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Department of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Vaccines & Immunizations

Statistics and Surveillance:

Immunization Coverage in the U.S.

Immunization coverage - that is, estimates of the number of people who have received particular vaccines - is measured at national, state, and local levels. Several surveys are used to: 1) Identify groups at risk of contracting vaccine-preventable diseases; 2) Stimulate efforts to increase coverage; 3) Evaluate how well the efforts work

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National Immunization Survey (NIS) - Children only

The NIS is a large, on-going survey of immunization coverage among U.S. pre-school children (19 - 35 months old).

The tables, figures, and related articles in the table below, describe vaccination coverage at the U.S. national level and by state and immunization action plan (IAP) areas using results from the National Immunization Survey (NIS).

Some NIS tables are only available as Excel files.

(Children) NIS Data (timeframe)
January - December 2007 includes graphs NEW
July 2006 - June 2007
January - December 2006
July 2005 - June 2006
January - December 2005
January - December 2004
July 2003 - June 2004
January - December 2003
July 2002 - June 2003
January - December 2002
July 2001 - June 2002
January - December 2001
July 2000 - June 2001
January - December 2000
July 1999 - June 2000
January - December 1999
July 1998 - June 1999 *
January - December 1998 *
January - December 1997 *
July 1996 - June 1997 *
January - December 1996 *
January - December 1995 *
July 1994 - June 1995 *
January - December 1994 *

*The statistical methodology for estimating vaccination coverage rates for NIS data was changed in 1998. The new methodology facilitates valid statistical analyses accounts for the survey's complex sampling design. Small differences exist between vaccination coverage estimates appearing in MMWRs published before 1998 and estimates published on this website. More information on methodologies...

All estimates published on this website are calculated using this new methodology.

The National Immunization Survey (NIS) has been conducted annually since 1994 by the National Immunization Program and the National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The NIS is used to obtain national, state, and selected urban area estimates of vaccination coverage rates for U.S. children between the ages of 19 and 35 months. The NIS is a random digit dialing telephone survey of households with age-eligible children followed by a mail survey of the children's vaccination providers to validate immunization information.

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NIS-Teen Data - Adolescents/Teens only

(Adolescents/Teens) NIS-Teen Data (timeframe)
Press Release
January - December 2007 NEW Oct 2008
January - December 2006

* The data table and figure can be found within the MMWR article.

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National Immunization Survey (NIS) - Adults only

The NIS-Adult study is designed to help researchers better understand why some adults choose not to get vaccinated for preventable diseases.

  • Summer 2007 Self-Reported Vaccination Coverage among U.S. Adults pdf version
  • NIS-Adult was a landline telephone survey conducted during May, June, July and August 2007. The sample was selected at random from two national lists of household telephone numbers. (One list was age-group and racial/ethnic group-specific of respondents to the National Health Interview Survey. The other list was provided by a subcontractor, Survey Sampling International and was age-group-specific.) Vaccinations were self-reported and not validated by comparing to the respondent’s medical chart. The interview completion rate was 74% with a 64% resolution rate and a 64% screening rate for a CASRO rate of 31%. (“CASRO” stands for Council of American Survey Research Organizations, which defined a standardized overall response rate for telephone surveys that is the product of three specific rates—interview completion rate, resolution rate, and screening rate.) Before analysis the data were weighted to adjust for non-response, households that do not have a landline telephone or do not have a telephone, and to match the age, gender and racial/ethnic distribution of the country. The contracting survey company was the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago.

    For more information about the NIS-Adult, please view the Frequently Asked Questions by respondents.

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    National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)

    The NHIS is a nationwide survey of adults and children, providing information on vaccinations and other health data. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), conducted since 1957 by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is a continuing, nationwide sample survey in which data are collected through personal household interviews. Information is obtained on personal and demographic characteristics, including race and ethnicity, by self-reporting or as reported by another household member. Information is also obtained on illnesses, injuries, impairments, chronic conditions, health behaviors, access to health care and utilization of health resources, and other topics. A child immunization supplement has been included in the NHIS since 1991, and the survey is also an important source of information about nationwide adult vaccination coverage. Since 1994, the information collected from households with children 12 to 35 months of age has been supplemented with information from health care provider records.

    The tables and articles below describe vaccination coverage in adults in the United States for influenza, pneumococcal, and tetanus vaccines, using results from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

    NHIS Data
    1999 (provisional release)

    For more information about the NHIS, please visit the NCHS website at www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis.htm

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    Adults - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    State-based survey of health behaviors of adults, including adult vaccination at national, regional and state levels.The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) is a telephone survey conducted by each state health department with technical assistance from the National Centers for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The survey collects information on various health behaviors and risk factors for disease, including adult vaccinations. Using random-digit dialing, each state selects a random sample of its noninstitutionalized adult population (ages >18 years) who have telephones.

    The tables and articles below contain information on adult immunization coverage derived from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The tables show influenza and pneumococcal vaccine coverage for persons 65 years and older, by state and race/ethnicity; the articles include state-specific coverage rates.

    BRFSS Data Tables

    For further information, please visit the BRFSS website at www.cdc.gov/brfss/
    A direct link to the BRFSS Maps can be found at http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/gisbrfss/default.aspx

    Note: This file can be made accessible if needed. Please contact NIPINFO should this service be required.

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    More Information on Population-Based Surveys

    The following articles provide more information on the strengths and limitations of the population-based surveys described above.

    • Forty years and four surveys: How does our measuring measure up? abstract (exit)
      Source: Am J Prev Med, 2001; 20 (4S) 6-14

      Population-based surveys and their role in public health
      Source: Am J Prev Med 2001; 20(4S) 15-16 (abstract not available online)

      The Impact of Record Scattering on the Measurement of Immunization Coverage. www.pediatrics.org/ (exit)
      Source: Pediatrics Vol. 107 No. 1 January 2001, pp. 91-96

    • Comparison of NIS and NHIS/NIPRCS vaccination coverage estimates. abstract (exit)
      Source: Am J Prev Med, 2001; 20 (4 Suppl) 25-7

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    Articles from Other Surveys

    Adult Immunization Coverage Articles:

    Child Immunization Coverage Articles:

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    Non-CDC Link Disclaimer: Links to non-Federal organizations found at this site are provided solely as a service to our users. These links do not constitute an endorsement of these organizations or their programs by CDC or the Federal Government, and none should be inferred. The CDC is not responsible for the content of the individual organization web pages found at these links.

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    This page last modified on October 9, 2008
    Content last reviewed on October 9, 2008
    Content Source: National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases

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