Involuntary Smoking SGR Bibliography: Online Help
Overview: Using the Bibliography Database
The following step-by-step outline summarizes the task of finding articles and data in the Involuntary Smoking SGR Bibliography and provides some tips for navigating the system.
Quick Search or
1. Go to Quick Search or Advanced Search. Links to both search tools are provided in the navigation menu on the left side of the page. (See Quick Search Tips and Advanced Search Tips for more information on these two search tools.)
2. Enter your search criteria and then click Search. The system will then list the articles that match your search criteria, if any.
3. View the list of search results. When first displayed, articles in the search results are sorted primarily by publication year and secondarily by title. To re-sort the results, click the up/down arrows at the top of the results list.
Tip: To return to the Quick Search or Advanced Search page without losing the last search criteria you entered, click the Quick Search or Advanced Search link in the "breadcrumb" navigation menu at the top or bottom of the Search Results page. Do not click the browser's Back button.
4. To display information on an article, click the Article Number in the search results list. The system will display the Article Information page for the selected article.
||5. View the abstract and other high-level information about the selected article and associated study.
Note: Under Available Data Results by Outcome, the Article Information page lists the outcomes associated with the article and, for each outcome, the number of data results availabe in tabular (and graphic) format. When an article provides data results that are not abstractable to the tabular format used throughout this SGR bibliography, a summary of those results is provided at the bottom of the page under Summary of Findings.
Tip: To browse the abstracts for other articles in the search results, click the Previous and Next links at the top or bottom of the Article Information page.
6. To see study information about a specific outcome associated with the article (e.g., lung cancer, asthma, or low birth weight), click the corresponding outcome link under Available Data Results by Outcome (on the Article Information page). The system will display the Available Data page for the selected article and outcome.
(for Selected Outcome)
7. View the list of available data for the selected article and outcome.
Tip: Use the Glossary provided in this Online Help to find definitions for information fields in the Bibliography.
8. To see a data result (in both tabular and graphical formats), click the result number. The system will display the Data Result page for the selected result.
9. View the data result for the selected article and outcome.
Note: Each data result is presented as either a bar chart or line graph depending on the type of data provided. The line graphs in this database can be very useful when you are browsing a set of data results to identify trends or patterns among the data set. However, to get the complete picture for a specific data result, you should look at the tabular presentation of the data above the line graph. The reason is that, for each X value (coordinate) expressed as a range, the line graph shows the data point at the median value for the range. For example, the value 1–9 cigarettes per day would be plotted as 5 cigarettes per day on a line graph. The value 1–5 hours of exposure per day would be plotted as 3 hours of exposure per day. See illustration.
Tips: To page through other data results for the selected article and outcome (if any), click the Previous and Next links above or below the bar chart/line graph. To return to the Article Information page or the Available Data page, use the "breadcrumb" navigation links at the top or bottom of the page.
Finding previously viewed articles: To access the Article Information page for any article you viewed during the same Web session, click Viewed Articles in the navigation menu on the left side of the page.
Quick Search Tips
The Quick Search provides a quick way to search for one or more text strings in article abstracts, titles, authors, keywords, and outcomes/diseases. The system will return only those articles that include all text strings in your search criteria. For example, if you enter "cellular Smith," the system will return only the articles that include both cellular and Smith. For best results, follow these guidelines:
- Check spellings carefully. A misspelling could result in no articles being returned.
- Do not use punctuation to separate or group text strings.
- Check Match whole words only to limit your search to whole-word occurrences of text strings. For example, if you are interested in occurrences of responsiveness but not hyperresponsiveness, type "responsiveness" (without quotation marks) in the Quick Search field and check Match whole words only.
Advanced Search Tips
Advanced Search allows you to specify search criteria by one or more types of information (e.g., study type, result type, or author). When using Advanced Search criteria, follow these guidelines:
- When entering text in the Keywords field, check spellings carefully. A misspelling could result in no articles being returned. (Note also that the system will return only those article entries that include all text entered in the Keywords field.)
- In the Keywords field, do not use punctuation to separate or group words.
- When selecting authors, remember that some authors have published under different names. For example, "Brown, Robert J" and "Brown, RJ" could be the same author.
