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Scientific Literature Relevant to the Environmental Health of
Native Americans, Alaskan Natives, and Subsistence Hunter/Gatherers

The following is a listing of journal articles, government reports, and other information resources pertaining to the unique environmental concerns and needs of the Native American and Alaskan peoples. Much of this information is also relevant to subsistence use of plants and animals harvested from the wild, as well as from residential gardens.

This listing is derived from literature and internet searches. Each addition is reviewed beforehand, to ensure that it will provide valuable, objective information.

A Note of Explanation: In the future, we hope to replace this page by an interface to a database. This will allow much better browsing through our selections. Until then, please use the "find" or "search" function on your browser to search for articles of interest to you.

Author Title Citation / Internet Address
Abbott P.J. Carcinogenic chemicals in food: evaluating the health risk. Food Chem Toxicol. 1992 Apr;30(4):327-32. Review. PMID: 1628869; UI: 92332018.
Alaska Fish and Wildlife Conservation Fund and the Alaska Outdoor Council. Subsistence in Alaska: A briefing paper. Archive: Alaska Outdoor Council. Alaska Fish and Wildlife Conservation Fund and the Alaska Outdoor Council. 1995. the ATSDR website
Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence. Technical abstracts on subsistence. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence., the ATSDR website
Alyanak, Leyla Food pollution threatens lives of Inuits in Arctic. Earth Times News Service. Archive: World History Archive. 1997. the ATSDR website
Anderson, Douglas B., Wanni W. Anderson, Ray Bane, Richard K. Nelson and Nita S. Towarak. Kuuvanmiut subsistence: Traditional Eskimo life in the latter Twentieth Century.[Study of the lifestyle of the Kobuk River area in northwestern Alaska in 1974 and 1975. Describes the environment, subsistence activities and village life.] Alaska: Shared Beringian Heritage Program, US National Park Service. 1998. I 29.2:K 96/998.
Anderson, J.P. Plants used by the Eskimo of the Northern Bearing Sea and Arctic regions of Alaska. In An Ethnobiology Sourcebook. Richard I. Ford, ed. New York: Garland Publishing. Reprinted from the 1939 American Journal of Botany 26(9): 714-716. 1985.
Anderson, M.K. California Indian horticulture: Management and use of redbud by the Southern Sierra Miwok. Journal of Ethnobiology 11(1): 145-157. 1991.
Anderson, Kat and Gary P. Nabhan. Gardeners in Eden. The native peoples of the US had land management practices that protected the environment. Native American folk science has helped some Western scientists in identifying and protecting local species. Wilderness 55(194): 27. 1991.
Arnason, Thor, Richard J. Hebda and Timothy Johns. Use of Plants for food and medicine by Native Peoples of Eastern Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany 59(11):2189-2325. 1981.
Aten CF, Gupta SK. On heavy metals in soil; rationalization of extractions by dilute salt solutions, comparison of the extracted concentrations with uptake by ryegrass and lettuce, and the possible influence of pyrophosphate on plant uptake The Science of the Total Environment 178(1996) 45-53.exiting the ATSDR website.
Kuhnlein HV, Chan HM ooligan grease: a traditional food fat of western Canada and Alaska International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 57 Suppl 1:211-4,1988.
Atkinson, Karen J. The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act: striking the balance in favor of "customary and traditional" subsistence uses by Alaska Natives. Natural Resources Journal. 1987. 27:421-440.
Ayotte P, Dewailly E, Bruneau S, Careau H, Vezina A Arctic air pollution and human health: what effects should be expected? Sci Total Environ. 1995 Jan 15; 160-161: 529-37. Review PMID: 7892583; UI: 95199681.
Ayotte P, Dewailly, E, Ryan J, Bruneau S, Lebel G PCBs and dioxin-like compounds in plasma of adult inuit living in Nunavik. Chemosphere. 34 (5-7):1459-1468. 1997.exiting the ATSDR website.
Ayotte P, Carrier G, Dewailly E Health risk assessment for inuit newborns exposed to dioxin-like compounds through breast feeding. Chemosphere. 32(3):531-542. 1996.exiting the ATSDR website.
Baht RV, Moy GG. Monitoring and assessment of dietary exposure to chemical contaminants. World Health Stat Q. 1997;50(1-2):132-49. Review. PMID: 9282396; UI: 97427438.
Baker, Marc A. The Ethnobotany of the Yurok, Tolowa and Karok Indians of Northwest California. M.A. thesis, Humboldt State University. 1981.
