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NIOSH Publication No. 2003-119:

Work-Related Roadway Crashes -
Challenges and Opportunities for Prevention

September 2003


3. Federal Regulations and Standards Addressing Occupational Roadway Safety

Two Federal agencies in DOT—FMCSA and NHTSA—hold primary responsibility for developing and enforcing safety standards related to vehicle design and operation. Motor carrier safety is the responsibility of the FMCSA, established by the Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Act of 1999 as a new operating administration within DOT, effective January 1, 2000. FMCSA regulations cover commercial motor carriers, including long-haul trucking. NHTSA regulations set forth minimum design and safety performance requirements to which all vehicle manufacturers must conform. Three other agencies play roles in protecting workers who operate motor vehicles on the job. First, the National Transportation Safety Board, though not a regulatory agency, investigates selected roadway crashes and develops safety recommendations directed at Federal and State agencies and other groups. Second, the DOL’s Employment Standards Administration, Wage and Hour Division, enforces child labor provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) that define conditions under which workers aged 17 and under may operate a motor vehicle. Finally, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), also part of DOL, has regulations covering certain industries that address vehicle and equipment operation, primarily operation of machinery and equipment off the highway.


Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations, found in 49 CFR* 301 through 399, cover businesses that operate commercial motor vehicles† (CMVs) in interstate commerce. Motor carriers§ engaged in intrastate commerce only are not directly subject to these regulations. However, intrastate motor carriers are subject to State regulations, which must be identical to or compatible with the Federal regulations in order for States to receive motor carrier safety grants from FMCSA. States have the option of exempting CMVs with a GVWR under 26,001 lb.

The portions of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations summarized in this section were chosen for their direct relevance to occupational safety and represent only a small portion of the regulations found in 49 CFR.

*Code of Federal Regulations. See CFR in references.
Commercial motor vehicle is any self-propelled or towed motor vehicle used on a highway in interstate commerce to transport passengers or property when the vehicle
(1) has a GVWR or gross combination weight rating, or gross vehicle weight or gross combination weight of 4,537 kg (10,001 lb) or more, or
(2) is designed or used to transport more than 8 passengers (including the driver) for compensation, or
(3) is designed or used to transport more than 15 passengers (including the driver) and is not used to transport passengers for compensation, or
(4) is used in transporting material found by the Secretary of Transportation to be hazardous under 49 U.S.C. 5103 and transported in a quantity requiring placarding under regulations prescribed by the Secretary under 49 CFR, subtitle B, chapter I, subchapter C [49 CFR 390.5].

Interstate commerce is trade, traffic, or transportation in the United States
(1) between a place in a State and a place outside of such State (including a place outside of the United States),
(2) between two places in a State through another State or a place outside of the United States, or
(3) between two places in a State as part of trade, traffic, or transportation originating or terminating outside the State or the United States [49 CFR 390.5].

§Motor carrier is a for hire motor carrier or a private motor carrier. The term includes a motor carrier’s agents, officers, and representatives as well as employees responsible for hiring, supervising, training, assigning, or dispatching of drivers and employees concerned with the installation, inspection, and maintenance of motor vehicle equipment and/or accessories [49 CFR 390.5].


Table of Contents
Data on Work-Related Roadway Crashes
Federal Regulations and Standards Addressing Occupational Roadway Safety
Special Topics
Strategies for Preventing Work-Related Roadway Crashes
Research Needs

On This Page...

3. Federal Regulations and Standards Addressing Occupational Roadway Safety
3.1 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations
3.2 NHTSA Vehicle Safety Standards
3.3 National Transportation Safety Board
3.4 Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)
3.5 OSHA Regulations


3.1.1 Commercial Driver’s License Standards, Requirements, and Penalties [49 CFR 383]

“Drivers must obtain a commercial driver’s license if they are engaged in intrastate, interstate, or foreign commerce and if they operate a vehicle that meets the definition of a CMV.”

