1. Brush Fire In Southern California
Imagine the following scenario: It is
a warm, fall afternoon in the foothills of southern
California. The air is still and dry, with only the occasional calls of wrentits and scrub jays from a nearby canyon. Suddenly, a funnel of black smoke rises from the dry
brushlands. As the late afternoon breezes begin to pick up, the
smoke enlarges into a billowing cloud that resembles an atomic
bomb explosion. Soon the sun is blotted out by a huge mushroom
cloud and the air is filled with ashes and the distant sounds of
sirens and air horns. This is a brush fire out of control, a
common occurrence in the parched hillsides of southern California
and the beginning of one of nature's most fascinating cycles of
death and renewal. In fact, this scenario was precisely replayed
on October 22, 1996 in the hills of coastal sage scrub bordering
the east side of Palomar College.
A fire storm in the coastal sage scrub, a common occurrence in the dry hillsides of southern California during the late summer and fall. When fanned by dry "Santa Ana" winds during the fall months, these fires pose a serious threat to residential areas. Note: This photo was actually taken by my father Paul Armstrong near Sun City (Riverside County) about 20 years ago.
2. Giant Smoke Cloud In Southern California
A billowing cloud of smoke rising from a fire storm near Palomar College in San Marcos.
3. Charred Leaves That Fell On City Of Escondodo
Scorched and charred leaves that showered down upon the City of Escondido during the raging Paradise Fire of October 2003. The fire burned canyons and chaparral-covered slopes several miles to the north, producing a huge, billowing smoke cloud that carried ash and debris thousands of feet into the sky. Leathery (sclerophyllous) leaves of oaks (Quercus) that did not disintegrate in the fire were carried upward in the rising plume of smoke. In fact, smoldering leaves became airborne embers, quickly spreading the blaze to nearby slopes. Volatile terpenes in the leaves of Eucalyptus trees (including eucalyptol and citronellal) make them especially flammable. This massive fire was fanned by dry "Santa Ana" winds blowing from east to west (toward the coast), literally converting everything in its path into ashes and rubble. A. Red gum (cf. Eucalyptus camaldulensis), a common Australian tree naturalized in canyons throughout northern San Diego County. Eucalyptus leaves contain volatile terpenes that make them very combustible. B. Scrub oak (cf. Q. x acutidens), a hybrid shrubby oak of the chaparral. Although the common scrub oak with toothed leaves listed for this region is Q. berberidifolia, it is propably Q. x acutidens. C. Coast live oak (Q. agrifolia), a common evergreen tree in canyons and river valleys.
Note: These leaves were collected in a Target® parking lot in Escondido approximately 4-5 miles from the Paradise Fire north of Escondido (including Daley Ranch, Valley Center Grade and the road to Lake Wohlford). The leaves were essentially intact because they were only scorched or charred. Many leaves from this parking lot were so badly burned (carbonized) that they literally disintegrated when handled.
In terms of urbanized habitats,
California's fire storms are one of nature's most catastrophic
and destructive forces. The fast-moving flames can sweep across
entire hillsides in seconds, and can suddenly change direction
with shifting winds. But in terms of natural vegetation, these
seemingly ruthless brush fires can be very beneficial to some
fire-adapted species. There are actually five climatic regions
of the world with a similar regime of mild, wet winters and hot,
dry summers, including California, Chile, the Cape region of
South Africa, southwestern Australia, and the Mediterranean.
Although they may have entirely different plant species, all of
these regions have similar chaparral-like brushlands with
wildfires during the late summer and fall.
4. Rattlesnake Crawling On Ashes One Day After A Fire
A red diamond-back rattlesnake (Crotalus ruber ruber) crawling through the ashes one day after a raging brush fire. Although I have the charred remains of animals, including rattlesnakes, wildfires do not kill all the animal residents of the chaparral and coastal sage scrub. Note: This photo was actually taken by my father Paul Armstrong near Sun City (Riverside County) about 20 years ago.
5. Exfoliating Boulders & Resprouting Shrubs After Fire
If you walk through the chalky gray
ashes and charred remains of a lifeless shrub forest immediately
following a fire, it is hard to imagine anything ever growing
here again. Often the ashy soil is littered with flakes of
granodiorite that split off of large boulders--proof of the
intense heat of the flames. Like peeling off the layers of an
onion skin, this is a major source of exfoliation of granitic
formations in southern California. However, this bleak and
silent setting of grays and blacks is only a temporary stage in a
complex series of miraculous events in which nature will
gradually restore the original vegetation.