Bales et al. A review and analysis of parameters for assessing transport of environmentally released radionuclides through agriculture Oak Ridge National Laboratories, September 1984.
Banks, William H. Ethnobotany of the Cherokee Indians. M.A. thesis, University of Tennessee. 1953.
Bard SM Global transport of anthropogenic contaminants and the consequences for the Arctic Marine Ecosystem. Marine Pollution Bulletin. Vol 38(5):356-379. 1999.exiting the ATSDR website.
Barman SC, Sahu RK, Bhargava K, Chaterjee C Distribution of heavy metals in wheat, mustard, and weed grown in field irrigated with industrial effluents. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (2000) 64:489-496.exiting the ATSDR website.
Belinsky DL, Kuhnlein HV, Yeboah F, Penn AF, Chan HM Composition of fish consumed by the James Bay Cree. Journal of Food Composition Anal. 9:148-162. exiting the ATSDR website.
Bennett JP, Chiriboga E, Coleman J, Waller DM. Heavy metals in wild rice from northern Wisconsin. The Science of the Total Environment. 246(2000)261-269.exiting the ATSDR website.
Berry MR. Advances in dietary exposure research at the United States Environmental Protection Agency-National Exposure Research Laboratory. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 1997 Jan-Mar;7(1):3-16. PMID: 9076607; UI: 97231212.
Berti PR, Receveur O, Chan HM, Kuhnlein HV. Dietary exposure to chemical contaminants from traditional food among adult Dene/Metis in the western Northwest Territories, Canada. Environmental Research 1998 Feb;76(2):131-42. PMID: 9515068; UI: 98190512.
Berti PR, Chan HM, Receveur O, MacDonald CR, Kuhnlein HV. Population exposure to radioactivity from consumption of caribou among the Dene/Metis of Denendeh (western Northwest Territories, Canada). J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 1998 Apr-Jun;8(2):145-58. PMID: 9577747; UI: 98238719.
Boisson J, Ruttens A, Mench M, Vangronsveld J Evaluation of hydroxyapatite as a metal immobilizing soil additive for the remediation of polluted soils. Part 1. Influence of hydroxyapatite on metal exchangeability in soil, plant growth, and plant metal accumulation. Environmental Pollution. 104 (1999): 225-233.
Bork PM, Schmitz ML, Kuhnt M, Escher C, Heinrich M Sesquiterpene lactone containing Mexican Indian medicinal plants and pure sesquiterpene lactones as potent inhibitions of transcription factor NF-kB FEBS Letters 402 (1997):85-90.
Brascoupe, Clayton. The unwitting student: listening to the natural world through traditional farming. Winds of Change 13(2):25. 1998.
Braune B, Muir D, DeMarch B, Gamberg M, Poole K, Currie R, Dodd M, Duschenko W, Eamer J, Elkin B, Evans M, Grundy S, Hebert C, Johnstone R, Kidd K, Koenig B, Lockhart L, Marshall H, Reimer K, Sanderson J, Shutt L Spatial and temporal trends and effects of contaminants in the Canadian Arctic freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems: a review. Science of the Total Environment. 230(1-3):145-207, 1999 Jun1.
Briskin DP Medicinal plants and phytomedicines. Linking plant biochemistry and physiology to human health. Plant Physiology. October 2000. 124:507-514.
Brown SL, Chaney RL, Lloyd CA, Angle JS, Ryan JA. Relative uptake of cadmium by garden vegetables and fruits grown on long-term biosolid-amended soils. Environmental Science and Technology. 1996. 30, 3508-3511.
Brussaard JH, Van Dokkum W, Van der Paauw CG, De Vos RH, De Kort WL, Lowik MR. Dietary intake of food contaminants in the Netherlands (Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System). Food Additives and Contaminants 1996 Jul;13(5):561-73. PMID: 8799718; UI: 96392930.
Buchanan, Carol. Brother crow, sister corn: Traditional American Indian gardening. Ten Speed Press.Berkeley. 1997.
Buhner, Stephen Sacred Plant Medicine Boulder, 1996, ISBN 1 57098 085 3 (HC), (ISBN 1 57098 086 1 (PB).
Bunzl K, Trautmannsheimer M Transfer of 238U, 226Ra, and 210Pb from slag-contaminated soils to vegetables under field conditions. The Science of the Total Environment. 231 (1999):91-99.