The commercial driver’s license program originated with the commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986. The goal of the Act is to improve highway safety by ensuring that drivers of large trucks and buses are qualified to operate these vehicles and to disqualify and remove unqualified and unsafe drivers. Drivers must obtain a commercial driver’s license if they are engaged in intrastate, interstate, or foreign commerce and if they operate a vehicle that meets the definition of a CMV. The minimum age at which a driver may obtain a commercial driver’s license is 21. The licenses are issued for the following classes of vehicles:

  • Class A—Any combination of vehicles with a gross combination weight rating of 26,001 lb or more, provided the GVWR of the vehicle(s) being towed is more than 10,000 lb

  • Class B—Any single vehicle with a GVWR of 26,001 lb or more, or any such vehicle towing a vehicle with a GVWR of no more than 10,000 lb

  • Class C—Any single vehicle or combination of vehicles that does not meet the definition of Class A or B but is either designed to transport 16 or more passengers (including the driver) or is placarded for hazardous materials.
Key Provisions of 49 CFR 383
  • Commercial vehicle drivers may have only one driver’s license [49 CFR 383.21].

  • A driver must notify the employer within 30 days of a conviction for any traffic violation other than a parking violation. In the event of license suspension, revocation, or any other disqualification from driving, the driver must notify the employer the next business day [49 CFR 383.31, 49 CFR 383.33].

  • If a commercial driver’s license holder is convicted of any of the following major offenses, he or she will be disqualified from driving a CMV for a period of 1 year to life: leaving the scene of an accident; committing a felony using a CMV; driving a CMV under the influence of a controlled substance or with a blood alcohol concentration of 0.04% or higher; refusing to take an alcohol test; driving a CMV under a revoked, suspended, or canceled commercial driver’s license, or while disqualified; or causing a fatality through negligent operation of a CMV [49 CFR 383.51, as amended in 67 Fed. Reg.* 49742 (2002)]. Serious traffic violations, violations of out-of-service orders, and railroad-highway grade crossing offenses result in disqualification for periods of 60 days to 1 year [49 CFR 383.51, as amended in 67 Fed. Reg. 49742 (2002)].

  • A commercial driver’s license holder will be disqualified from driving a CMV if convicted of any of the major or serious offenses cited above, regardless of whether the offense was committed while driving a CMV [49 CFR 383.51, as amended in 67 Fed. Reg. 49742 (2002)].

  • The Assistant Administrator of the FMCSA (or designee) is required to make an emergency disqualification of any driver whose driving constitutes an “imminent hazard” [49 CFR 383.5, 49 CFR 383.52 (amended in 2002); 67 Fed. Reg. 49742 (2002)].

  • An employer may not knowingly permit a driver to operate a CMV if the driver’s license has been suspended or revoked; if the driver has more than one CMV driver’s license; if the company, driver, or vehicle is under an out-of-service order; or if the driver violates any regulation governing railroad-highway grade crossings [49 CFR 383.37].

  • Applicants for commercial driver’s licenses must provide the names of all States where they have been licensed to drive any type of motor vehicle during the previous 10 years [49 CFR 383.71 (amended in 2002); 67 Fed. Reg. 49742 (2002)], and the State where the application is made must request and review the applicant’s complete driving record from all these States before issuing a commercial driver’s license [49 CFR 384.206, as amended in 67 Fed. Reg. 49742 (2002)].

  • Drivers must pass a general knowledge test. Required knowledge areas include proper use of vehicle control systems and safety features, backing rules and procedures, visual search methods, speed management, night driving, hazard perception, the relationship of cargo to vehicle control, vehicle inspection procedures, vehicle maneuvering in emergency situations, hazardous materials transport, and air brake systems. Drivers who will operate combination vehicles such as tractor-trailers must also understand coupling and uncoupling procedures and vehicle inspection procedures for combination vehicles [49 CFR 383.111].

  • Drivers must also demonstrate driving skills for each vehicle group they intend to operate. Skill areas to be tested include basic vehicle control (starting, stopping, or moving forward and in reverse), safe driving skills (lane changes, turns, signaling, speed control, visual search, and following distance), and air brake inspection and operation skills. Testing must be performed on the road [49 CFR 383.113].

*Federal Register. See Fed. Reg. in references.

3.1.2 Qualifications of Drivers [49 CFR 391]

This section describes the process by which drivers must demonstrate that they are physically qualified to operate a CMV. The process also requires an annual inquiry and review of each driver’s safety record.