Charred branches of chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum) with bright green resprouts at the base. The intense heat of the fire caused the blackened granodiorite boulders to exfoliate into thin flakes.
Brush fires in southern California
typically occur during the drought months of summer and fall, the
so-called "fire season." The native thickets of shrubs, known as
chaparral (and coastal sage scrub), are tender dry by late summer
and many species are especially combustible due to their high
content of volatile terpene oils and resins. The flames are
sometimes fanned by brisk "Santa Ana" winds, producing a raging
inferno that sweeps out of control toward the ocean. Thickets of dense, impenetrable chaparral, with masses of dead branches and
leaf litter which took decades to accumulate, are recycled into
rich, nutrient soil ash within minutes. With the coming of
winter rains, small green sprigs of grasses and annual
wildflowers begin pushing through the rain-soaked, ashy soil.
Within weeks the barren gray and black slopes are transformed
into velvety hills of green.
6. Subterranean Lignotubers (Basal Burls) That Resprout After Fire
By this time, green leafy branches have already developed from the bases of charred shrubs such as chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum) and mazanita (Arctostaphylos gladulosa), having resprouted from vegetative buds in deep subterranean woody stumps called basal burls or "lignotubers." These remarkable woody structures are truly adapted to periodic brush fires and are a major factor in the survival of native shrubs in the chaparral and coastal sage scrub plant communities of California.
[See the chamise lignotuber at left.]
To appreciate the tenacity of these basal burls, consider the mission mazanita (Xylococcus bicolor). In September 1993 the Palomar College Field Botany class found a small mission mazanita burl that was washed out along a dirt road north of Escondido (northeast of Palomar College). The burl had undoubtedly been exposed to the air since the heavy rains of the previous winter. We planted the burl in a test plot at the WAYNE'S WORD office and burned off the exposed branches with a small "ground fire." The staff at WAYNE'S WORD gave the burl several "simulated" rains, and within one month following the fire, new shoots began to appear from the charred stump.
Briarwood Pipe Made From A Mediterranean Basal Burl
Like the burls of manzanita (Arctostaphylos) in the California chaparral, briarwood also resprouts from subterranean basal burls after a brush fire. Due to arid habitats and infertile, rocky soils, it usually takes about 30 years or more for a burl of five to ten pounds to form. A ten pound (4.5 kg) burl is large enough to make about one dozen pipes. Briarwood burls are composed of very dense, fire-resistant wood. The pipes can withstand the heat of burning tobacco which may exceed 700 degrees Fahrenheit. High quality briarwood also absorbs moisture from the tobacco, thus producing a drier smoke that is highly prized by pipe smokers. Compared with other hardwoods, such as hornbeam (Carpinus), beech (Fagus), chestnut (Castanea) and cherry (Prunus), briarwood does not impart an unpleasant taste to the smoke.
Briarwood pipes are made from the lignotuber (burl) of Erica
arborea, a Mediterranean shrub of the heath family (Ericaceae).
7. Coast Live Oaks Resprout From The Trunk & Upper Limbs
When the trunk and limbs of most tree species are completely charred by fire, they seldom recover. In southern California, coast live oaks (Quercus agrifolia) resprout from the trunk and upper limbs within three months following a fire. This is technically referred to as epicormic sprouting. It also occurs in some fire-adapted species of Eucalyptus in Australia. The thick, fire-resistant bark of these oaks provides protective heat insulation for the living cambial cells beneath the bark. Compared with other oaks, the relatively smooth-textured bark inhibits the fire from being carried up the trunk. Instead, the flames are gradually extinguished as the bark becomes blackened and charred.
Epicormic sprouting of charred coast live oak (Q. agrifolia) 4 months after the Paradise Fire.
