Notices of Restored Copyrights

In 1996, copyright was automatically restored in certain foreign works that were then in the public domain in the United States but were protected by copyright or neighboring rights in the source country. Owners of a restored work were directed to notify reliance parties if the owner of the rights planned to enforce the rights. One means of notification was filing with the Copyright Office a Notice of Intent to Enforce (NIE) a Restored Copyright.

Search NIEs

  1. Search the notices through the online Copyright Catalog of Documents.
  2. For titles of restored works filed in the Copyright Office and published in the Federal Register, search published lists here:

    Date Version
    Aug. 14, 1998 PDF, Text
    Apr. 17, 1998 PDF, Text
    Jan. 30, 1998 PDF, Text
    Dec. 19, 1997 Text
    Aug. 22, 1997 Text
    Apr. 25, 1997 Text
    Dec. 27, 1996 Text
    Aug. 30, 1996 Text
    May 1, 1996 Text

The Uruguay Round Agreements Act (URAA) of 1994 implements the Uruguay Round General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which includes an agreement on the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS). Several provisions of the URAA amend the U.S. copyright law at 17 U.S.C. 104A, 109(b); the URAA also adds a new Chapter 11 to title 17 and a new section 2319(a) to title 18. The effective date for restoration of copyright for works from countries that are currently eligible is January 1, 1996.

For further details, see the following: