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NIDA Home > Publications > Research Reports    

Research Report Series - Therapeutic Community



General Inquiries: NIDA Public Information Office, 301-443-1124

Inquiries about NIDA's treatment research activities:

  • Division of Treatment Research and Development, 301-443-6173
  • Division of Epidemiology, Services, and Prevention Research, 301-443-4060.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT)

CSAT, a part of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, supports treatment services through block grants, disseminates findings to the field, and promotes their adoption. CSAT also operates the National Treatment Referral Hotline (1-800-662-HELP). CSAT publications are available through the National Clearinghouse on Alcohol and Drug Information (1-800-729-6686).

National Clearinghouse on Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI)

NIDA educational resources on drug addiction treatment and publications from other Federal agencies are available from this source. Staff provides assistance in English and Spanish and has TDD capability; call 1-800-729-6686.

National Institute of Justice (NIJ)

NIJ supports research, evaluation, and demonstration programs on drug abuse in the contexts of crime and the criminal justice system. For information and publications, contact the National Criminal Justice Reference Service at 1-800-851-3420 or 301-519-5500.

Therapeutic Communities of America (TCA)

TCA is an association of member organizations that advocate for and promote understanding of TCs. TCA increases knowledge of the TC philosophy and methodology; develops and promulgates standards of quality for TC programs and practitioners; provides members with information, networking, and forums to promote the TC methodology; and creates a supportive atmosphere for members in their individual efforts and national representation. For more information, call 202-296-3503.


Carroll, J.F.X.; McGovern, J.J.; McGinley, J.J.; Torres, J.C.; Walker, J.R.; Pagan, E.S.; and Biafora, F.A. A program evaluation study of a nursing home operated as a modified therapeutic community for chemically dependent persons with AIDS. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 18:373-386, 2000.

Condelli, W.S., and Hubbard, R.L. Relationship between time spent in treatment and client outcomes from therapeutic communities. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 11:25-33, 1994.

Daley, M.; Argeriou, M.; McCarty, D.; Callahan, J.J.; Shepard, D.S.; and Williams, C.N. The costs of crime and the benefits of substance abuse treatment for pregnant women. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 19:445-458, 2000.

De Leon, G. The Therapeutic Community: Theory, Model, and Method. New York: Springer Publishing Company, 2000.

De Leon, G.; Hawke, J.; Jainchill, N.; and Melnick, G. Therapeutic communities. Enhancing retention in treatment using "Senior Professor" staff. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 19:375-82, 2000.

De Leon, G.; Melnick, G.; Thomas, G.; Kressel, D.; and Wexler, H.K. Motivation for treatment in a prison-based therapeutic community. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 26:33-46, 2000.

De Leon, G.; Sacks, S.; Staines, G.; and McKendrick, K. Modified therapeutic community for homeless mentally ill chemical abusers: Treatment outcomes. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 26(3):461-480, 2000.

Etheridge, R.M.; Hubbard, R.L.; Anderson, J.; Craddock, S.G.; and Flynn, P.M. Treatment structure and program services in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS). Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 11:244-260, 1997.

French, M.T.; Sacks, S.; De Leon, G.; Staines, G.; and McKendrick, K. Modified therapeutic community for mentally ill chemical abusers: Outcomes and costs. Evaluation & the Health Professions 22:60-85, 1999.

Grella, C.E.; Polinsky, M.L.; Hser, Y.-I.; and Perry, S.M. Characteristics of women-only and mixed-gender drug abuse treatment programs. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 17:37-44, 1999.

Guydish, J.; Sorensen, J.L.; Werdegar, D.; Chan, M.; Bostron, A.; and Acampora, A. A randomized trial comparing day and residential drug abuse treatment: 18-month outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 67:428-434, 1999.

Hiller, M.L.; Knight, K.; Broome, K.M.; and Simpson, D.D. Legal pressure and treatment retention in a national sample of long-term residential programs. Criminal Justice and Behavior 25:463-481, 1998.

Hser, Y.I.; Grella, C.E.; Hubbard, R.L.; Hsieh, S.C.; Fletcher, B.W.; Brown, B.S.; and Anglin, D. An evaluation of drug treatments for adolescents in 4 U.S. cities. Archives of General Psychiatry 58:689-695, 2001.