8. Burned Hillsides Covered By Beautiful Wildflowers
One of the most amazing phenomena in
nature's remarkable recovery from fire is the brilliant display
of wildflowers that appears with the onset of winter and spring
rains. Often the dazzling spectrum of color changes from orange
to purple, yellow or blue, as one population of colorful
wildflowers gradually fades and is replaced by another. Carpets
of golden daisies, baby blue-eyes and white forget-me-nots give
way to masses of purple lupines, penstemons and phacelias, mixed
with bright orange California poppies. The profusion of blossoms
is highlighted by vivid red clumps of Indian paintbrush, crimson
campions and scarlet larkspurs. Blackened remains of chaparral
thickets are decorated here and there with bright pink wild sweet
peas and purple climbing snapdragons. Twining vines of wild
cucumber often cover the burned shrubs, with large, spiny green
fruits which hang like ornaments from the charred branches. In
shady canyons and ravines lovely pink and white Chinese houses
resemble a miniature city of tiered oriental pagodas. Many showy
wildflowers develop from deep-seated bulbs and corms, often later
in spring after the annuals have bloomed and gone to seed. Blue
wild hyacinths and pink wild onions make their spring debut,
followed by beautiful lilac and golden mariposa lilies.
Orange California poppies (Eschscholzia californica) and purple canterbury bells (Phacelia minor) cover a burned hillside. Note: Photo taken in the 1980s near Canyon Lake in Riverside County.
The scarcity of wildflowers in mature
chaparral and their abundance after fire has been studied
extensively in recent years. Fires generally occur once in every
10-40 years and seeds of some wildflowers may lie dormant for
decades, and then germinate by the millions following fire.
Unfortunately, most of the reseeding campaigns to prevent erosion
include introduced mustards and weedy grasses, such as wild oats
and rye grass, which compete with and crowd out our colorful
native soil binders. Fire breaks down the impervious seed coat
of some wildflowers and allows them to imbibe water. Other seeds
will still not germinate unless tissue covering the embryonic
root within the seed is removed. Heat or other biochemical
factors may be involved in breaking dormancy in some seeds. Studies have shown
that the burned remains of shrubs greatly stimulate the
germination of certain seeds. The developing wildflowers thrive
in the ash and often grow much more vigorously than in soil
9. Three Species Of Beautiful Post Burn Wildflowers
Three species of spectacular wildflowers that appear after fires in San Diego County. Left: fire poppy (Papaver californicum); center: hillside monkey flower (Mimulus brevipes), and right: scarlet larkspur (Delphinium cardinale). With sufficient winter rains, fire followers often germinate in profusion from seeds in the ashy soil following a fire from the previous year. The scarlet larkspur is a perennial that can regenerate from seeds and from well-established root systems.
For decades, fire ecologists have tried to solve the mystery of how to germinate California chaparral wildflowers in the laboratory. The secret is burying the seeds in soil for a year and then exposing them to smoke. In the October 1998 issue of Ecology, J. Keeley and C.J. Fotheringham described 25 species of chaparral wildflowers that respond not to a fire's heat but to its smoke. The actual biochemical mechanism may vary with different species, and some seeds apparently require burial in the ashy soil before sprouting. The duration of smoke exposure may also vary, and may be lethal to some seeds. Seeds of fire-followers such as golden eardrops (Dicentra chrysantha) require a 10 minute exposure to smoke, while those of whispering bells (Emmenanthe penduliflora) need just a minute of smoke.
Botanist Gilbert Voss in a dense stand of golden eardrops (Dicentra chrysantha). Photograph taken on a recently burned slope of Tecate Peak in southern San Diego County (circa 1967).
Ground pinks (Linanthus dianthiflorus) form bright pink clumps on the ash-covered slopes north of Palomar College following a brush fire.
10. Allelopathy In The Coastal Sage Scrub & Chaparral
allelopathy (n): ah-lee-LOP-ah-thee; allelopathic (adj): ah-LEEL-ah-path-ik]
Studies conducted by Cornelius H. Muller and his graduate students during the 1970s indicate that terpene chemicals present in the resinous foliage and fallen
leaves of chaparral shrubs inhibit germination of wildflower seeds, a phenomenon known as allelopathy. Fire destroys these inhibitory chemicals that have leached into the soil, and explains the abundance of wildflowers in recently burned chaparral. [I have also observed an abundance of wildflowers in areas of unburned chaparral that were cleared for avocado groves.]
