See Activity Code.
Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) The Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) supports the integrated medical (or equivalent professional clinical) degree and graduate research training required for the investigation of human diseases. MSTP assures highly selected trainees a choice of a wide range of pertinent graduate programs in the biological, chemical, and physical sciences which, when combined with training in medicine, lead to the M.D.-Ph.D. degree.
MEDLINE National Library of Medicine's database for scientific publications. Go to Medline.
Minority Access to Research Careers (MARC) A program to provide special research training opportunities in the biomedical sciences for students and faculty at 4-year colleges and health professional schools in which substantial student enrollments are from minority groups.
Minority Biomedical Research Support (MBRS) A program to strengthen the biomedical research and research training capability of ethnic minority institutions. The intent is to increase the involvement of minority faculty and students in biomedical research.
Minority Group Human subject term indicating a subset of the U.S. population distinguished by racial, ethnic, or cultural heritage.

Categories are: American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian, black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, and Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander.

Inclusion of a group should be determined by the scientific questions under examination and their relevance. Not every study will include all minority groups or subpopulations.
Model Organism Animal, plant, or other organism used to study basic biologic processes to provide insight into other organisms. See Model Organism Sharing. Go to NIH's Model Organism for Biomedical Research
Model Organism Sharing Policy stating a PI applicant must submit plans for sharing mammalian and non-mammalian eukaryotic models to comply with the NIH Policy on Sharing Model Organisms. Go to NIH's Model Organism for Biomedical Research
Modified Summary Statement Former term for a summary statement containing reviewer critiques, which is now standard practice. See Summary Statement.
Modular Application A type of grant application in which support is requested in specified increments without the need for detailed supporting information related to separate budget categories.   When modular procedures apply, they affect not only application preparation but also review, award, and administration of the application/award. Go to Modular.
Monitoring A process whereby the programmatic and business management performance aspects of a grant are reviewed by assessing information gathered from various required reports, audits, site visits, and other sources.
Multiple Principle Investigator Individual research awards in which more than one Principal Investigator (PI) is identified by the applicant or institution. Go to Multiple Principle Investigator.


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National Institutes of Health (NIH) A Federal agency whose mission is to improve the health of the people of the United States. NIH is a part of the Public Health Service, which is part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Go to NIH
National Research Service Award (NRSA) See Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA).
New Application (award, grant) Refers to an application not previously proposed, or one that has not received prior funding. Also known as a Type 1.
New Investigator

A new investigator is an individual who has not previously competed successfully for an NIH-supported research project other than the following small or early stage research awards:

  • Pathway to Independence Award-Research Phase (R00)
  • Small Grant (R03)
  • Academic Research Enhancement Award (R15)
  • Exploratory/Developmental Grant (R21)
  • Clinical Trial Planning Grant (R34)
  • Dissertation Award (R36)
  • Small Business Technology Transfer Grant-Phase I (R41)
  • Small Business Innovation Research Grant-Phase I (R43)
  • Shannon Award (R55)
  • NIH High Priority, Short-Term Project Award (R56)

Additionally, an individual is not excluded from consideration as a “New Investigator” if he/she has received an award from the following classes of awards:

  • Training-Related and Mentored Career Awards
  • Fellowships (F05, F30, F31, F32, F34, F37, F38)
  • Mentored-career awards (K01, K08, K22, K23, K25, K99-R00)
  • Other mentored career awards (developmental K02 as used by NINDS and the developmental K07)
  • Loan repayment contracts (L30, L32, L40, L50, L60)

Note: Current or past recipients of non-mentored career awards that normally require independent research support (K02, K05, K24, and K26) are not considered new investigators.

Instrumentation, Construction, Education, or Meeting Awards

  • G07, G08, G11, G13, G20
  • S10, S15
  • X01, X02
  • R25
  • C06, UC6
  • R13, U13
Also see Resources for New Investigators for more information.
NIH Commons Demo Facility Demo Facility allows you to try most of the capabilities of the NIH eRA Commons in a sample environment.
NIH Director’s Pioneer Award The NIH Director's Pioneer Award supports individual scientists of exceptional creativity who propose pioneering approaches to major challenges in biomedical and behavioral research. The term “pioneering” is used to describe highly innovative – potentially transformative – approaches having the potential to produce an unusually high impact, and the term “award” is used to mean a grant for conducting research, rather than a reward for past achievements. Biomedical and behavioral research is defined broadly in this announcement as encompassing scientific investigations in the biological, behavioral, clinical, social, physical, chemical, computational, engineering, and mathematical sciences. Go to NIH Director's Pioneer Award.
NIH eRA Commons Systems enabling the electronic transmission of information between NIH and the research community. See eRA Commons.
NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts The official publication for NIH’s medical and behavioral research grants policies, guidelines and funding opportunities. Go to Funding Opportunities and Notices.
NIH Manuscript Submission System (NIHMS) NIHMS is a system developed by NIH, and allows users to deposit and manage manuscripts.  See http://www.nihms.nih.gov/.
NIH/OD National Institutes of Health, Office of the Director
NIHMS Reference Number (NIHMS ID) The reference number assigned to a final peer-reviewed manuscript when it is submitted to the NIHMS. It can be cited on applications, proposals or reports when the PMCID has not been assigned yet.  See also “Citation ID”
No Score(NS) Lower 50 percent of applications in the study section--no priority score is assigned to those applications.
No-Cost Extension Within Status, users will find a feature to automatically extend grants eligible for a one-time extension of the final budget period of a project period without additional NIH funds through the eRA Commons. The system will automatically change the end date for the grant and notify the appropriate NIH staff.
Non-Competing Continuation A year of continued support for a funded grant. Progress reports for continued support do not undergo peer review but are administratively reviewed by the Institute/Center and receive an award based on prior award commitments. Also known as a Type 5.
Non-Competing Grant An ongoing grant whose award is contingent on the completion of a progress report as the condition for the release of money for the following year.
Notice of Award (NoA) The legally binding document
  • notifying the grantee and others that an award has been made
  • contains or references all terms and conditions of the award
  • documenting the obligation of Federal funds
    may be in letter format and may be issued electronically. Previously known as Notice of Grant Award (NGA).

Previously known as Notice of Grant Award (NGA).

Not Recommended for Further Consideration (NRFC) A judgment made by a scientific review group for applications when the merit of the proposed research is not significant and substantial enough to warrant a further review. The study section does not recommend funding; the application cannot be funded by an Institute.


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Obligation Data based on NIH funds that have been awarded by an NIH Institute/Center.
Offeror A contracting term denoting an applicant responding to a Request for Proposal (RFP).
Office of Extramural Research (OER) NIH office overseeing policies and guidelines for extramural research grants. Go to OER.
Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) HHS office overseeing human subject protection for HHS-supported research. Go to OHRP.
Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) NIH office overseeing compliance with the PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Go to OLAW and PHS Policy Tutorial.
Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Executive Branch office assisting the U.S. president in preparing the Federal budget, evaluating agency programs and policies, and setting funding priorities. In setting policy, OMB issues Government-wide policy directives, called circulars that apply to grants.

Go to OMB's Grants Management Circulars.
Office of Research Integrity (ORI) HHS office promoting integrity in biomedical and behavioral research supported by the Public Health Service by monitoring institutional investigations of scientific misconduct and facilitating the responsible conduct of research. Go to ORI.
On Time Paper applications using “standard” submission dates are on time if postmarked on or before the submission date.

Electronic applications are on time if successfully submitted to Grants.gov by 5 p.m. local time on the date indicated.

  • For both paper and electronic submissions, when these dates fall on a weekend or holiday, they are extended to the next business day.
  • Requests for Applications (RFAs) and Program Announcements with Special Referral Considerations (PARs) with special receipt dates always must be received (by Grants.gov for electronic applications and the Center for Scientific Review for paper applications) on the dates designated in the announcement to be on time.
Go to NIH Policy on Late Submission of Grant Applications.
Organization A generic term used to refer to an educational institution or other entity, including an individual, which applies for or receives an NIH grant or cooperative agreement.
Organizational Code

A two-letter code in the grant number identifying the first major-level subdivision of the funding organization.

Grant Number
3 R01 CA 12921(9) -04 S1A1

In the example above, "CA" refers to the National Cancer Institute. For certain activities, DHHS organizations having Bureau status may use a Division-level code. An interagency agreement awarded by NCI, for instance, may be coded 1Y01CM00999-00, where CM refers to NCI's Division of Cancer Treatment. Organizational codes are translated in Table 1 of the IMPAC Activity Codes, Organization Codes, and Definitions Used in Extramural Programs .

