The following is a description of four key Federal agencies impacting the administration of training programs.
The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) carries out its leadership responsibilities for the Governmentwide human resource development program by:
developing guidance that establishes program direction and impact, thereby encouraging a more consistent and effective approach to human resource development Governmentwide that complies with laws, rules, and regulations;
identifying methods for aligning human resource development strategies and activities with agency strategic plans so that human resource development philosophy, policy, and goals support the accomplishment of the organizational mission;
identifying state-of-the-art, research-based, cost-efficient models, strategies and activities for accomplishing human resource development objectives that can be tailored to the complexity and variety of missions within the Federal Government;
encouraging the development of training partnerships among Federal agencies, national professional and educational institutions, and others to realize cost-efficiency and avoid duplication of effort;
providing technical assistance to Federal agencies to help them carry out their responsibilities; and
promoting and conducting informational exchange programs that encourage the development of sound programs and financial plans for human resource development, with particular attention to planning, programming, budgeting, operating, evaluating, and improving human resource development programs Governmentwide.
The U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) impacts directly on Federal human resource development through funding and financial control mechanisms. Agency budget reviews frequently identify human resource development shortfalls or excesses that must be resolved in the budget review process. OMB also issues various directives that influence agency human resource development functions. Nearly all OMB directives on staffing, finances, travel, and outside contracting will directly or indirectly affect agency management decisions on human resource development.
The U.S. General Services Administration influences human resources development by the direction and control exercised on the management of items necessary to accomplish employee training and development. These items include procurement, travel, space, and forms of technology (for example, computers and related services).
In its oversight role, the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO), a part of the legislative branch, provides Congress with objective reviews of agency programs, together with recommendations for strategic intervention. These reviews lead to policy and procedure changes that make human resource development more effective. GAO also assists Government agencies in interpreting laws governing the expenditure of public funds. GAO opinions about what constitute lawful training expenditures are issued as Comptroller General decisions.