Some botanists believe that allelopathy does not adequately explain the paucity of certain wildflower species in unburned coastal sage scrub and chaparral. The classic aerial photo on the cover of Science Vol. 143 (31 January 1964) shows a mosaic pattern of white lines (bare ground "halos") around purple sage (Salvia leucophylla), white sage (S. apiana) and California sagebrush (Artemisia california) in the coastal sage scrub of Santa Ynez Valley northwest of Santa Barbara.
These bare ground patterns were attributed to allelopathy by Cornelius Muller, Walter Muller and Bruce Haines in their article "Volatile Growth Inhibitors Produced by Aromatic Shrubs" (Science 143: 471-473). Later in 1964, Philip Wells argued that these patterns may have been caused by factors other than allelopathy, such as cattle trails (Science 143: 889). In 1970 Bruce Bartholomew published a plausible rodent explanation (Science 170: 1210-1212). Small rodents such as the California mouse (Peromyscus californcus) and Pacific kangaroo rat (Dipodomys agilis) hide from predators under the dense cover of shrubs. They make short forays into the surrounding grassland to nibble on seeds or new growth. They generally do not stray far so they can quickly leap back into the shrub canopy for safety. Bare zones around shrubs can thus be explained as "calculated risk terrain" where rodents have a chance to grab food without getting caught. Herbaceous growth increases significantly in "bare zones" protected from rodents.
One problem with the rodent grazing hypotheses is that grasses grow within bare zones around shrubs during wet years despite animal activity. Why don't rodents always eliminate seedlings? In complex ecosystems such as the chaparral and coastal sage scrub it seems plausible that chemical factors may also be involved; however, chemical hypotheses tested in laboratories may not apply to conditions in natural habitats. Allelopathy has clearly been documented for some plant species and perhaps it cannot be completely ruled out for chaparral and coastal sage scrub plant communities.
The alleopathy controversy has been summarized by Richard W. Halsey in his article "In Search of Allelopathy: An Eco-historical View of the Investigation of Chemical Inhibition in California Coastal Sage Scrub and Chamise Chaparral (Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 131 (4), 2004, pp. 343-367). According to Halsey (2004): "For chaparral, it is clear innate dormancy in seeds can account for the lack of herbs under the community's canopy. The remarkable post-fire germination cycle can be explained without invoking environmentally induced chemical inhibition. Poor growing conditions under mature shrubs selected for traits postponing germination until those conditions improved, such as after fire, including higher available nutrients levels, more space and light, and lower herbivory." The previous quotation explains the abundance of wildflowers I have observed in recently cleared chaparral designated for avocado groves in San Diego County.
One of the best examples of allelopathy is the spotted knapweed (Centaurea biebersteinii syn. C. maculosa). This noxious European perennial weed secretes a potent allelopathic flavonoid called catechin from its roots that literally kills neighboring plants. Catechin has two mirror image forms, a positive (+) form and a negative (-) form. The +catechin is an antibiotic and antioxidant that prevents the formation of free radicals. It is present in a number of plants, including green tea (Camellia sinensis). The -catechin induces oxidation and cellular death in root cells of neighboring plants. Although the mechanism is complex, -catechin is a potent phytotoxin that causes plants to self destruct by producing free radicals as well as triggering genes that kill the cells. Cellular death may occur within an hour of exposure to catechin. See the following reference for more details: H.P. Bais, R. Vepachedu, S. Gilroy, R.M. Callaway and J.M. Vivanco. 2003. "Allelopathy and Exotic Plant Invasion: From Molecules and Genes to Species Interactions." Science 301: 1377-1380 (September 5, 2003).
In other species allelopathy has been demonstrated to play an important role in forests, influencing the composition of the vegetation and patterns of forest regeneration. The black walnut (Juglans nigra) produces the phenolic compound juglone, an allelopathic substance that interferes with the growth of certain plants. It has been shown that some plants are inhibited by juglone while others appear to be unaffected. It is well-known that Eucalyptus leaf litter and root exudates are allelopathic for certain soil microbes and plant species. The tree of heaven (Ailanthaus altissima) also produces allelopathic chemicals in its roots that inhibit the growth of many plants. More research may lead to a better understanding of the role of allelopathic substances in natural ecosystems, including California plant communities.
