Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, US Population, 2001-04
The NCI Method provides the capability, for the first time, to estimate the
distribution of usual food intakes in the US population. This greatly enhances our
ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary
deficiencies and excesses.
We have applied the NCI Method to data from two recent cycles of the National Health
and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a nationally representative sample, to estimate
means and percentiles of the distributions of food intake for a range of sex-age groups in
the US population.
Dietary data were obtained from the 2001-2004 NHANES. The data were collected via two
24-hour recalls from 17,889 persons 1 year of age and older. Further information regarding the design and
methodology used in the 2001-04 NHANES is available on the CDC Web site.
Intakes reported on the recalls were translated into quantities from each of the food
groups of interest using the MyPyramid Equivalents Database 1.0, which was developed for
the 2001-02 survey. A nutritionist imputed values for 48 new foods reported in 2003-2004.
This analysis does not account for the differences in data collection and processing
procedures during the 2001-2004 time period.
The NCI Method of estimating usual dietary intake
distributions was used. This method uses either a one- or two-part model, depending on
whether the food in question is consumed daily by almost everyone. When a two-part model
is used, the person-specific effects may be correlated. In this analysis, if less than 5%
of the population had zero intakes of a food, an amount-only model was used. If more than
10% of the population had zero intakes of a food, a two-part model was used, and this
model was correlated when applicable. If between 5% and 10% of the population had zero
intakes of a food, both models were fit to the data, and the best-fitting model was
selected; in most of these borderline cases, the two-part model fit best.
Dietary recalls tend to be different depending on whether they are the first or second
report from an individual and whether the reported day was a weekday or weekend. In this
analysis, means and percentiles of the intake distributions were modeled for each food,
correcting for sequence and weekend/weekday effects and based on sex/age group. Analyses
were conducted for the entire population and for numerous sex-age groups.
[Return to top]
Results from the NCI Method using 2001-2004 NHANES data are presented in the tables
below. There are 36 tables that represent each of the main food groups and subgroups of
MyPyramid, as well as several other food groups and dietary constituents of interest.
These tables show the mean, standard error of the mean, and percentiles of the
distribution of intake for each food group, by sex/age group. Additionally, each table
has a corresponding Appendix table (denoted with an “A”) that provides percentile values
(rounded) and their standard errors.
- Tables 1 and A1: Citrus, melon, berries
- Tables 2 and A2: Fruit, other than citrus, melon and berries
- Tables 3 and A3: Total fruit
- Tables 4 and A4: Dark green vegetables
- Tables 5 and A5: Orange vegetables
- Tables 6 and A6: Dark-green and orange vegetables
- Tables 7 and A7: Cooked dry beans and peas
- Tables 8 and A8: Dark-green and orange vegetables and cooked dry beans and peas
- Tables 9 and A9: White potatoes
- Tables 10 and A10: Starchy vegetables, other than potatoes
- Tables 11 and A11: Tomatoes
- Tables 12 and A12: Vegetables, other than dark-green, orange, cooked dry beans and peas, and starchy
- Tables 13 and A13: Total vegetables, excluding cooked dry beans and peas
- Tables 14 and A14: Total vegetables, including cooked dry beans and peas
- Tables 15 and A15: Whole grains
- Tables 16 and A16: Non-whole grains
- Tables 17 and A17: Total grains
- Tables 18 and A18: Beef, pork, veal, lamb, and game
- Tables 19 and A19: Frankfurters, sausage, and luncheon meats
- Tables 20 and A20: Chicken, turkey, and other poultry
- Tables 21 and A21: Fish and other seafood low in omega-3 fatty acids
- Tables 22 and A22: Fish and other seafood high in omega-3 fatty acids
- Tables 23 and A23: Total fish and other seafood
- Tables 24 and A24: Total meat, poultry, fish, and other seafood
- Tables 25 and A25: Eggs
- Tables 26 and A26: Soy products
- Tables 27 and A27: Nuts and seeds
- Tables 28 and A28: Total meat, fish, poultry, eggs, soy products, nuts, and seeds
- Tables 29 and A29: Milk
- Tables 30 and A30: Cheese
- Tables 31 and A31: Yogurt
- Tables 32 and A32: Total milk, yogurt, cheese
- Tables 33 and A33: Oils
- Tables 34 and A34: Solid fat
- Tables 35 and A35: Added sugars
- Tables 36 and A36: Alcohol
[Return to top]
MyPyramid recommendations for each food group vary depending on a person’s energy
requirement, which in turn is influenced by sex, age and activity level. The lower end of
the range is generally for very young, inactive children, whereas the upper end is for
very active teenage and young adult males.
- MyPyramid recommendations for fruit intake range from 1 to 2.5 cups per day.
Seventy-five percent of the population consumed less than 1.5 cups per day.
- MyPyramid intake recommendations for dark green and orange vegetables and legumes, collectively, range
from .3 to 1.3 cups per day. The usual intake at the 75th percentile was .35 cups per day, for the
entire population and among most sex-age groups.
- MyPyramid intake recommendations for whole grains range from 1.5 to 5 ounces per day. At the 95th percentile,
the usual intake for the whole population and among most sex-age groups was less than 2
ounces per day.
MyPyramid does not provide specific intake recommendations for solid fat and added sugars per se,
but rather a discretionary calorie allowance that can be used for solid fat, added sugars,
alcoholic beverages or additional amounts of food groups above the recommended amounts.
Considering all that it is to cover, this allowance is small, ranging from 132 kilocalories per day (for very
young, inactive children) to 648 kilocalories per day (for very active teenage and young adult
- Seventy-five percent of the US population had a usual intake of more than 33 gm of
solid fat (297 kilocalories) per day and an equivalent percentage had a usual intake of more than 12 teaspoons of
added sugars (192 kilocalories)per day .
[Return to top]
The following individuals represent the team who developed the NCI Method and produced
- Susan M. Krebs-Smith1
- Patricia M. Guenther2
- Dennis W. Buckman3
- Raymond J. Carroll4
- Laurence S. Freedman5
- Victor Kipnis1
- Douglas Midthune1
- Amy F. Subar1
- Janet A. Tooze6
- Kevin W. Dodd1
1 National Cancer Institute.
2 USDA Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion.
3 Information Management Services, Inc.
4 Texas A&M University.
5 Gertner Institute for Epidemiology.
6 Wake Forest University School of Medicine.
[Return to top]