P450: Regulation and Polymorphisms
Joyce A. Goldstein, Ph.D.
Tel (919) 541-4495
Fax (919) 541-3647
email@example.com P.O. Box 12233
Mail Drop A3-02
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709
The Human Metabolism Group studies function, transcriptional regulation and genetic polymorphisms of the human cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) which metabolize foreign compounds such as clinically-used drugs, herbal medicines, and environmental chemicals such as pesticides and herbicides. Our group has pioneered studies of the human CYP2C subfamily which includes four members: CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C18 and CYP2C19. These enzymes metabolize approximately 20% of clinically known drugs as well as over-the-counter remedies such as ibuprofen and the antiulcer drug omeprazole. The CYP2C enzymes also metabolize endogenous compounds such as and retinoic acid and metabolize arachidonic acid to biologically active intermediates.
Polymorphisms in the genes for CYP enzymes lead to inter-individual variability in the ability of humans to metabolize drugs and environmental chemicals. This can lead to adverse drug reactions, one of the major sources of death in humans. Polymorphisms affect the half-life, efficacy and toxicity of clinically-used drugs and can potentially affect susceptibility to environmentally-caused disease states such as cancer. Identification of genetic defects and development of genetic tests which identify polymorphisms are a prerequisite to identifying whether certain individuals are at high risk to adverse effects of clinically used drugs and other xenobiotics. Identifying polymorphisms in CYP enzymes is now used to determine mines risks of new drugs to susceptible individuals in clinical trials, and also holds promise for individualized medicine in the future.
The group currently studies the regulation of the CYP2C genes and proteins both constitutively in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues, and the upregulation by prior exposure to drugs such as rifampicin, phenobarbital, herbal medicines, glucocorticoids as well as environmental compounds. This up regulation is a source of drug-drug interactions, and a second source of variation in CYP metabolism in humans. We examine the molecular mechanism of these changes, analyzing promoter activity by a variety of techniques, and have indentified receptors such as the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), the pregnane X receptor ( PXR), hepatic nuclear factor 4α(HNF4 and co-regulators such as NCOAX6 which modulate interaction of these receptors with DNA, studying both protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions.
Major area of research:
Joyce A. Goldstein, Ph.D., heads the Human Metabolism Group within the Laboratory of Pharmacology. She received her Ph.D. in pharmacology from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, at Dallas, Texas in 1968. She holds two patents on the discovery of CYP2C19 and the major polymorphism in this enzyme, and has published over 136 peer-reviewed articles in leading biomedical journals, as well as 24 book chapters. She is an ISI Highly Cited Author in Pharmacology (since 2006) a member of the Faculty of 1000, and is Board Certified by the American Board of Toxicology. She was formerly the Acting Chief of the Biochemistry Branch at EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina before joining NIEHS in 1977.