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Alemi F, Mosavel M, Stephens RC, Ghadiri A, Krishnaswamy J, Thakkar H. Electronic self-help and support groups. Med Care 1996;34(10 Suppl):OS32-44.

Alemi F, Stephens RC, Javalghi RG, Dyches H, Butts J, Ghadiri A. A randomized trial of a telecommunications network for pregnant women who use cocaine. Med Care 1996 Oct;34(10 Suppl):OS10-20.

Alemi F, Stephens RC, Muise K, Dyches H, Mosavel M, Butts J. Educating patients at home. Community Health Rap. Med Care 1996;34[Suppl]:OS21-31.

Allen JK, Becker DM, Swank RT. Factors related to functional status after coronary artery bypass surgery. Heart Lung 1990;19:337-343. Comment in: Heart Lung 1991;20:210.

Alterman AI, Baughman TG. Videotape versus computer interactive education in alcoholic and nonalcoholic controls. Alcoholism 1991;15:39-44.

Alwitt LF, Donley TD. The low-income consumer. Adjusting the balance of exchange. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1996.

American Association of Health Plans. AAHP member organizations. Accessed July 21, 1998.  Available from URL:

American Electronics Association. Cybernation. Accessed January 28, 1998.   Available from URL: (inactive)

American Library Association. 1997 national survey of public libraries and the Internet: summary results. Accessed March 31, 1998. Available from URL:

American Medical Association. Links to other medical sites. Accessed July 28, 1998. Available from URL:

Anderson RM, Funnell MM, Butler PM, et al. Patient empowerment. Results of a randomized trial. Diabetes Care 1995;18(7):943-949.

Aspen Institute. Vision For Health Learning: a Partnership Model. Vision Roundtable, Queenstown, Maryland, November 1 - 3, 1994.

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Baker DW, Parker RM, Williams MV, Pitkin K, Parikh NS, Coates W, Imara M. The health care experience of patients with low literacy. Arch Fam Med 1996;5:329-34.

Balas EA, Austin SM, Mitchell JA, Ewigman BG, Bopp KD, Brown GD. The clinical value of computerized information services. A review of 98 randomized clinical trials. Arch Fam Med 1996;5:271-8.

Balas EA, Jaffrey F, Kuperman GJ, Boren SA, Brown GD, Pinciroli F, et al. Electronic communication with patients. Evaluation of distance medicine technology. JAMA 1997;278:152-9.

Bandura A. Self-efficacy towards a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review 1977;84(2):191-215.

Barrows RC Jr; Clayton PD. Privacy, confidentiality, and electronic medical records. J Am Med Inform Assoc 1996;3:139-48.

Barry MJ, Fowler FJ Jr, Mulley AG Jr, Henderson JV Jr, Wennberg JE. Patient reactions to a program designed to facilitate patient participation in treatment decisions for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Med Care 1995;33:771-82.

Begg C, Cho M, Eastwood S, Horton R, Moher D, Olkin I, et al. Improving the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials: the CONSORT statement. JAMA 1996;276:637-9.

Bergman R. Computers make "house calls" to patients. Hospitals 1993;67:52.

Bier M, Gallo M, Nucklos E, Sherblom S, Pennick M. Personal empowerment in the study of home Internet use by low-income families. J Research on Computing in Education 1996;28. Accessed July 20, 1998. Available from URL:

Blumenthal D. The future of quality measurement and management in a transforming health care system. JAMA 1997;278:1622-5.

Bluming A, Mittelman PS. Los Angeles Free-Net: an experiment in interactive telecommunication between lay members of the Los Angeles community and health care experts. Bull Med Libr Assoc 1996;84:217-22.

Bowen JW, Klimczak JC, Ruiz M, Barnes M. Design of access control methods for protecting the confidentiality of patient information in networked systems. Proc AMIA Annu Fall Symp. 1997:46-50.

Bower H. Internet sees growth of unverified health claims. BMJ 1996;313:497.

Brennan PF, Moore SM, Smyth KA. The effects of a special computer network on caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease. Nurs Res 1995;44:166-72.

British Healthcare Internet Association. Quality Standards for Medical Publishing on the Web. Accessed May 26, 1998. Available from URL:

Brody DS, Miller SM, Lerman CE, Smith DG, Caputo GC. Patient perception of involvement in medical care: relationship to illness attitudes and outcomes. Journal of General Internal Medicine 1989;4(6):506-11.