Cajete, Gregory (eds) A people's ecology- explorations in sustainable living. Health, environment, agriculture, native traditions. Clear Light Publishers, 1999.
Campbell JL, Babaluk JA, Halden NM, Kristofferson AH, Maxwell JA, Mejia SR, Reist JD, Teesdale WJ Micro-PIXE studies of char populations in northern Canada. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 150 (1999):260-266.
Cao H, Ikeda S Exposure assessment of heavy metals resulting from farmland application of wastewater sludge in Tianjin, China: the examination of two existing national standards for soil and farmland-used sludge. Risk Analysis 1999. 20(5):613-25.
Careau H, Dewailly E The Northern Aquatic Food Chain Contamination Database: a research tool The Science of the Total Environment. 160/161 (1995):539-543.
Cary EE, Kubota J Chromium concentration in plants: Effects of soil chromium concentration and tissue contamination by soil Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 38:108-114.
Chan LHM, Receveur R, Kuhnlein HV Assessment of effects of preparation on levels of organic contaminants in Inuit traditional food in press.
Chan HM, Berti PR, Receveur O, Kuhnlein HV. Evaluation of the population distribution of dietary contaminant exposure in an Arctic population using Monte Carlo statistics. Environ Health Perspectives. 1997 Mar;105(3):316-21. PMID: 9171993; UI: 97316006.
Chan HM, Ing A. A database for environmental contaminants in traditional food in northern Canada. Int J Circumpolar Health. 1998;57 Suppl 1:567-71. Review. PMID: 10093343; UI: 99193303.
Chan HM, Trifonopoulos M, Ing A, Receveur O, Johnson E Consumption of freshwater fish in Kahnawake: risks and benefits. Environ Research. 1999 Feb;80(2 Pt 2):S213-S222. PMID: 10092436; UI: 99194677.
Chan HM. A database for environmental contaminants in traditional foods in northern and Arctic Canada: development and applications. Food Additives and Contaminants. 1998 Feb-Mar;15(2):127-34. Review. PMID: 9602917; UI: 98265627.
Chan HM, Kim C, Khoday K, Receveur O, Kuhnlein HV. Assessment of dietary exposure to trace metals in Baffin Inuit food. Environ Health Perspectives. 1995 Jul-Aug;103(7-8):740-6. PMID: 7588487; UI: 96017919.
Chan HM, Receveur O Mercury in the traditional diet of indigenous peoples in Canada Environmental Pollution 110 (2000):1-2.
Chaney RL, Malik M, Li YM, Brown SL, Brewer EP, Angle JS, Baker AJM Phytoremediation of Soil Metals. the ATSDR website
Chaney RL, Ryan JA, O'Connor GA Risk assessment for organic micropollutants: US point of view Proc. EEC Symposium titled "Treatment and Use of Sewage Sludge and Liquid Agricultural Wastes", held in Athens, Greece.
Conacher HB, Mes J. Assessment of human exposure to chemical contaminants in foods. Food Addit Contam. 1993 Jan-Feb;10(1):5-15. PMID: 8504874; UI: 93279401.
Dabeka RW, McKenzie AD, Lacroix GM, Cleroux C, Bowe S, Graham RA, Conacher HB, Verdier P Survey of arsenic in total diet food composites and estimation of the dietary intake of arsenic by Canadian adults and children. J AOAC Int. 1993 Jan-Feb;76(1):14-25. PMID: 8448438; UI: 93192670.
Densmore, Frances How Indians use wild plants for food, medicine, and crafts Dover Publications, 1974.D24
Dewailly E, Ayotte P, Bruneau S, Laliberte C, Muir DC, Norstrom RJ Inuit exposure to organochlorines through the aquatic food chain in Arctic Quebec. Environ Health Perspect. 1993 Dec;101(7):618-20. PMID: 8143594; UI: 94192525.
Dietz R, Riget F, Cleemann M, Aarkrog A, Johnansen P, Hansen J. Comparison of contaminants from different trophic levels and ecosystems. The Science of the Total Environment. 245 (2000):221-231.
Drury HM. Nutrients in Native American foods of Southeastern Alaska. Journal of Ethnobiology. May 1985.
Doolan N, Appavoo D, Kuhnlein HV. Benefit-risk considerations of traditional food use by the Sahtu (Hare) Dene/Metis of Fort Good Hope, N.W.T. Arctic Med Res. 1991;Suppl:747-51. PMID: 1365288; UI: 95092072.