Key Provisions of 49 CFR 391
  • A prospective CMV driver must possess a currently valid commercial driver’s license issued by only one State or jurisdiction [49 CFR 391.11].

  • An individual is not permitted to drive a CMV unless he/she has first demonstrated the ability to conduct a pre-trip inspection (as specified in 49 CFR 392.7), place the vehicle in operation, operate controls and emergency equipment, operate the vehicle in traffic (including passing other vehicles, turning, braking, slowing down), back and park the vehicle, and coupling and uncoupling combination units if the driver intends to operate combination vehicles [49 CFR 391.31].

  • Persons with certain physical, functional, or mental disorders that may interfere with ability to safely operate and control a CMV are not permitted to drive a CMV. Disqualifying medical conditions include clinically diagnosed insulin-treated diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, epilepsy, respiratory dysfunction, alcoholism or drug dependency, and psychiatric disorders [49 CFR 391.41].

  • Persons with any impairment of extremities that might interfere with normal tasks associated with vehicle operation are not permitted to drive a CMV [49 CFR 391.41].

  • CMV drivers must have distance vision of at least 20/40 in each eye (with or without corrective lenses), horizontal field of vision of at least 70º in both eyes, and the ability to distinguish the colors of red, green, and amber on traffic signals [49 CFR 391.41].

  • CMV drivers must be able to hear a forced, whispered voice at a distance of 5 feet (with or without a hearing aid). Hearing may also be tested using an audiometric device. In this case, the hearing loss in the better ear cannot be more than 40 decibels at 500, 1,000, and 2,000 Hz (with or without a hearing aid) [49 CFR 391.41].

  • Motor carrier employers must make an annual inquiry into the driving record of each driver employed. The inquiry, covering at least the preceding 12 months, must be made to the appropriate agency of every State in which the driver held a commercial driver’s license or permit during the time period [49 CFR 391.25].

The regulations include a standard form for reporting of medical exam results, and detailed instructions for the health care professional performing a medical exam for a prospective driver [49 CFR 391.43].

“Motor carrier employers must make an annual inquiry into the driving record of each driver.”

Future Plans

In July 2001, the FMCSA stated its intent to issue exemptions that would allow qualifying drivers with insulin-treated diabetes to operate CMVs in interstate commerce. The proposed exemptions were supported by recent studies showing that drivers with this condition have crash rates similar to or lower than comparison groups or the national rate. Drivers applying for the exemption would have to document no recent history of hypoglycemic reactions, seizures, or other disqualifying medical conditions. Drivers with recent at-fault accidents, convictions for serious traffic offenses, or license suspensions or revocations would be ineligible for the exemption. The FMCSA proposal calls for a strict glucose management protocol and periodic re-evaluations by medical specialists [66 Fed. Reg. 39548 (2001)].

3.1.3 Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles [49 CFR 392]

This section contains the rules for the safe operation of motor vehicles; it delineates the responsibilities of the driver and the responsibilities of the motor carrier.

Key Provisions of 49 CFR 392
  • Drivers are not permitted to operate a CMV if ability or alertness is impaired by fatigue or illness or for any other reason, nor may motor carriers require or permit a driver to operate a CMV under any of these circumstances [49 CFR 392.3].

  • Drivers are not permitted to operate a CMV while under the influence of a controlled substance (except for prescription drugs that will not affect safe operation), nor may motor carriers require or permit a driver to operate a CMV in violation of any of these provisions [49 CFR 392.4]. (Procedures for drug and alcohol testing in transportation workplaces are addressed in 49 CFR 40 and 382.).

  • Drivers may not use alcohol or be under the influence of alcohol within 4 hours of going on duty or operating or having physical control of a CMV. In addition, a driver may not use or be in possession of alcoholic beverages while working. Any driver violating these regulations is immediately placed out of service (prohibited from driving) for 24 hours [49 CFR 392.5].

  • Motor carriers must not schedule work such that a vehicle would have to be operated above the speed limit to travel between points within a certain time period [49 CFR 392.6].

  • Drivers must conduct a pre-trip inspection to ensure that vehicle parts such as horn, windshield wipers, mirrors, coupling devices, lights, and brakes are in good working order [49 CFR 392.7].

