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Protecting Our Nation's Health in an Era of Globalization: CDC's Global Infectious Disease Strategy
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Appendix E: Regional and Disease-Specific Surveillance Networks

A. Regional Networks for Disease Surveillance & Outbreak Response

  • Integrated Disease Surveillance and Epidemic Preparedness and Response Project, led by WHO/AFRO
  • International Disease Survey for diseases of epidemic potential (e.g., meningitis, yellow fever, cholera, measles, and polio), supported by USAID

Other disease surveillance activities in Africa:
The disease surveillance component of UNAIDS’ International Partnership Against HIV/AIDS in Africa (IPAA) monitors progress in reducing infection rates and deaths from HIV/AIDS, TB, and opportunistic infections.

As part of USAID’s African Integrated Malaria Initiative (AIMI), CDC helps ministries of health in Benin, Kenya, Malawi, and Zambia monitor progress in reducing illness and deaths from malaria. During 2001, AIMI surveillance activities will also be conducted in collaboration with the ministries of health of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nigeria, Senegal, and Uganda.

The U.S. Army Medical Research Unit in Nairobi (USAMRU-Kenya) is coordinating an effort to enhance surveillance for HIV/AIDS, malaria, yellow fever, and enteric illnesses in east Africa. Partners include ministries of health in Kenya and Uganda, the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), the African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), and CDC’s Kenya Field Station.

The Americas and the Caribbean Go to top of page
  • Amazon Basin Network
    Includes 7 laboratories from 5 nations
  • Southern Cone Network
    Includes 8 laboratories from 6 nations
  • Caribbean Epidemiology Center (CAREC) disease surveillance system
    Includes the 21 members of CAREC
  • Middle America Network
  • U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Diseases Surveillance Project
  • U.S./Canada International Circumpolar Surveillance project to enhance surveillance for invasive bacterial infections among indigenous peoples in subarctic regions of northern Canada and Alaska. This project is conducted in association with the International Circumpolar Surveillance project in Europe (see: Europe).

Other disease surveillance activities in the Americas and the Carribean:
The U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD) in Lima is coordinating an effort to enhance surveillance for malaria, yellow fever, dengue, and other hemorrhagic fevers in South America. Planners include ministries of health of Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia, WHO/PAHO, and CDC. An epidemiologist from CDC is currently stationed at NMRCD.

Asia Go to top of page
  • Mekong Delta Surveillance Network
    Includes China (Yunan), Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar, and Vietnam
  • Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network (PacNet)
    Includes 20 Pacific islands
  • Early Warning Outbreak Recognition System (EWORS)
    A collaboration between the Indonesian Ministry of Health and U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2 (NAMRU-2). It currently involves hospitals throughout Indonesia and is expanding to include hospitals in Cambodia.

Other disease surveillance activities in Asia:
Disease Surveillance and Electronic Networking are two of six “pillars” in a strategy to fight HIV/AIDS and infectious diseases endorsed at the 2001 summit meeting of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). (The other pillars are: Outbreak Response, Capacity Building, Partnering Across Sectors, and Political and Economic Leadership.) As part of this effort, work has begun toward the creation of an Asia-Pacific network of networks that will knit together existing electronic infectious disease networks and facilitate timely transmission of public health information across APEC economies. The cooperative system will build on existing APEC projects that enhance surveillance for influenza, E. coli O157 infection, dengue, and dengue hemorrhagic fever.

The first International Emerging Infectious Program (IEIP) was established in Bangkok in September 2001, as a collaboration between CDC and the Ministry of Health of Thailand. This IEIP site will serve as a resource for infectious disease surveillance networks in Asia.

The United States participates in binational projects to improve disease surveillance with Vietnam, Thailand, and Cambodia. These collaborations are coordinated by CDC, the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Science (AFRIMS-Thailand) in Bangkok, and NAMRU-2 in Jakarta. For example, an epidemiologist from CDC stationed at NAMRU-2 and a satellite laboratory in Phnom Penh is working with the Cambodian Ministry of Health to establish a school of public health. An epidemiologist from CDC has also been assigned to China to facilitate collaborative projects that address the prevention and control of viral hepatitis, which is a major public health concern in China.

Europe Go to top of page
  • E.U.’s EnterNet system for surveillance of international foodborne outbreaks
  • International Circumpolar Surveillance project to enhance monitoring of invasive bacterial infections in the circumpolar regions of Europe (Iceland, Greenland [Denmark], Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia). This project is conducted in association with the U.S./Canada International Circumpolar Surveillance project (see The Americas and the Caribbean).
The Middle East Go to top of page
  • WHO Middle East Initiative to enhance disease surveillance in Israel and the Palestinian Territories

Other disease surveillance activities in the Middle East:
The U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 (NAMRU-3) in Cairo is coordinating a collaborative effort to enhance surveillance for diseases of importance in the Middle East (e.g., meningitis, influenza, acute febrile illnesses, and antibiotic-resistant enteric organisms). Partners include the Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population, health authorities in Yemen, Pakistan, and the Palestinian Territories, WHO/EMRO, and CDC. An epidemiologist from CDC is currently stationed at NAMRU-3.

B. Selected Global Networks for Infectious Disease Surveillance & Outbreak Response

  • WHO Influenza Surveillance Network
  • WHO Global Network for Polio Eradication/Measles Elimination
  • WHO Supranational Reference Laboratory Network for Antituberculosis Drug Resistance
  • WHO Global Salmonella Surveillance (Global Salm-Surv)
  •   Box 14
      WHO and CDC: Collaboration on International Outbreak Assistance
    WHO Global Alert and Response Network (see Box 14)
  • Surveillance in support of the worldwide eradication of guinea worm disease
  • Surveillance for vaccine-preventable diseases under the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI)
  • GeoSentinel, the global surveillance network of the International Society of Travel Medicine
    Includes 26 travel and tropical medicine clinics: 15 in the United States, 2 in the United Kingdom, 2 in Australia, and 1 each in Canada, Germany, Israel, Italy, Nepal, New Zealand, and Switzerland

As mentioned above, the first International Emerging Infectious Program (IEIP) was established in 2001 in Thailand. As new IEIP sites are founded (see Priority Area 6), they will provide technical assistance to local disease surveillance networks and become members of a global IEIP network.

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Booklet Contents
item Contributors
item Table of Contents
item Preface
item Executive Summary
item Introduction
item International Cooperation To Combat Infectious Diseases
item U.S. Investment in Global Public Health
item Protecting the health of U.S. citizens at home and abroad
item Furthering U.S. humanitarian efforts
item Providing economic and diplomatic benefits
item Enhancing security
item CDC's Role in Promoting Global Public Health
item An evolving mission
item Vision for the Future
item Partnerships and Implementation
item Priorities and Objectives
1. International Outbreak Assistance
item Objectives
2. A Global Approach to Disease Surveillance
item Objectives
3. Applied Research on Diseases of Global Importance
item Objectives
4. Application of Proven Public Health Tools
item Objectives
5. Global Initiatives for Disease Control
item Objectives
6. Public Health Training and Capacity Building
item Objectives
item List of Boxes
item Acronyms
item Appendix A
item Appendix B
item Appendix C
item Appendix D
item Appendix E
item Acknowledgments
item References

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Date published: 2002

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