11. Fire Seeds Of Ceanothus That Germinate After Fire
In San Diego County, seedlings of shrubs also appear in the ashy soil after fires, particularly California lilac (Ceanothus tomentosus var. olivaceous), black sage (Salvia mellifera) and chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum). In fact, Ceanothus tomentosus is a relatively short-lived shrub and periodic brush fires are necessary for its rejuvenation and propagation. The roots of some species of Ceanothus have nodules containing nitrogen-fixing actinomycetes. These are fliamentous, fungus-like bacteria rather than the eubacteria found in the root nodules of legumes.
Two species of California lilac (Ceanothus) in the chaparral of San Diego County. Left: C. tomentosus (var. olivaceous). Right: C. crassifolius. Seedlings of C. tomentosus commonly appear in recently burned chaparral.
Seedling of Ceanothus tomentosus var. olivaceous four months following the Paradise Fire of October 2003. Seedlings of this species commonly appear in the ashes of recently burned chaparral.
12. Seed Cones Of Knobcone Pine That Open After Fire
Several species of California cone-bearing trees, including the knobcone pine (Pinus attenuata) and bishop pine (Pinus muricata) grow in chaparral areas and have fire-adapted serotinous seed cones. These species are able to reseed themselves after fast-moving fires as their tight, woody cone scales slowly open and release seeds on the burned slopes. In fact, without fire the serotinous cones of the knobcone pine may remain closed for the life of the tree. The knobby cones are so firmly attached to the trunks of old trees, that they literally become enveloped by the expanding bark.
[Left: Photo of knobcone pine cone cluster.]
Without fire, cones of the knobcone pine may remain closed for 80 to 100 years or more. In fact, Mr. Wolffia (the editor of Wayne's Word) once made a gear shift knob out of a cone for his truck. After more than 30 years, the cone is still tightly closed--with its shiny varnish finish. Fire provides the ideal seedling requirements for these shade intolerant conifers, including full sunlight and ashy-mineral soil devoid of leaf litter and debris (known as "duff" in ecological circles). In addition, the fire kills off certain soil fungi that cause a fatal seedling disease known as "damping off."
There are many other cone-bearing trees throughout North America and other continents with serotinous seed cones. For example, in the Rocky Mountains and the Eastern United States are jack pine (P. banksiana), lodgepole pine (P. contorta ssp. latifolia) and Table Mountain pine (P. pungens), three species with woody seed cones that open during a fire. California cypresses (Cupressus) also produce numerous clusters of serotinous cones. Although cypresses are generally killed in a fire, their woody cones reseed the charred hillsides with a new generation of seedlings; however, fires that are too frequent can be disastrous, particularly if the cypress have not had enough time to produce mature seed cones. Throughout California, ten remarkable cypress species (or subspecies depending on the botanist) occur in isolated groves, sometimes referred to as "arboreal islands." The groves often occur in rugged sites and on poor, rocky soils where chaparral shrubs cannot compete as well. Cypresses probably once formed extensive forests in California, but during the past 20 million years, have been gradually replaced by more vigorous chaparral growth. In fact, their isolation into widely separated groves of relatively small populations has undoubtedly led to some of the subtle "racial" differences in cones, bark and foliage characteristics between disjunct populations within the same species, a phenomenon known as genetic drift.
13. Seedlings Of Tecate Cypress Following A Wild Fire
Left: A burned stand of Tecate cypress (Cupressus forbesii) on the north side of Tecate Peak in San Diego County (near the California-Mexico border). The charred serotinous cones on the branches have released thousands of seeds. Small seedlings on the ashy soil include Tecate cypress and golden ear-drops (Dicentra chrysantha). Right: Close-up view of two Tecate cypress seedlings which have sprouted in the ashy soil following the fire. A cluster of charred seed cones is also shown in the photo.
Serotinous cones of cypress trees open following fire and the seeds are scattered on ashy slopes devoid of competing chaparral vegetation. Under optimal conditions of temperature, sunlight and winter rains, the seeds germinate in the mineral-rich soil and a new generation of cypress trees grows from the ashes. Unfortunately, the fire scenario can also be devastating to cypress groves. Fires occurring too frequently over the same area can destroy a grove if they eliminate the young cypresses before they have a chance to produce sufficient seed cones. I have obseved Tecate cypress (Cupressus forbesii) and Cuyamaca cypress (C. stephensonii) 14 years old with mature seed cones. These were small cypress growing in dense thickets. I discussed this issue with botanists Paul Zedler and Jack Reveal and they concluded that the fire interval should be longer than 40 years. Fires as frequent as 25 years could probably lead to their extinction in local areas. See Armstrong, W.P. 1978. "Southern California's Vanishing Cypress." Fremontia 6 (2): 24-29.