  • Drivers must ensure that cargo is properly distributed and secured as specified in 49 CFR 393.100 and 49 CFR 393.106; they must also ensure that cargo does not interfere with the driver’s view, movement of arms and legs, access to controls, and ability to exit from the vehicle. Drivers must also re-examine the cargo and load-securing devices periodically throughout the trip [49 CFR 392.9].

  • The driver of any CMV that has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver’s seat must be restrained within the seat belt assembly before operating the vehicle [49 CFR 392.16].

3.1.4 Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation [49 CFR 393]

This section contains exhaustive specifications for CMV parts and accessories, including requirements for protections against shifting and falling cargo [49 CFR 393.100, 49 CFR 393.104, 49 CFR 393.106].

Recent Changes to 49 CFR 393
  • Trucks and buses manufactured after March 1, 1999, must be equipped with an antilock brake system and a malfunction indicator system for the antilock brake system that meet requirements of the NHTSA Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards [49 CFR 393.55].

  • Trailers and semi-trailers with a GVWR of 10,000 lb or more manufactured on or after January 26, 1998, must be equipped with a rear impact guard that meets the NHTSA standards [49 CFR 393.86].

  • Trailers and semi-trailers manufactured before December 1, 1993, must be retrofitted with retroreflective sheeting or reflex reflectors [66 Fed. Reg. 30335 (2001)]. The regulations specify the size, color, placement, and number of sheeting strips or reflectors [49 CFR 393.13]. A NHTSA standard (49 CFR 571, Standard No. 108) already requires these on trailers or semi-trailers manufactured on or after December 1, 1993.

3.1.5 Hours of Service of Drivers [49 CFR 395]

This group of regulations specifies maximum hours of driving time and duty time for CMV drivers. The motor carrier and the driver are each responsible for following these regulations. Certain motor carriers and drivers are subject to different hours-of-service regulations. These include agricultural operations, oilfield operations, utility service vehicles, and drivers in Alaska and Hawaii. State laws that are more protective of groups exempted from hours-of-service regulations supersede Federal laws.

Revisions to 49 CFR 395, effective January 4, 2004, have separate hours-of-service provisions for property-carrying CMV drivers and passenger-carrying CMV drivers [68 Fed. Reg. 22456 (2003)]. Although the revision allows property-carrying CMV drivers to drive 1 hour more than passenger-carrying CMV drivers, the property-carrying drivers are also permitted 1 hour less of total time on duty. Elements in the proposed rule that would have required two consecutive periods of night rest for all drivers and electronic on-board recorders for long-haul and regional drivers [65 Fed. Reg. 25540 (2000)] were not part of the final rule.

Key Provisions of 49 CFR 395

For drivers of property-carrying CMVs:

  • Effective January 4, 2004, drivers may not drive

    • for more than 11 hours after 10 consecutive hours off duty, or
    • for any period of time after having been on duty 14 hours following 10 consecutive hours off duty.

Here, on duty means all time the driver is required to work or be ready to work. This includes time spent driving, loading, unloading, inspecting, repairing, or waiting to be dispatched [49 CFR 395.2].

For drivers of passenger-carrying CMVs:

  • Drivers may not drive
    • for more than 10 hours after 8 consecutive hours off duty, or
    • for any period of time after having been on duty 15 hours following 8 consecutive hours off duty.

For all CMV drivers:

  • Drivers may not after having been on duty 60 hours in 7 consecutive days (if the motor carrier does not operate 7 days a week), or after having been on duty 70 hours in 8 consecutive days (if the motor carrier operates 7 days a week) [49 CFR 395.3].

  • If drivers use a sleeper berth, they may divide the required off-duty hours (8 hours for passenger-carrying drivers and 10 hours for property-carrying drivers) into two periods, neither of which may be less than 2 hours long.

  • Drivers must maintain a record of duty status for each 24-hour period
    [49 CFR 395.8].

  • Drivers are declared out of service if they are in violation of the hours-of-service regulations, or if they have not maintained a current record of duty status. After being declared out of service, they may not operate a CMV again until they have gone off duty for the prescribed number of hours (8 hours for passenger-carrying drivers and 10 hours for property-carrying drivers) [49 CFR 395.13].