Also referred to as an I/C Code or Admin PHS Org Code.

Other Research Grants Research grants not classified as research projects or research centers.
Other Support Includes all financial resources, whether Federal, non-Federal, commercial or organizational, available in direct support of an individual’s research endeavors, including, but not limited to, research grants, cooperative agreements, contracts, or organizational awards. Other support does not include training awards, prizes, or gifts.
Overlap of Support Other support duplicating research or budgetary items already funded by an NIH grant. Overlap also occurs when any project-supported personnel has time commitments exceeding 12 person months. See Scientific Overlap.


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Program Announcement Reviewed in an Institute ( PAR) Program Announcement with special receipt, referral and/or review considerations.
Parent Announcement NIH-wide funding opportunity announcement enabling applicants to submit an electronic investigator-initiated grant application for a single grant mechanism, e.g., Research Project Grant (Parent R01). Go to Parent Announcements for Unsolicited or Investigator-Initiated Applications.
Program Announcement with Set-Aside Funds ( PAS ) Program Announcement with set-aside funds
Patent Document issued by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office containing a description, specification, and claims that describe the subject matter in detail and giving its owner a right to exclude others from making, using, or selling it.

Only the inventor can obtain a patent; however, employers often require employees to hand over patent rights.
Payback Time and effort fellows and T32 trainees must repay the Government. During the first year, trainees owe one month of payback for every month of support; then they start paying back one month for every month worked.
Payline A percentile-based funding cutoff point determined at the beginning of the fiscal year by balancing the projected number of applications coming to an NIH Institute with the amount of funds available.
Payment Management System (PMS) Automated system for the delivery and tracking of funds which the HHS Division of Payment Management (DPM) operated. Grant payments to non-Federal grantee institutions are made available through PMS.
PECASE See Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.
Peer Review A system for evaluating research applications using reviewers who are the professional equals of the applicant. See Dual Review System.
Peer Review Criteria See Initial Peer Review Criteria.
Percentile Represents the relative position or rank of each priority score (along a 100.0 percentile band) among the scores assigned by a particular study section.
Person Months Measurement of a person's effort in academic, summer, or calendar months a year. Used on NIH applications and other forms instead of percent effort. Go to Frequently Asked Questions Regarding the Usage of Person Months.
Phase III Clinical Trial As defined by NIH, a broadly based prospective Phase III clinical investigation (usually involving several hundred or more human subjects) to evaluate an experimental intervention in comparison with a standard or control intervention or to compare two or more existing treatments. The definition includes pharmacologic, non-pharmacologic, and behavioral interventions given for disease prevention, prophylaxis, diagnosis, or therapy. Community trials and other population-based intervention trials also are included. Go to Clinical Trial.
PHS See Public Health Service
PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals Term and condition of all PHS awards involving live, vertebrate animals.
Postdoctoral Scholar An individual who has received a doctoral degree (or equivalent) and is engaged in a temporary and defined period of mentored advanced training to enhance the professional skills and research independence needed to pursue his or her chosen career path.  (See the NIH-NSF Definition of a Postdoctoral Scholar. (PDF - 85 KB))
Pre-application A statement in summary form of the intent of the applicant to request funds. It is used to determine the applicant's eligibility and how well the project can compete with other applications and eliminate proposals for which there is little or no chance for funding.
President's Budget The annual budget request submitted to Congress by the U.S. President. The process begins with a budget request from the IC, which, as part of the entire NIH budget request, is modified by the Office of Management and Budget.
Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE) The Presidential Award is the highest honor bestowed by the U.S. Government on outstanding scientists and engineers beginning their independent careers. Go to PECASE.
Principal Investigator (PI) An individual designated by the grantee to direct the project or activity being supported by the grant. He or she is responsible and accountable to the grantee and NIH for the proper conduct of the project or activity.

Also known as Program Director or Project Director.
Prior Approval Written approval from the designated Grants Management Officer (GMO) required for specified post award changes in the approved project or budget. Such approval must be obtained before undertaking the proposed activity or spending NIH funds. Go to Administrative Requirements—Changes in Project and Budget—Prior-Approval Requirements.