14. Seed Cones Of Lodgepole Pine That Open After Fire
Branch of an old lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia) in Grand Teton National Park. Unlike the Sierra Nevada lodgepole pine (ssp. murrayana), the cones are truly serotinous and remain closed until they are heated by fire.
Left: Burned lodgepole pine forest in Glacier National Park about one month following the fire of summer 2003. Right: Natural reproduction of lodgepole pine forest in Yellowstone National Park fifteen years after fire of 1988. Both photos were taken in September 2003.
15. Combustible Resin From Douglas Fir & Pines
Abundant resin ducts throughout the trunk and branches of healthy trees is vital to survive freezing winters and to retard the invasion of bark beetle larvae. During prolonged drought conditions, stressed trees produce less resin and are more vulnerable to bark beetles. In fall of 2003, this drought stress was especially evident throughout mountainous areas of southern California where thousands of pines were dying.
Dripping pitch from the trunk of a Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzeisii) in northern Montana. Conifers such as this ignite like a torch during a fire storm due to the combustible terpene oleoresins.
Turpentines include a large group of oleoresins from gymnospermous trees. Raw or crude turpentine is essentially the sticky sap or pitch from coniferous trees. In the U.S., raw turpentine is largely derived from southeastern pines, including longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and slash pine (P. elliotti) grown in large plantations. Crude turpentine is distilled in order to separate the volatile essential oils called "spirits" from the nonvolatile diterpene residue called rosin. Spirits of turpentine are used in thinners and other organic solvents, while rosin is used in the manufacture of varnishes and oil base paints (and for violin bows and baseball pitchers). Oil base paints also contain unsaturated drying oils, such as castor, tung and linseed oils. The settlement of North America was partially due to England's desire to rid herself of dependence on Scandinavian sources of resin, since the pitch was used to caulk ships and waterproof the rigging.
According to N.T. Mirov (The Genus Pinus, Ronald Press, 1967), all species of pines, except two California species, contain terpenes in their turpentines. The exceptional species are P. jeffreyi and P. sabiniana. The turpentines of these latter two species consists almost entirely of an alkane, n-heptane, with a small mixture of fragrant aliphatic aldehydes. The aldehydes produce distinctive odors in bark fissures of jeffrey pine variously described as resembling vanilla extract, butterscotch or pineapple. Pure heptane, distilled from the resin of P. jeffreyi, was used to develop the octane scale for rating petroleum as a motor vehicle fuel. The following account comes from Conifers of California by Ronald M. Lanner (1999): During the Civil War, Union manufacturers of turpentine used pitch from ponderosa pine (P. pondersosa) because southern pine resins (incl. longleaf and slash pines) were not available in the Confederate States. Sometimes pitch from Jeffrey pine containing volatile n-heptane would get into the heated distillation vats and cause an explosion.
16. Fire Adapted Australian Shrubs (Halea & Banksia)
An interesting South African conifer (Widdringtonia nodiflora) that grows in dry brushlands of the Cape region is remarkably similar
to our California cypresses (Cupressus). Like the serotinous seed cones of cypresses, the woody cones of widdringtonias open during a fire, but unlike our California cypress, widdringtonias also resprout after fire. This is a very unusual fire adaptation for a cone-bearing species. Although they are not conifers, beautiful flowering shrubs of the genus Banksia, a member of the Protea Family (Proteaceae) are well-adapted to wildfires in southwestern Australia. The
woody, cone-like seed capsules slowly open during the heat of a
fire, releasing hundreds of winged seeds on the ashy landscape. In addition, some species of Banksia resprout from subterranean lignotubers like chaparral shrubs of southern California. Banksias and widdringtonia can be seen in the Palomar College Arboretum.
Serotinous seed capsules of the Australian angiosperm Hakea petiolaris, a member of the protea family (Proteaceae). Like certain conifers of North America, the seed capsules remain closed for years and open following fire.