3.1.6 Inspection, Repair, and Maintenance [49 CFR 396]

This section describes driver and motor carrier responsibilities for vehicle inspection, repair, and maintenance. Appendix G to Part 396 lists minimum standards for the required periodic inspection of CMVs.

Key Provisions of 49 CFR 396
  • Motor carriers must systematically inspect, repair, and maintain all motor vehicles under their control [49 CFR 396.3]. Operation of a motor vehicle in a condition that is likely to cause an accident is not permitted [49 CFR 396.7].

  • Motor carriers must require all drivers to prepare a written report at the end of each day’s work on every vehicle operated that day. At a minimum, the report must cover brakes, steering, lights, reflectors, tires, horns, windshield wipers, rear vision mirrors, coupling devices, wheels and rims, and emergency equipment [49 CFR 396.11].

  • If the driver’s written report identifies any defect or deficiency that may affect safe operation, the motor carrier must repair these defects before the vehicle may again be operated [49 CFR 396.11].

  • A CMV may be used only if each component identified in Appendix G has passed inspection at least once during the previous 12 months. Documentation of the inspection must be kept on the vehicle [49 CFR 396.17].


“The NHTSA Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards [49 CFR 571] apply to all motor vehicles built for sale or use in the United States.”

The NHTSA Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards [49 CFR 571] apply to all motor vehicles built for sale or use in the United States. Vehicles manufactured overseas for the U.S. market are also covered by these regulations, whereas those built in the United States for export are not. FMCSA regulations that set performance standards for CMVs reference the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. Because these standards apply to all passenger vehicles built for sale or use in the United States, they are also relevant to fleet vehicles purchased for employee use and to personal vehicles driven for work.

The Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards cover both the crash avoidance and crashworthiness aspects of vehicle design. Crash avoidance standards include specifications for controls and displays, brake systems, headlights and reflective devices, tire selection, and mirrors. In some areas such as tire selection, separate standards exist for passenger vehicles and other motor vehicles. Specific to trucks, buses, and trailers is a standard addressing performance, equipment, and testing requirements for air-brake systems [49 CFR 571, Standard No. 121]. This standard became effective in 1975, but its requirements for stopping distances were removed in 1978 as a result of a court decision. These requirements were reinstated in 1997, and the standard was modified to require the addition of antilock brakes to air-brake systems [49 CFR 571, Standard No. 121; Krall 2002]. Requirements for antilock brakes and maximum stopping distances have also been extended to all multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses equipped with hydraulic or electric braking systems and having a GVWR greater than 10,000 lb [49 CFR 571, Standard No. 105].

Crashworthiness standards address aspects of occupant protection such as protection from impact from the steering control system, air bags, child restraint systems, windshield mounting, side impact protection, and roof crush resistance. Standard No. 208 contains requirements for lap or lap-and-shoulder-belt assemblies in passenger vehicles, buses (driver’s seat only), and trucks [49 CFR 571, Standard No. 208]. Although Standard No. 208 still requires only lap belts in trucks with a GVWR of 10,000 lb or more, U.S. manufacturers have voluntarily installed shoulder-belt restraint systems in these vehicles since the late 1980s [Krall 2002]. Also of relevance to CMVs are crashworthiness standards that address emergency exits and window releases in buses, rear impact protection, and rear impact guards [49 CFR 571, Standard Nos. 217, 223, and 224]. Rear impact guards, required for installation on trailers and semi-trailers with a GVWR of 10,000 lb or more, are designed to reduce deaths and injuries that occur when lighter vehicles strike the rear of a trailer or semi-trailer.


The National Transportation Safety Board is an independent agency that investigates major incidents related to all modes of transportation, conducts special studies on topics such as highway work zone safety and operator fatigue, and directs safety recommendations to Federal and State agencies, manufacturers, trade associations, private industry, labor, and others [Baxter 1995; Sweedler 1995]. The National Transportation Safety Board uses a multidisciplinary approach to crash investigation that (when appropriate) draws on specialized technical experts from outside the agency to assist the Board’s investigative staff. The investigative process usually spans several months and includes public hearings, a public board meeting, and issuance of incident-specific safety recommendations in addition to a written investigative report.