Priority Score A numerical rating of an application reflecting the scientific merit of the proposed research relative to stated evaluation criteria.
Privacy Act A law protecting against needless collection or release of personal data. Records maintained by NIH with respect to grant applications, grant awards, and the administration of grants are subject to the provisions of the Privacy Act.
Procurement The acquisition of property or services for the direct benefit or use of the Government, generally via a contract.
Profit See Fee.
Program A coherent assembly of plans, project activities, and supporting resources contained within an administrative framework, the purpose of which is to implement an organization’s mission or some specific program-related aspect of that mission. For the NIHGPS, “program” refers to those NIH programs carrying out their missions through the award of grants or cooperative agreements to other organizations.
Program Announcement (PA) An announcement by an NIH Institute or Center requesting applications in the stated scientific areas. Program Announcements (PA) are published in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts. Go to Program Announcements.
Program Balance The need to balance an Institute's support of research in all its programmatic areas with its high-quality applications eligible for funding.
Program Classification Code (PCC) An internal code unique for each I/C indicating the I/C's scientific interest and used to identify internal programs, branch classifications, the science or disease area, and sometimes program officials.
Program Income Gross income earned by a grantee directly generated by the grant-supported project or activity or earned as a result of the award. Go to Administrative Requirements—Management Systems and Procedures—Program Income.
Program Official (PO) The NIH official responsible for the programmatic, scientific, and/or technical aspects of a grant.
Programmatic Reduction The dollar amount a grant award is reduced from the amount recommended by the study section (scientific review group). This is done so Institutes can maintain a sufficient number of grants in their portfolio and to combat inflation of grant costs.
Progress Number Commonly referred to as the application number or grant number, depending upon its processing status. This unique identification number for the grant is composed of the type code, activity code, Institute code, serial number, support year, and/or suffix code.
Progress Report Periodic, usually annual, report submitted by the grantee and used by NIH to assess progress and, except for the final progress report of a project period, to determine whether to provide funding for the budget period subsequent to that covered by the report.
Project Officer An Institute staff member who coordinates the substantive aspects of a contract from planning the request for proposal to oversight.
Project Period The total time for which support of a project has been programmatically approved. The total project period comprises the initial competitive segment, any subsequent competitive segment(s) resulting from a competing continuation award(s), and non-competing extensions.
Protocol Formal description and design for a specific research project. A protocol involving human subject research must be reviewed and approved by an Institutional Review Board (IRB) if the research is not exempt, and by an IRB or other designated institutional process for exempt research.
Public Access Policy The NIH policy designed to ensure that the public has access to the published results of NIH-funded research. See http://publicaccess.nih.gov/
Public Health Service (PHS) Umbrella organization in the U.S. Federal Government consisting of eight HHS health Agencies, the Office of Public Health and Science, and the Commissioned Corps (a uniformed service of more than 6,000 health professionals).  The NIH is the largest Agency within the PHS. Go to Office of Public Health and Science, HHS.
PubMed PubMed provides access to citations from biomedical literature. It includes over 17 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals for biomedical articles back to the 1950s, along with links to full text articles and other scientific resources. These citations are indexed with a PMID, a series of numbers.
PubMed Central (PMC) PubMed Central (PMC) is the NIH digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed journal papers. These papers are indexed with a PMCID, a series of numbers preceded by ‘PMC’.  PMC content is publicly accessible and integrated with other databases. See: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/.

PubMed Central Reference Number (PMCID)

The reference number assigned to an article or manuscript archived in PubMed Central.  The PMCID is the number that must be cited on applications, proposals or reports as part of compliance with the Public Access Policy. See also “Citation ID.”
PubMed ID Number (PMID) The unique number assigned to a PubMed citation for an article published in a journal.  This number does NOT indicate compliance with the Public Access Policy.