Driver JH, Ginevan ME, Whitmyre GK. Estimation of dietary exposure to chemicals: a case study illustrating methods of distributional analyses for food consumption data. Risk Anal. 1996 Dec;16(6):763-71. PMID: 8972108; UI: 97127271.
Dudka S, Piotrowska M, Terelak H Transfer of cadmium, lead, and zinc from industrially contaminated soil to crop plants: a field study. Environmental Pollution 94(2):181-188.
Duffy LK, Scofield E, Rodgers T, Patton M, Bowyer RT Comparative baseline levels of mercury, Hsp 70 and Hsp 60 in subsistence fish from the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C 124 (1999):181-186.
Dumont C, Girard M, Bellavance F, Noel F. Mercury levels in the Cree population of James Bay, Quebec, from 1988 to 1993/94. CMAJ. 1988 Jun 2;158(11):1439-45. PMID: 9629105; UI: 98292713.
Ebeling, W. Handbook of Indian foods and fibers of arid America. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1986.
Egeland GM, Ponce RA, Middaugh JP A public health perspective on the evaluation of subsistence food safety. Int. J. Circumpolar Health. 1998;57 Suppl 1:572-5. Review. PMID: 10093344; UI: 99193304.
Erichsen-Brown C Medicinal and other uses of North American plants 1989. QK990.A1 E742.
Ferreyra RE, Aljaro AU, Ruiz RS, Rojas LP, Oster JD Behavior of 42 crop species grown in saline soils with high boron concentrations. Agricultural Water Management. 34(1997):111-124.
Fitzgerald EF, Deres DA, Hwang SA, Bush B, Yang BZ, Tarbell A, Jacobs A Local fish consumption and serum PCB concentrations among Mohawk men at Akwesasne. Environ Res. 1999 Feb;80(2 Pt 2):S97-S103. PMID: 10092423; UI: 99194664.
Fitzgerald EF, Hwang SA, Brix KA, Bush B, Cook K, Worswick P Fish PCB concentrations and consumption patterns among Mohawk women at Akwesasne. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 1995 Jan-Mar;5(1):1-19. PMID: 7663146; UI: 95392186.
Fitzgerald EF, Brix KA, Deres DA, Hwang SA, Bush B, Lambert G, Tarbell A Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) exposure among Native American men from contaminated Great Lakes fish and wildlife. Toxicol Ind Health. 1996 May-Aug;12(3-4):361-8. PMID: 8843553; UI: 97000468.
Fitzgerald EF, Hwang SA, Bush B, Cook K, Worswick P Fish consumption and breast milk PCB concentrations among Mohawk women at Akwesasne. Am J Epidemiol. 1998 Jul 15;148(2): 164-72. PMID: 9676698; UI: 98339320.
Freeman, Milton M. R. Nature and utility of traditional ecological knowledge. Last access: 2/25/99. Northern Perspectives 20(1). 1992. Canadian Arctic Resources Committee. the ATSDR website
Frohmberg, Eric, Goble, Robert, Sanchez Virginia, Quigley, Dianne The assessment of radiation exposures in Native American communities from nuclear weapons testing in Nevada. Risk Analysis. 2000. January; 20 (1): 101-111.
Garner, Beatrice M. and Florence Hawley. Changing foods and food habits. In Culture Process and Change in Ute Adaptation, Pt. 1. Florence Hawley, ed. pp. 324-331. 1950.
Gartrell MJ, Craun JC, Podrebarac DS, Gunderson EL. Pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals in adult total diet samples, October 1978-September 1979. J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1985 Sep-Oct;68(5):862-75. PMID: 4055631; UI: 86033518.
Gartrell MJ, Craun JC, Podrebarac DS, Gunderson EL. Pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals in adult total diet samples, October 1980-March 1982. J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1986 Jan-Feb:69(1):146-59. PMID: 3949687; UI: 86139728.
Girard M, Noel F, Dumont C. Varying mercury exposure with varying food source in James Bay Cree community. Arctic Med Res. 1996 Apr;55(2):69-74. PMID: 8754601; UI: 96321396.
Global Resource Information Database (GRIDA) Pollution and human health Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) the ATSDR website
Global Resource Information Database (GRIDA) Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) the ATSDR website
Gorchev HG, Jelinek CF. A review of the dietary intakes of chemical contaminants. Bull World Health Organ. 1985;63(5):945-62. No abstract available. PMID: 3879207; UI: 86133917.