A recent National Geographic special on PBS (16 March 2003) mentioned a fascinating insect that is adapted to forest fires. The large family of wood-boring beetles (Buprestidae) contains thousands of species with larvae that bore under bark or into the wood of trees and shrubs. A species in the genus Melanophila lays eggs under the bark of recently burned trees. Infrared heat sensitive pits under the wings enable the female beetle to detect a distant forest fire many miles away. In fact, researchers are studying the mechanism of these infrared sensors in order to develop more sophisticated fire alert systems. The beetle flies toward the forest fire and lays her eggs in the charred bark of trees. Upon hatching, the larvae beginning boring and feeding on wood tissue beneath the bark. Recently burned forests are apparently the ideal place for melanophila beetles to lay their eggs. The remarkable life cycle of this beetle is truly dependent on forest fires.
It is difficult to generalize about the
beneficial effects of fire because there are so many complex
factors involved. The immediate benefits to a new generation of
plant life may not be readily apparent to the casual observer.
This is especially true at the time of a personal human tragedy
when a houseful of happy memories has been reduced to smoldering
rubble. Nonetheless, fire plays an integral role in nature's
cycle and has been doing so long before people inhabited this
region. With sufficient winter and spring rains these barren
hillsides will again become veritable wildflower gardens with
acres of colorful species. The air will once again be filled
with the perfume of sweet-scented blossoms and the sound of busy,
foraging bees. Plants have a remarkable tenacity in the face of
fire, and through their dormant seeds and underground burls and
bulbs, a new generation will gradually colonize the landscape.
Perhaps one day we will fully understand the role of fire in the
perpetuation of native vegetation, and the miraculous
transformation of ashes to wildflowers.
17. References Cited In This Article
- Armstrong, W.P. 1978. "Southern California's Vanishing Cypresses." Fremontia 6 (2): 24-29.
- Bais,H.P., R. Vepachedu, S. Gilroy, R.M. Callaway and J.M. Vivanco. 2003. "Allelopathy and Exotic Plant Invasion: From Molecules and Genes to Species Interactions." Science 301: 1377-1380 (September 5, 2003).
- Bartholomew, B. 1970. "Bare Zone Between California Shrub and Grassland Communitites: The Role of Animals." Science 170: 1210-1212.
- Chou, C.H. and C.H. Muller. 1972. "Allelopathic Mechanisms of Arctostaphylos glandulosa var. zacaensis." American Midland Naturalist 88: 324-347.
- Christensen, N.L. and C.H. Muller. 1975. Effects of Fire on Factors Controlling Plant Growth in Adenostoma Chaparral." Ecological Monographs 45: 29-55.
- Halsey, R.W. 2005. Fire, Chaparral, and Survival in Southern California. Sunbelt Publications, Inc., PO Box 191126, San Diego, CA.
- Halsey, R.W. 2004. "An Eco-historical View of the Investigation of Chemical Inhibition in California Coastal Sage Scrub and Chamise Chaparral." Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 131 (4): 343-367.
- Hanawalt, R.B. 1971. "Inhibition of Annual Plants by Arctostaphylos," pp. 33-38. In Biochemical Interactions Among Plants. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. 134 p.
- Keeley, J.E., et al. 1985. "Role of Allelopathy, Heat, and Charred Wood in
the Germination of Chaparral Herbs and Suffrutescents." Journal of Ecology 73: 445-458.
- Lanner, R.M. 1999. Conifers of California. Cachuma Press, Los Olivos, California.
- Mirov, N.T. 1967. The Genus Pinus. The Ronald Press Company, New York.
- Muller, C.H. 1966. "The Role of Chemical Inhibition (Allelopathy) in Vegetational Composition." Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 93: 332-351.
- Muller, C.H., R.B. Hanawalt, and J.K. McPherson. 1968. "Allelopathic Control of Herb Growth in the Fire Cycle of California Chaparral." Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 95: 225-231.
- Muller, C.H., Muller, W.H. and B.L. Haines. 1964. "Volatile Growth Inhibitors Produced by Aromatic Shrubs." Science 143 (3605): 471-473.
- Stowe, L.G. 1979. "Allelopathy and its Influence on the Distribution of
Plants in an Illinois Old-Field." Journal of Ecology 67 (3): 1065-1085.
- Wells, P.V. 1964. "Antibiosis As a Factor in Vegetation Patterns." Science 143: 889.