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 - R -

Rating Criteria See Initial Peer Review Criteria.
Real Property Land, including land improvements, structures, and appurtenances, but not movable machinery and equipment.
Rebuttal Procedure for contesting the peer review of a grant application. Synonymous with appeal.
Receipt, Referral, and Assignment of Applications Routing of applications arriving at NIH. The referral section of CSR is the central receipt point for competing applications. CSR referral officers assign each application to an Institute and refer it to a scientific review group, notifying applicants of these assignments by mail. Alternatively, NIH encourages applicants to self assign.
Recipient Organizational entity or individual receiving a grant or cooperative agreement. See Grantee.
Recommended D esignation given by a study section advising funding of an application. The application gets a priority score and summary statement. Roughly the top half of applications being reviewed are recommended for funding.
Recommended Levels of Future Support Funding level recommended for each future year approved by the scientific review group, subject to availability of funds and scientific progress.
Re-Competing Grant whose term (e.g., four years) is over and for which the applicant is again seeking NIH support.

Also known as type 2, competing continuation application, and renewal.
Renewal See Competing Continuation and Application Types--Type 2.
Request for Application (RFA) The official statement inviting grant or cooperative agreement applications to accomplish a specific program purpose. RFAs indicate the amount of funds set aside for the competition and generally identify a single application receipt date.
Request for Proposals (RFP) Announces that NIH would like to award a contract to meet a specific need, such as the development of an animal model. RFPs have a single application receipt date and are published in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts.
Research A systematic, intensive study intended to increase knowledge or understanding of the subject studied, a systematic study specifically directed toward applying new knowledge to meet a recognized need, or a systematic application of knowledge to the production of useful materials, devices, and systems or methods, including design, development, and improvement of prototypes and new processes to meet specific requirements. Also termed “research and development.”
Research Career Awards (RCA) See Career Development Awards.
Research and Development (R& D) Contract A funding mechanism by which the NIH procures specific services. These are negotiated contracts which may be funded from intramural or extramural accounts. Excluded are inter/intra-Agency agreements (Y01 and Y02), resource and support contracts (N02), and station support contracts (N03).
Research Facilities Improvement Program (RFIP) The National Center for Research Resources supports the Research Facilities Improvement Program (RFIP). RFIP grants are provided to public and nonprofit private biomedical institutions to expand, remodel, and renovate or alter existing research and animal facilities or construct new research and animal facilities. Improvements under this program must support basic and/or clinical biomedical and behavioral research, and they may also support research training.
Research Grants

Extramural awards made for Other Research Grants, Research Centers , Research Projects, and SBIR/STTRs.   Includes the following:

  • R,P,M,S,K,U series (excluding UC6)
  • DP1, DP2, D42, G12.
Research Misconduct Fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reporting research, or in reporting research results.

  • Fabrication is making up data or results and recording or reporting them.
  • Falsification is manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that research is not accurately represented in the research record.
  • Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit. The term does not include honest error or honest differences of opinion.
Research Portfolio The cohort of grants supported by a given NIH organization.
Research Projects

Includes the following selected Research Grant and Cooperative Agreement activities:

  • R01, R03, R15, R21, R22, R23, R29, R33, R34, R35, R36, R37, R55, R56, RC1, P01, P42, PN1, U01, U19, UC1, NIGMS P41.


  • In 1980 & 1981 activity code, U01 was not a research project
  • From 1989 until 1992 activity code, R55 was not a research project
  • In 1986 NINR did not have any research projects
  • From 1984 until 1989 NCRR did not have any research projects
  • FIC did not have any research projects until 1994
  • From 1991 until 1996 NCRR did not consider R21's research projects
  • NLM never had any research projects
  • In FY 2002, P41s not RPG for NIGMS.
Research Project Grant ( RPG ) Supports discrete, specified, circumscribed projects to be performed by named investigators in areas representing their specific interest and competencies. See Research Project s.
Research Supplement Monies adding funds to an existing grant to support and promote diversity, people with disabilities, and people returning to work from family responsibilities.
Restriction Special term and condition in a Notice of Award or article in a contract that limits activities and expenditures for human subjects or animal research. It may be lifted or adjusted after the award if the requirements are met.

Grants.gov term for a grant application resubmitted to NIH after a PD/PI applicant who did not succeed in getting funded revises it based on feedback from the initial peer review. Previous NIH term was "revision."   A resubmission has an entry in its application identification number, e.g., A1.

See Resubmission Policy.
Review Cycle Refers to the Center for Scientific Review's thrice yearly initial peer review cycle, from the receipt of applications to the date of the review. See Standard Receipt Dates.
Revision Grants.gov term for money added to a grant to expand its scope or meet needs of a research protocol. Applicants must apply and undergo peer review.