Graham DM, Filer LJ, Bigelow SW. A new approach for assessing the dietary exposure to food additives. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1992;32(2):157-60. PMID: 1515043; UI: 92384912.
Grant C, Dobbs AJ The growth and metal content of plants grown in soil contaminated by a copper/chrome/arsenic wood preservative Environmental Pollution 14:213-226
Grichko VP, Filby B, Glick BR Increased ability of transgenic plants expressing the bacterial enzyme ACC deaminase to accumulate Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn Journal of Biotechnology 81 (2000) 45-53
Hansen JC Environmental contaminants and human health in the Arctic. Toxicol Lett. 2000 Mar 15;112-113(8):119-125. [Record as supplied by publisher] PMID: 10720720.
Harper B, Flett B, Harris S, Abeyta C, and Kirschner, F The Spokane Tribe's Multipathway Subsistence Exposure Scenario and Screening Level RME Risk Analysis 22(3): 513-526, 2000.
Harris S, Harper B A Native American exposure scenario Risk Anal. 1997 Dec; 17 (6): 789-95.
Harris SG, Harper BL Native American Diets and Exposure Factors Environmental Research, Section A, 86:140-148 (2001).
Headley AD Heavy metal concentrations in peat profiles from the high Arctic. The Science of the Total Environment. 177 (1996):105-111.
Hild CM. Cultural concerns regarding contaminants in Alaskan local foods. Int J Circumpolar Health. 1998;57 Suppl 1:561-6. Review. PMID: 10093342; UI: 99193302.
Hinton TG Contamination of plants by resuspension: a review, with critique of measurement methods. The Science of the Total Environment. 121 (1992):177-193.
Hutchens A Indian herbalogy of North America 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Shambala Publications Inc.; 1991. 382 pages.
Jacobs, Mark, Jr. and Mark Jacobs Sr. Southeast Alaska native foods. In Raven's Bones. Andrew Hope III, ed. Pp. 112-130. Sitka, AK: Sitka Community Association. 1982.
Johns T, Mhoro EB, Sanaya P Food plants and masticants of the Batemi of Ngorongoro district, Tanzania Economic Botany 50(1) pp.115-121. 1996.
Johns T, Mhoro EB, Sanaya P, Kimanani EK Herbal remedies of the Batemi of Ngorongoro district, Tanzania: a quantitative appraisal. Economic Botany 48(1) 90-95. 1994.
Jones, Anore. Nauriat Niginaqtuat = Plants that we eat Kotzebue, AL: Maniilaq Association Traditional Nutrition Program. 1983.
Karenlampi S, Schat H, Vangronsveld J, Verkleij JAC, van der Lelie D, Mergeay M, Tervahauta AI Genetic engineering in the improvement of plants for phytoremediation of metal polluted soils. Environmental Pollution 107 (2000): 225-231.
Kavasch B, Baar K American Indian healing arts: herbs, rituals, and remedies for every season of life 1999. New York (Bantam Books) ISBN: 0553378813.
Khan AG, Kuek C, Chaudhry TM, Khoo CS, Hayes WJ Role of plants, mycorrhizae, and phytochelators in heavy metal contaminated land remediation. Chemosphere. 41(2000):197-207.
Keill L, Kissinger L Draft: analysis and selection of fish consumption rates for Washington State risk assessments and risk-based standards Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. Unpublished document.
Kim C, Chan HM, Receveur O Risk assessment of cadmium exposure in Fort Resolution, Northwest Territories, Canada Food Addit Contam 1998 Apr;15(3):307-17.
Kinloch D, Kuhnlein H, Muir DC. Inuit foods and diet: a preliminary assessment of benefits and risks. Sci Total Environ. 1992 Jul 15;122(1-2):247-78. PMID: 1514105; UI: 92383604.
Kliment V. Model of multiple exposure to contaminants in monitoring the environmental impact on population health. Cent Eur J Public Health. 1996 Dec;4(4):246-9. PMID: 8997533; UI: 97151551.
Klopov VP Levels of heavy metals in women residing in the Russian Arctic Int J Circumpolar Health 1998; 57 Suppl 1:582-5.
Klopov VP Persistent organic compounds in women residing in the Russian Arctic Int J Circumpolar Health 1998;57 Suppl 1:555-60.
Klopov V, Odland JO, Burkow IC Persistent Organic Pollutants in maternal blood plasma and breast milk from Russian Arctic Populations Int J Circumpolar Health 1998 Oct; 57(4):239-48.