Buhle EL Jr, Goldwein JW, Benjamin I. OncoLink: A multimedia oncology information resource on the Internet. Proc Annu Symp Comput Appl Med Care 1994:103-7.

Bulkeley WM. E-mail medicine. Untested treatments, cures find stronghold in on-line services. Wall Street J, 27 Feb 1995;225:1.

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Campbell MK, DeVellis BM, Strecher VJ, Ammerman AS, DeVellis RF, Sandler RS. Improving dietary behavior: The effectiveness of tailored messages in primary care settings. Am J Public Health 1994;84:783-7.

Carroll JM, Stein C, Byron M, Dutram K. Using interactive multimedia to deliver nutrition education to Maine's WIC clients. J Nutrition Educ 1996;28:19-25.

CDC. Self-assessed health status and selected behavioral risk factors among persons with and without health-care coverage—United States, 1994-1995. MMWR 1998; 47:170-80.

Coiera E. The Internet’s challenge to health care provision. BMJ 1996; 312:3-4.

Computer Intelligence. CI finds PC penetration in US households tops 40%, as more than half of households with children have PCs. June 9, 1997. Accessed February 21, 1998. Available from URL:

Computer Science and Telecommunication Board, National Research Council. For the Record: Protecting Electronic Health Information. Washington, D.C.:National Academy Press, 1997.

Consoli SM, Ben Said M, Jean J, et al. Benefits of a computer-assisted education program for hypertensive patients compared with standard education tools. Patient Education and Counseling 1995;26:343-347.

Consumers Union. Finding medical help online. Consumer Rep 1997;62:27-31.

Council on Competitiveness. Highway to health: Transforming U.S. health care in the information age. Washington, DC: Council on Competitiveness, 1996.

Cunningham, AJ, Lockwood GA, Cunningham JA. A relationship between perceived self-efficacy and quality of life in cancer patients. Patient Education and Counseling 1991;17.1:71-78.

Cyber Dialogue, Inc. American Internet User Survey finds more than 41.5 million U.S. adults are actively using the Internet. Accessed March 5, 1998. Available from: URL:

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Davis, TC, Mayeaux EJ. Reading ability of parents compared with reading level of pediatric patient education materials. Pediatrics 1994;93(3):460-468.

Deering MJ, Harris J. Consumer health information demand and delivery: Implications for libraries. Bull Med Libr Assoc 1996;84:209-16.

Degner L, Kristjanson L, Bowman D, et al. Information needs and decisional preferences in women with breast cancer. JAMA 1997, May 14.

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Ellis LB, Joo HY, Gross CR. Use of a computer-based health risk appraisal by older adults. Fam Pract 1991;33:390-4.

Ende J, Kazis L, Ash, A, et al. Measuring patients' desire for autonomy: Decision making and information-seeking preferences among medical patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine 1989;4(1):23-30.

Eng TR, Gustafson D, Henderson J, Jimison H, Patrick K, for the Science Panel on Interactive Communication and Health. Introduction to Evaluation of Interactive Health Communication Applications. Am J Prev Med 1998 (in press).

Eng TR, Maxfield A, Patrick K, Deering MJ, Ratzan S, Gustafson D. Access to health information and support: A public highway or a private road? JAMA 1998 (in press)

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Faulkner & Gray, Inc. Patient resources on the Internet. 1997 guide for health care professionals. Wingerson L, Simon K, Northup L, Restino A, editors. New York: Faulkner & Gray, Inc., 1997.

Federal Communications Commission. Universal service. Accessed July 15, 1998. Available from: URL:

Federal Trade Commission. North American Health Claim Surf Day targets Internet ads. Hundreds of e-mail messages sent. Press release, Nov. 5, 1997. Accessed May 12, 1998. Available from: URL:

Feenberg AL, Licht JM, Kane KP, Moran K, Smith RA. The online patient meeting. J Neurol Sci 1996;139 Suppl:129-31.

Feldman SR, Quinlivan A. Illiteracy and the readability of patient education materials. A look at Health Watch. North Carolina Medical Journal 1994;55(7):290-292.

Fennell ML, Alexander JA. Perspectives on organizational change in the U.S. medical care sector. Annual Rev Sociology 1993;19:89-112.

Ferguson T. Health care in cyberspace: Patients lead a revolution. The Futurist 1997;31:29-33.

Ferguson T. Health online. How to find health information, support groups, and self-help communities in cyberspace. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1996.