The NIH term has been "competing supplemental." NOTE: The former NIH term, "revision," is now “resubmission” in Grants.gov.
Roadmap Initiative (RM) Identifies applications which are responsive to the NIH Roadmap initiative. Go to NIH Roadmap.
Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Awards (NRSA) Awards to both individuals and institutions to provide research training in specified health-related areas. Go to Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award Research Training Grants and Fellowships .


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Salary Cap/Limitation A legislatively-mandated provision limiting the direct salary (also known as salary or institutional base salary, but excluding any fringe benefits and F&A costs) for individuals working on NIH grants, cooperative agreement awards, and extramural research and development contracts. For current and historical salary cap levels, go to Salary Cap Summary.
Scientific Overlap Overlap of support occurs when substantially similar research is proposed in more than one concurrent PHS grant application.
Scientific Review Officer (SRO) A Federal scientist who presides over a scientific review group and is responsible for coordinating and reporting the review of each application assigned to it. The SRO serves as an intermediary between the applicant and reviewers and prepares summary statements for all applications reviewed.
Scientific Review Group (SRG) The first level of a two-stage peer review system. These legislatively mandated panels of subject matter experts are established according to scientific discipline or medical specialty. Their primary function is the review and rating of research grant applications for scientific and technical merit. They make recommendations for the appropriate level of support and duration of award. See also Dual Review System.

Also known as Study Section.
Scored In the peer review process, applications judged by a study section to be competitive, i.e., generally in the upper half of the applications reviewed. These applications are assigned a priority score and forwarded to the appropriate Institute/Center for the second level of review.
Select Agent Biological agent or toxin listed in 42 CFR Part 73, 7 CFR Part 331 and 9 CFR Part 121, or the HHS and USDA Select Agents and Toxins List.

Investigators who possess or use a select agent must register with and get approval from either the CDC Select Agent Program or USDA APHIS Agricultural Select Agent Program, depending on the agent.
Selective Pay The funding of a small number of programmatically important applications at the margin of the payline as recommended by Council.
Set-Aside Money taken out of the budget for a specific purpose, for example, to fund a congressionally mandated program.
Sharing Model Organisms See Model Organism Sharing.
Significant Rebudgeting A threshold reached when expenditures in a single direct cost budget category deviate (increase or decrease) from the categorical commitment level established for the budget period by more than 25 percent of the total costs awarded. Significant re-budgeting is one indicator of change in scope.
Signing Official (SO) A Signing Official (SO) has institutional authority to legally bind the institution in grants administration matters. The individual fulfilling this role may have any number of titles in the grantee organization. The label, "Signing Official," is used in conjunction with the NIH eRA Commons. The SO can register the institution, and create and modify the institutional profile and user accounts. The SO also can view all grants within the institution, including status and award information. An SO can create additional SO accounts as well as accounts with any other role or combination of roles. For most institutions, the Signing Official (SO) is located in its Office of Sponsored Research or equivalent.
Small Business Concern A business independently owned and operated and not dominant in its field of operation; has its principal place of business in the United States and is organized for profit; is at least 51 percent owned, or in the case of a publicly owned business, at least 51 percent of its voting stock is owned by U.S. citizens or lawfully admitted permanent resident aliens; has, including its affiliates, not more than 500 employees; and meets other regulatory requirements established by the Small Business Administration at 13 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 121.
Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)

A program designed to support small business concerns conducting innovative research/research & development with potential for commercialization. For the computation of success rates, SBIR awards are not included in the count of RPGs. Go to Small Business Funding Opportunities.

Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR)

A program designed to support cooperative research/research & development with potential for commercialization, through a formal cooperative effort between a small business and a U.S. research institution. For the computation of success rates, STTR awards are not included in the count of RPGs. Go to Small Business Funding Opportunities.

Streamlined Non-Competing Award Process (SNAP)

Simplified process for the submission of information prior to the issuance of a non-competing award. Funds are automatically carried over and are available for expenditure during the entire project period. All NIH award notices identify whether the grant is subject to or excluded from SNAP.

  • Routinely applied to:
    • all R series grant mechanisms except for Outstanding Investigator Grants (R35s), Phase 1 Small Business Innovation Research Grants (R43) and Phase 1 Small Business Technology Transfer Grants (R41).