Because the volume of roadway crashes precludes investigation of all incidents, the National Transportation Safety Board investigates a small proportion of roadway crashes selected in cooperation with States. However, results of these investigations often suggest a need for broader study of particular safety issues and lead to creation of public forums for discussion. A recent example involving commercial vehicles was a public hearing on truck and bus safety in April 1999, which was prompted by an Illinois collision between an Amtrak train and a semi-trailer at a grade crossing and by a New Jersey motorcoach crash [NTSB 2000].

The National Transportation Safety Board monitors actions taken in response to each recommendation, advising the public and Congress if no reply has been received from the entity to which the recommendation was addressed. An example of this type of activity is the long-term monitoring of efforts by DOT over the past decade to address operator fatigue in all modes of transportation [NTSB 2000]. The Board has also created the “Most Wanted” List of Transportation Safety Improvements to advise the public of the need for critical safety improvements. Several current “Most Wanted” recommendations relate to occupational motor vehicle safety. They include a recommendation to the FMCSA to establish scientifically based regulations for CMV drivers that set limits on hours of service and establish predictable schedules for work and rest. Another group of recommendations addresses motorcoach safety issues such as the development of NHTSA performance standards for motorcoach occupant protection systems and a proposed NHTSA requirement that newly manufactured motorcoaches and school buses be equipped with on-board devices to record vehicle performance and event or crash data [NTSB 2002].


3.4.1 Child Labor

The FLSA regulates employment of persons aged 17 and younger by firms engaged in interstate commerce with annual gross revenues of at least $500,000. The basic minimum age for employment is 14 years in agricultural occupations and 16 years in nonagricultural occupations, though youths aged 14 and 15 may perform a limited number of activities in nonagricultural occupations. The FLSA also identifies 17 nonagricultural occupations declared by the Secretary of Labor to be particularly hazardous for 16- and 17-year-olds. Hazardous Order No. 2 addresses the occupations of motor vehicle driver and outside helper. On October 31, 1998, Congress passed the Teen Drive for Employment Act (Public Law 105–334), which modified the FLSA and Hazardous Order No. 2 to prohibit all on-the-job driving by 16-year-olds.

Key Provisions of the FLSA
  • Under the Teen Drive for Employment Act, no person under age 17 may drive on public roadways as part of his or her job if that employment is subject to the FLSA.

  • Workers aged 17 may drive only if the following conditions are met:
    • The driving must be limited to daylight hours.
    • The youth must have a State driver’s license valid for the type of driving to be performed.
    • The youth must have completed a State-approved driver education course and must have a record of no moving violations at the time of hire.
    • The vehicle to be driven must be equipped with a seat belt for the driver and any passengers, and the employer must instruct the youth that the seat belt is to be worn while driving the vehicle.
    • The vehicle to be driven does not exceed a gross vehicle weight of 6,000 lb.

  • Workers aged 17 may not perform the following driving tasks:
    • Towing vehicles
    • Route deliveries, route sales, or urgent, time-sensitive deliveries
    • Transportation for hire of property, goods, or passengers
    • Transporting more than three passengers (including other workers)
    • Driving beyond a 30-mile radius of the youth’s place of employment
    • Making more than two trips away from the primary place of employment in a single day to deliver goods to a customer or to transport passengers other than workers

  • The Teen Drive for Employment Act clarified the original Hazardous Order No. 2 (which allowed “incidental and occasional driving”) by stipulating that a youth aged 17 may drive for no more than one-third of the work time during any workday and no more than 20% of any workweek.

“A youth aged 17 may drive for no more than one-third of the work time during any workday.”

3.4.2 Motor Carrier Exemption

Workers who fall under the jurisdiction of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations are exempt from the overtime provisions of Section 7 of the FLSA, which guarantees compensation at 11/2 times the regular rate for work beyond a 40-hour workweek. This exemption applies to motor carrier employees whose duties affect the safety of the operation of motor vehicles that transport passengers or property on public highways (e.g., drivers, driver’s helpers, loaders, and mechanics) [DOL 2002].


OSHA regulations for certain industries specify that seat belts must be installed on most specialized vehicles and equipment. However, these regulations are limited to equipment designed for operation at off-highway work sites. They apply to industries such as logging [29 CFR 1910.266] and construction [29 CFR 1926.601 and 29 CFR 1926.602].


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