- Instead of selecting an author in the list, you can type the author's last name in the Keywords field, but do this only if you are certain of the spelling.
- Some data results do not fall under the categories provided in the SHS Locations and SHS Source fields. To include these data results in your search, select ANY for these fields.
- Some article entries do not include data results. To see only the articles with viewable data results, check Find articles with viewable data results only.
The method by which case selection is made certain or confirmed.
Possible causative factors other than the one under study that are taken into account so that the effects of the main factor under study can be observed.
An individual indicating current smoking of cigarettes or other tobacco products, as defined by the study.
An individual indicating current or past smoking of cigarettes or other tobacco products, as defined by the study.
Ex-Smoker (Former Smoker):
An individual indicating past use of cigarettes or other tobacco products, as defined by the study.
The study of the microscopic structure of tissues within the human body.
An individual indicating no or minimal smoking of cigarettes or other tobacco products in his or her lifetime, as defined by the study.
An individual indicating no or minimal smoking of cigarettes or other tobacco products within a specific timeframe, as defined by the study.
Number of Cases:
The number of individuals with a set of circumstances or conditions being observed in a study.
Number of Controls:
The number of individuals in a study who differ from those under study (case group) by lacking the set of circumstances or conditions being observed in the study.
Number of Subjects:
The number of individuals with a set of circumstances or conditions included in a study.
A condition that follows as a consequence of specific action or exposure.
The disease or outcome (e.g., esophageal cancer, low birth weight, or death) under study.
Selection of some data from a study (e.g., men only, women only, or both) so that the effect of some variables can be observed.
A measure of an individual's cigarette smoking over a lifetime. The number of packs per day times the number of years a person has smoked. For example, 10 pack years could refer to a smoking history of two packs a day for five years, one pack a day for 10 years, or half a pack a day for 20 years.
A measure of the reliability of a statistical outcome of a study. The lower the p-value, the more reliable are the results of the study.
The consequences or outcome of the behavior or exposure under study.
Organization of data from a study (e.g., current smokers vs. nonsmokers or number of years smoked) so that variations in the behavior or exposure in relation to the study outcome can be compared.
The estimate of the probability of disease risk based on the outcome of a study. For example, for one study, compared to nonsmokers, smokers of 1–10 cigarettes per day may have a 1.6 risk of developing esophageal cancer, while smokers of more than 20 cigarettes per day may have a 2.7 risk.
A mixture of the smoke given off by the burning end of tobacco products (sidestream smoke) and the smoke exhaled by smokers (mainstream smoke). Also known as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).
Where an individual reports being exposed to secondhand smoke. For example, the individual can be exposed to SHS at home, at work, or at home and at work, etc.
From whom the secondhand smoke exposure is coming. A child can be exposed to SHS from his/her parents, siblings, other household members, etc.
When the exposure to secondhand smoke occurred. The exposure could have occurred during childhood, pregnancy, etc.
Whether an individual is a current smoker, a former smoker, or a nonsmoker. For current smokers, the number of cigarettes smoked per day may be listed.
There are different ways scientists may look for the information in epidemiologic studies. Some of the main types of studies are as follows:
Case-control—A group of individuals with certain behaviors, exposures, or a disease are compared to individuals without those behaviors, exposures, or disease.
Clinical trial—Groups are exposed to substances under study and compared to a group with no exposure. In a double-blind study, neither the exposed subjects nor the scientists know which individuals are exposed. Trials may be done with animals that are exposed to tobacco smoke or other substances, or with human subjects who volunteer to participate in studies of treatments for disease.
Cohort—A group is observed periodically over a period of time, often several years. Their behaviors, such as smoking, alcohol use, or food choices, can be looked at in relation to health or development of disease.
Cross-sectional— A group of individuals is asked questions about smoking, alcohol use, or food choices as well as about various health outcomes, including chronic diseases such as heart disease or cancer and acute illnesses such as colds. These behaviors can be studied in relation to health or development of disease.
Summary of Findings:
A field on the Article Information page that summarizes data results not abstractable to tabular format.
The range of years during which the data were collected for a specific study, especially a cohort study.
95% CI (Confidence Interval):
A range that, with 95% certainty, includes the true risk estimates.
Last update: February 3, 2006