      NOTE: For Phase I SBIR/STTR awards that exceed one year, grantees should review the Notice of Grant Award to determine if their project is subject to or excluded from the SNAP provisions.
    • Career award mechanisms (Ks)
  • Not routinely applied to:
    • those mechanisms not having the authority to automatically carry over un-obligated balances (centers, cooperative agreements, Kirschstein-NRSA institutional training grants, non-Fast Track Phase I SBIR and STTR awards)
    • clinical trials (regardless of mechanism)
    • Program Project Grants (P01s)
    • and Outstanding Investigator Grants (R35s)
Source Selection A contracting term denoting the review process by which a contractor is selected.
Specific Aims A component of an application’s Research Plan which describes concisely and realistically what the proposed research or activity intends to accomplish by the end of the grant. Includes broad, long-term goals; hypothesis or hypotheses to be tested; and specific time-phased research objectives (e.g., to test a stated hypothesis, create a novel design, solve a specific problem, challenge an existing paradigm or clinical practice, address a critical barrier to progress in the field, or develop a product or new technology).
Scientific Review and Evaluation Award ( SREA ) Scientific Review and Evaluation Award is a payment made to a Scientific Review Group (SRG) reviewer. SREA funds are used to reimburse travel, lodging, per diem and honoraria for review group members. Also refers to the process by which the award is generated.
State Government The Government of any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any U.S. territory or possession, or any A gency or instrumentality of a State exclusive of local Governments. For purposes of NIH grants, federally recognized I ndian T ribal Governments generally are considered State Governments. State institutions of higher education and State hospitals are not considered State Governments for HHS's general administrative requirements for grants and the NIHGPS.
Statement of Work (SOW) In a contract proposal, the detailed description of the work to be performed under the contract.
Status Allows Principal Investigators to review the current status of all their grant applications and review detailed information associated with their grants. Institution Officials [ i.e., Signing Official (SO) or Administrative Official (AO) associated with the institution ] can see a summary view of grant applications, review the Notice of Grant Award, and access the Progress Report face page.
Stipend A payment made to an individual under a fellowship or training grant in accordance with pre-established levels to provide for the individual's living expenses during the period of training. A stipend is not considered compensation for the services expected of an employee.
Streamlined Review (formerly Triage) In the CSR peer review process, applications judged by a study section to be in the lower half of the applications evaluated in a given review round. These applications are generally not reviewed during the study section meeting, but returned to the applicant with the assigned reviewers' written comments.
STTR See Small Business Technology Transfer.
Study Section See Initial Review Group.
Subaward Collaborative arrangement in support of a research project in which part of an activity is carried out through a formal agreement between a grantee and one or more other organizations.

Also known as consortium agreement.
Subproject A subproject may include a scientific investigation, the provision of a service or resource, or a combination of activities and receives a specific review assignment and assessment (score and/or descriptor). Most commonly, subprojects are part of the M, P, S, and U mechanisms.
Success Rate Indicates the percentage of reviewed RPG applications receiving funding computed on a fiscal year basis. It is determined by dividing the number of competing applications funded by the sum of the total number of competing applications reviewed and the number of funded carryovers.

NOTE: Applications having one or more amendments in the same fiscal year are only counted once. Success rate computations exclude SBIR/STTRs.
Success Rate Base The basis for computing the Research Project Grant (RPG) success rate. It includes the total number of competing applications reviewed (the number of applications subjected to a streamlined review process).

Also known as Rate Base.
Summary Statement A combination of the reviewers' written comments and the SRA's summary of the members' discussion during the study section meeting. It includes the recommendations of the study section, a recommended budget, and administrative notes of special considerations.
Supplement A request for additional funds either for the current operating year or for any future year recommended previously.

Also known as a Type 3 application or award, a supplement can be either non-competing (administrative) or competing (subject to peer review).
Suspension Temporary withdrawal of a grantee's authority to obligate grant funds, pending either corrective action by the grantee, as specified by NIH, or a decision by NIH to terminate the award. This meaning of the term "suspension" differs from that used in conjunction with the debarment and suspension process. Go to Public Policy Requirements and Objectives—Ethical and Safe Conduct in Science and Organizational Operations—Debarment and Suspension and Administrative Requirements—Enforcement Actions.


