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Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)

  GRIN Taxonomie der Pflanzen
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Taxon: Symphytum officinale L.

Genus: Symphytum
Family: Boraginaceae subfamily: Boraginoideae.
Nomen number: 36020
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:136. 1753
Typification: View record from Linnaean Plant Name Typification Project of the Natural History Museum of London.
Name verified on: 02-Mar-1995 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 02-Mar-1995
Species priority site is: North Central Regional PI Station (NC7).
Accessions: 2 in National Plant Germplasm System.
  • all available ) NPGS accessions ) or .
  • all available ) NPGS accessions by country.

See also subordinate taxa:

Common names:

Economic importance:


Distributional range:

    Western Asia: Turkey
    Caucasus: Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia
    Siberia: Russian Federation - Western Siberia [w.]
    Soviet Middle Asia: Kazakhstan
    Northern Europe: United Kingdom
    Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czechoslovakia; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Switzerland
    East Europe: Belarus; Moldova; Russian Federation - European part; Ukraine
    Southeastern Europe: Bulgaria; Former Yugoslavia; Italy [incl. Sardinia, Sicily]; Romania
    Southwestern Europe: France; Spain


  • Bennett, M. 2003. Pulmonarias and the Borage family. (Pulmonaria) 181.
  • Davis, P. H., ed. 1965–1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. (F Turk)
  • Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. (CRC MedHerbs ed2)
  • Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, ed. 2. (Glea Cron ed2)
  • Greuter, W. et al., eds. 1984–. Med-Checklist. (L Medit)
  • Gviniashvili, T. N. 1976. Kavkazskie predstaviteli roda Symphytum L. (Boraginaceae Juss.). 122–125.
  • Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. (Dict Gard)
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934–1964. Flora SSSR. (F USSR)
  • Leung, A. Y. & S. Foster. 1996. Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, ed. 2. (Ency CNatIn)
  • Markle, G. M. et al., eds. 1998. Food and feed crops of the United States, ed. 2. (Food Feed Crops US)
  • McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. 2000. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. (Herbs Commerce ed2)
  • Munro, D. B. Canadian poisonous plants information system - on-line resource. (Can Poison Pl)
  • Rehm, S. 1994. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. (Dict Rehm)
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964–1980. Flora europaea. (F Eur)
  • Wickerham, L. J. 1969. Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 29:158.
  • Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. 1994–. Flora of China (English edition). (F ChinaEng)


Check other databases for Symphytum officinale L.:

  • Flora Europaea: Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)
  • Flora of China: Online version from Harvard University
  • Mansfeld: Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops
  • ePIC: Electronic Plant Information Centre of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • AGRICOLA: Article Citation Database or NAL Catalog of USDA's National Agricultural Library
  • Entrez: NCBI's search engine for PubMed citations, GenBank sequences, etc.
    Note: Defaults to a search by genus or species epithet if species binomial not found.


  • Seed: U.S. National Seed Herbarium image
  • Check for additional images
  • Google Images Images Note: Be advised that their identity may be inaccurate. Proper identification of a plant may require specialized taxonomic knowledge or comparison with properly documented herbarium material.

Abbreviations & symbols in GRIN Taxonomy

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Zitieren Sie als:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program.
Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [On-line Datenbank].
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
URL: (20 January 2009)

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