Kosastsky T, Dumont C. Human exposure as a monitor of environmental contamination: its possibilities and limitations as illustrated by the case of methylmercury in northern Quebec. Arctic Med Res. 1991;Suppl:712-4. No abstract available. PMID: 1365278; UI: 95092062.
Kosatsky T, Dumont C. Determinants of exposure to methylmercury among the James Bay Cree, 1987-89. Arctic Med Res. 1991; Suppl 693-5. No abstract available. PMID: 1365271; UI: 95092055.
Kuhnlein HV, Chan HM Environment and contaminants in traditional food systems of northern indigenous peoples Annu. Rev. Nutr. 2000. 20:595-626.
Kuhnlein HV, Chan HM Ooligan grease: a traditional food fat of western Canada and Alaska International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 57 Suppl 1:211-4,1988.
Kuhnlein HV, Receveur O, Muir DC, Chan HM, Soueida R. Arctic indigenous women consume greater than acceptable levels of organochlorines. J Nutr. 1995 Oct;125(10):2501-10. PMID: 7562084; UI: 96013680.
Kuhnlein HV Soueida R Receveur O Dietary nutrient profiles of the Canadian Baffin Island Inuit differ by source, season, and age Journal of the American Dietetic Association 96(2):155-62, 1996 Feb.
Kuhnlein HV. Nutrition of the Inuit: a brief overview. Arctic Med Res. 1991;Suppl:728-30. PMID: 1365282; UI: 95092066.
Kuhnlein HV, Calloway DH, Harland BF Composition of traditional Hopi Foods. J Am Diet Assoc. 1979 Jul;75(1):37-41. PMID: 447979; UI: 79194801.
Kuhnlein, Harriet V. Traditional plant foods of Canadian indigenous peoples: Nutrition, botany, and use. Philadelphia: Gordon and Breach. 1991.
Kuhnlein HV, Receveur O. Dietary change and traditional food systems of indigenous peoples. Annu Rev Nutr. 1996;16:417-42. Review. PMID: 8839933; UI: 96437119.
Kuhnlein, Harriet V., N.J. Turner, and P.D. Kluckner. Nutritional significance of two important root foods (Springbank clover and Pacific silverweed) used by Native People on the coast of British Columbia. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 12:89-95. 1982.
Kuhnlein HV. Benefits and risks of traditional food for Indigenous Peoples: focus on dietary intakes of Arctic men. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1995 Jun;73(6):765-71. PMID: 7585351; UI: 96034125.
Larter NC, Nagy JA A comparison of heavy metal levels in the kidneys of High Arctic and mainland caribou populations in the Northwest Territories of Canada Science of the Total Environment. 246(2-3):109-19, 2000 Feb 10.
Lavilla I, Filgueiras AV, Bendicho C Comparison of digestion methods for determination of trace and minor metals in plant samples J. Agric. Food Chem. 1999, 47, 5072-5077.
Lindsay DG. Estimation of the dietary intake of chemicals in food. Food Addit Contam. 1986 Jan-Mar;3(1):71-88. PMID: 3956796; UI: 86165163.
Louekari K, Uusitalo U, Pietinen P. Variation and modifying factors of the exposure to lead and cadmium based on an epidemiological study. Sci Total Environ. 1989 Aug;84:1-12. PMID: 2672327; UI: 89368864.
Martin L Basket weavers refuse to cooperate in pesticide risk assessment study. CNS News and Features the ATSDR website
Martin RR, Tomlin A, Marsello B Arsenic uptake in orchard trees: implication for dendroanalysis. Chemosphere. 41(2000):635-637.
Lowik MR. Possible use of food consumption surveys to estimate exposure to additives. Food Addit Contam. 1996 May-Jun;13(4):427-41. Review. PMID: 8792134; UI: 96384237.
Lundqvist GR. Total exposure from outdoor and indoor air pollution in the Arctic. Sci Total Environ. 1995 Jan 15;160-161:577-84. Review. PMID: 7892587; UI: 95199685.
Luo Y, Rimmer DL Zinc-copper interaction affecting plant growth on a metal-contaminated soil. Environmental Pollution 88(1995)
MA DEP Methodology for relating soil contaminant levels and risk to human health Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, Office of Research and Standards DRAFT March 1995.