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Targeted/Planned Enrollment Data Provides race and ethnicity data for projected number of human subject participants to be enrolled in an NIH-funded clinical research study. The data is provided in competing applications and annual progress reports.
Targeted Research Research funded as a result of an I nstitute set aside of dollars for a specific scientific area. Institutes solicit applications using research initiatives (RFAs for grants, RFPs for contracts). Targeted research applications are reviewed by chartered peer review committees within I nstitutes. The opposite is Investigator-Initiated Research .
Technology Transfer Sharing of knowledge and facilities among F ederal laboratories, industry, universities, G overnment, and others to make federally generated scientific and technological advances accessible to private industry and S tate and local G overnments. Go to NIH Office of Technology Transfer .
Termination Permanent withdrawal by NIH of a grantee's authority to obligate previously awarded grant funds before that authority would otherwise expire, including the voluntary relinquishment of that authority by the grantee.
Terms and Conditions of Award All legal requirements imposed on a grant by NIH, whether based on statue, regulation, policy, or other document referenced in the grant award, or specified by the grant award document itself. The Notice of Award may include both standard and special conditions that are considered necessary to attain the grant's objectives, facilitate post award administration of the grant, conserve grant funds, or otherwise protect the Federal Government's interests.
Tethered Application/Grant When applications are submitted for multiple PI's from multiple organizations, the application from the partnering Institutions are associated and reviewed as a single project. If an award is made, each of the involved institutions will receive a separate grant to fund the collaborative project. All applications are linked by a common project title and by cross-references within each application.
Total Project Costs The total allowable costs (both direct costs and facilities and administrative costs) incurred by the grantee to carry out a grant-supported project or activity. Total project costs include costs charged to the NIH grant and costs borne by the grantee to satisfy a matching or cost-sharing requirement.
Training Awards Awards designed to support the research training of scientists for careers in the biomedical and behavioral sciences, as well as help professional schools to establish, expand, or improve programs of continuing professional education. Training awards consist of institutional training grants (T) and individual fellowships (F). Go to NIH Research Training Opportunities.
Translational Research Translational research includes two areas of translation. One is the process of applying discoveries generated during research in the laboratory, and in preclinical studies, to the development of trials and studies in humans. The second area of translation concerns research aimed at enhancing the adoption of best practices in the community. Cost-effectiveness of prevention and treatment strategies is also an important part of translational science.
Triage See Streamlined Review.
Type See Application Types.


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Underrepresented Group Group underrepresented in biomedical research, such as people with disabilities, people from disadvantaged backgrounds, and racial and ethnic groups such as blacks or African Americans, Hispanics or Latinos, American Indians or Alaskan Natives, and Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.

Used as an eligibility requirement for diversity supplements, fellowships (F31), and other NIH programs. Also see human subjects and minority group.
United States The 50 States, territories, and possessions of the United States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the District of Columbia.
Un-obligated Balance

Funds not used by the completion of a grant's project period. Grantees must report un-obligated balances over 25 percent of total costs to the grants management specialist.

Grants awarded under expanded authorities may carry over un-obligated funds from one budget period to another within an approved project period without prior approval, as stated in the Notice of Award.
Unscored In the Center for Scientific Review peer review process, applications judged by a study section to be noncompetitive are generally in the lower half of the applications to be reviewed. These applications are not given a priority score, although they are reviewed and applicants receive a summary statement. Between FY 1992 and FY 1995 the term "Not Recommended for Further Consideration" (NRFC) referred to noncompetitive applications.

Unsolicited Research

See Investigator-Initiated Research.
USA Patriot Act Public law to deter and punish terrorism inside and outside the U.S. and provide investigatory and other tools, which include restricting access to select agents. Go to USA Patriot Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 and USA Patriot Act of 2001.


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Validation The systematic check of applications against the NIH application guide and Funding Opportunity Announcement instructions. The process can generate errors or warnings.


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Warning Any condition in an electronically-submitted grant application acceptable but worthy of bringing to the applicant's attention. It is left to the applicant's discretion to take any corrective action. The application goes forward even if the warnings are not corrected. NOTE: Some warnings may need to be addressed later in the process or the review stages.
Withholding of Support A decision by NIH not to make a non-competing continuation award within the current competitive segment.


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