Inciardi, J.A.; Martin, S.S.; and Surratt, H.L. Therapeutic Communities in Prisons and Work Release: Effective Modalities for Drug Involved Offenders. Therapeutic Communities for the Treatment of Drug Users. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 241-256, 2001.

Jainchill, N. Therapeutic communities for adolescents: The same and not the same. In: DeLeon, G. (ed). Community as Method. Westport, CT: Praeger, 161-177, 1997.

Jainchill, N.; Hawke, J.; De Leon, G.; and Yagelka, J. Adolescents in TCs: One year post-treatment outcomes. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 32(1):81-94, 2000.

Liberty, H.J.; Johnson, B.D.; Jainchill, N.; Ryder, J.; Messina, M.; Reynolds, S.; and Hossain, M. Dynamic recovery: Comparative study of therapeutic communities in homeless shelters for men. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 15:401-423, 1998.

Martin, S.S.; Butzin, C.A.; Saum, C.A.; and Inciardi, J.A. Three year outcomes of therapeutic community treatment for drug involved offenders in Delaware: From prison to work release to aftercare. The Prison Journal 79(3):294-320, 1999.

McCusker, J.; Stoddard, A.M.; Hindin, R.N.; Garfield, F.B.; and Frost, R. Changes in HIV risk behavior following alternative residential programs of drug abuse treatment and AIDS education. Annals of Epidemiology 6:119-125, 1996.

McGeary, K.A.; French, M.T.; Sacks, S.; McKendrick, K.; and De Leon, G. Service use and cost by mentally ill chemical abusers: Differences by retention in a therapeutic community. Journal of Substance Abuse 11(3):265-279, 2000.

McLellan, A.T.; Lewis, D.C.; O'Brien, C.P.; and Kleber H.D. Drug dependence, a chronic medical illness. Implications for treatment, insurance, and outcomes evaluation. JAMA 284:1689-1695, 2000.

Mierlak, D.; Galanter, M.; Spivak, N.; Dermatis, H.; Jurewicz, E.; and De Leon, G. Modified therapeutic community treatment for homeless dually diagnosed men. Who completes treatment? Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 15:117-121, 1998.

Morral, A.; Reti, M.; McCaffrey, D.; and Ridgeway, G. Phoenix Academy treatment outcomes: Preliminary findings from the adolescent outcomes study. NIDA Research Monograph 182:111-112, 2001.

Nemes, S.; Wish, E.D.; and Messina, N. Comparing the impact of standard and abbreviated treatment in a therapeutic community. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 17:339-347, 1999.

Sargent, R.; Sorensen, J.L.; Greenberg, B., Evans, G.; and Acampora, A.P. Residential detoxification for substance abusers with HIV/AIDS. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 16:87-95, 1999.

Sia, T.L.; Dansereau, D.F.; and Czuchry, M.L. Treatment readiness training and probationers' evaluation of substance abuse treatment in a criminal justice setting. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 19:459-467, 2000.

Simpson, D.D.; Joe, G.W.; and Brown, B.S. Treatment retention and follow-up outcomes in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS). Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 11:294-307, 1997.

Simpson, D.D.; Joe G.W.; Fletcher, B.W.; Hubbard, R.L.; and Anglin, M.D. A national evaluation of treatment outcomes for cocaine dependence. Archives of General Psychiatry 56:507-514, 1999.

Wexler, H.K.; De Leon, G.; Thomas, G.; Kressel, D.; and Peters, J. The Amity prison TC evaluation. Criminal Justice and Behavior 26:147-167, 1999.

Wexler, H.K.; Melnick, G.; Lowe, L.; and Peters, J. Three-year reincarceration outcomes for Amity in-prison therapeutic community and aftercare in California. Prison Journal 79:321-336, 1999.

Woods, W.J.; Guydish, J.R.; Sorensen, J.L.; Coutts, A.; Bostrom, A.; and Acampora, A. Changes in HIV-related risk behaviors following drug abuse treatment. AIDS 13:2151-2155, 1999.


Letter from the Director

What is a therapeutic community?

How beneficial are therapeutic communities in treating drug addiction?

Who receives treatment in a therapeutic community?

What is the typical length of treatment in a therapeutic community?

What are the fundamental components of therapeutic communities?

How are therapeutic communities structured?

How is treatment provided in a therapeutic community?

Can therapeutic communities treat populations with special needs?

How else can therapeutic communities be modified?

Resources and References


Therapeutic Community Research Report Cover

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