MacIntosh DL, Spengler JD, Ozkaynak H, Tsai L, Ryan PB. Dietary exposures to selected metals and pesticides. Environ Health Perspect. 1996 Feb;104(2):202-9. PMID: 8820589; UI: 96417798.
Mahaffey KR. Methylmercury: a new look at the risks. Public Health Report. 1999 Sep-Oct;114(5):396-9, 402-13. Review. PMID: 10590759; UI: 20058280.
Matsumoto S, Ae N, Yamagata M Possible direct uptake of organic nitrugen from soil by chingensai (Brassica campestris L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.) Soil Biology and Biochemistry 32 (2000):1301-1310.
McKone TE Uncertainty and variability in human exposures to soil contaminants through home-grown food: a Monte Carlo assessment Risk Analysis. 1994 449-463.
McLaughlin MJ Metals and micronutrients- food safety issues. Field Crops Research. 60 (1999):143-163.
Mench MJ Cadmium availability to plants in relation to major long-term changes in agronomy systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 67 (1988) 175-187.
Moerman DE An analysis of the food plants and drug plants of native North America. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 52 (1996):1-22.
Moiseenko TI The fate of metals in Arctic surface waters. Method for defining critical levels. The Science of the Total Environment. 236 (1999):19-39.
Moreiras O, Cuadrado C. Theoretical study of the intake of trace elements (nutrients and contaminants) via total diet in some geographical areas of Spain. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1992 Jan-Mar;32:93-103. PMID: 1375092; UI: 92265540.
Muir D, Braune B, DeMarch B, Norstrom R, Wagemann R, Lockhart L, Hargrave B, Bright D, Addison R, Payne J, Reimer K Spatial and temporal trends and effects of contaminants in the Canadian Arctic marine ecosystem: a review. Sci Total Environ. 1999 Jun 1; 230(1-3):83-144. Review. PMID: 10466228; UI: 99395722.
Muir D, Norstrom R Geographical differences and time trends of persistent organic pollutants in the Arctic. Toxicology Letters 112-113 (2000):93-101.
Mulvad G, Pedersen HS, Hansen JC, Dewailly E, Jul E, Pedersen M, Deguchi Y, Newman WP, Malcom GT, Tracy RE, Middaugh JP, Bjerregaard P The Inuit diet. Fatty acids and antioxidants, their role in ischemic heart disease, and exposure to organochlorines and heavy metals. An international study. Arctic Med Res. 1996;55 Suppl 1:20-4. PMID: 8871682; UI: 97025492.
Nabhan, Gary et al. Conservation and use of rare plants by traditional cultures of the US/Mexico Borderlands. In Biodiversity: Culture, Conservation, and Ecodevelopment. M.L. Oldfield and J.B. Alcorn, eds. Pp. 127-146. Boulder: Westview Press. 1991.
Nedelkoska TV, Doran PM Characteristics of heavy metal uptake by plant species with ptential for phytoremediation and phytomining. Minerals Engineering, Vol 13. No 5. pp.549-561, 2000.
Nisbet AF, Woodman RFM Soil-to-plant transfer factors for radiocesium and radiostrontium in agricultural systems. Health Physics. 78(3):279-288. 2000.
Niskavaara H,Reimann C, Chekushin V, Kashulina G Seasonal variability of total and easily leachable element contents in topsoils (0-5 cm) from eight catchments in the european arctic (Finland, Norway, and Russia). Environmental Pollution 96(2):261-274. 1997.
Noel F, Rondeau E, Sbeghen J. Communication of risks: organization of a methylmercury campaign in the Cree communities of James bay, Northern Quebec, Canada. Int J Circumpolar Health. 1998;57 Suppl 1:591-5. PMID: 10093348; UI: 99193308.
Not listed Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network. A thematic essay on traditional environmental knowledge. Indigenous Agricultural and Environmental Knowledge Systems.1995. the ATSDR website
Not Listed Entire issue devoted to Native American/Alaskan Native health concerns. Hazardous Substances and Public Health 3(1). 1993.
Nriagu JO, Lin TS Trace metals in wild rice sold in the United States. The Science of the Total Environment 172(1995):223-228.
O'Hara TM, Krahn MM, Boyd D, Becker PR, Philo LM Organochlorine contaminant levels in Eskimo harvested bowhead whales of arctic Alaska Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 35(4):741-52, 1999 Oct.
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Communities in French Guiana: Key Role of Fish in Dietary Uptake

Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 109, Number 5, May 2001
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