Fernsler JI, Manchester LJ. Evaluation of a computer-based cancer support network. Cancer Pract 1997;5:46-51.

Feste C, Anderson RM. Empowerment: From philosophy to practice. Patient Education and Counseling 1995;26:139-144.

FIND/SVP Inc. The 1997 American Internet user survey. Top content choices. May 1997. Accessed: July 28, 1998. Available from: (inactive)

FIND/SVP, Inc. The 1997 American Internet User Survey. Accessed February 18, 1998. Available from: (inactive)

Firshein J. US physicians' malpractice data goes on Internet. Lancet 1997;349:1155.

Flay BR. Mass media and smoking cessation: a critical review. Am J Public Health 1987;77:153-60.

Flora JA, Miabach EW, Holtgrave D. Communication campaigns for HIV prevention: Using mass media in the next decade. Institute of Medicine. Assessing the social and behavioral science base for HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention. Background papers. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1995. p. 129-54.

Food and Drug Administration. FDA warns consumers on dangerous products promoted on the Internet. FDA Talk Paper T97-26, June 17, 1997.

Foran M, Campanelli LC. Health promotion communications system: A model for a dispersed population. AAOHN J 1995;43:564-9.

Fries JF, Koop CE, Beadle CE, Cooper PP, England MJ, Greaves RF, et al. Reducing health care costs by reducing the need and demand for medical services. N Engl J Med 1993;329:321-5.

Frisse ME. What is the Internet learning about you while you are learning about the Internet? Acad Med. 1996;71:1064-7.

FTC. North American health claim surf day targets internet ads, hundreds of e-mail messages sent. November 5, 1997. Accessed March 18, 1998. Available at:

Funnell, MM, Donnelly MB, Anderson RM et al. Perceived effectiveness, cost, and availability of patient education methods and materials. Diabetes Educator 1992;18(2):139-145.

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Gillispie MA, Ellis LBM. Computer-based patient education revisited. Journal of Medical Systems 1993;17:119-125.

Gleason NA. A new approach to disordered eating--using an electronic bulletin board to confront social pressure on body image. J Am Coll Health 1995;44:78-80.

Goldstein MK, Clarke AE, Michelson D, et al. Developing and testing a multimedia presentation of a health-state description. Medical Decision Making 1994;14(4):336-344.

Goldwein JW, Benjamin I. Internet-based medical information: Time to take charge. Ann Intern Med 1995;123:152-3.

Gostin L: Health care information and the protection of personal privacy: Ethical and legal considerations. Ann Intern Med 1997;127(Pt 2):683-90.

Gostin LO; Lazzarini Z. Childhood immunization registries. A national review of public health information systems and the protection of privacy. JAMA 1995;274:1793-9.

Gostin LO; Lazzarini Z; Neslund VS; Osterholm MT. The public health information infrastructure. A national review of the law on health information privacy. JAMA 1996;275:1921-7.

Government Accounting Office. Consumer health informatics. Emerging issues. Publication GAO/AIMD-96-86, Washington, DC, July 1996.

Gray D. Faking pain and suffering in Internet support groups. NY Times 1998 April 23; Sect. E1, E7.

Greene J. Innovators. Sign on and say "ah-h-h-h-h." Hosp Health Netw 1997;71:45-6.

Greenfield S, Kaplan S, Ware J Jr. Expanding patient involvement in care: Effects on patient outcomes. Annals of Internal Medicine 1985;102:520-528.

Gropper M, Liraz Z, Portowicz D, Schindler M. Computer integrated drug prevention: A new approach to teach lower socioeconomic 5th and 6th grade Israeli children to say no to drugs. Soc Work Health Care 1995;22:87-103.

Gustafson D, Hawkins R, Boberg E, Pingree S, Serlin R, Graziano F, Chen C. Impact of patient centered computer-based health information and support system. Am J Prev Med 1998 (in press).

Gustafson D, Hundt A. Findings of innovation research applied to quality management principles for health care. Health Care Management Review 1995;20:16-33.

Gustafson D, Peterson-Helstad C, Hung C, Nelson E, Batalden P. The total cost of illness: A metric for health care reform. Hospital and Health Services Administration 1995;40:154-71.

Gustafson D, Robinson TN, Ansley D, Adler L, Brennan P, for the Science Panel on Interactive Communication and Health. Consumers and evaluation of interactive health communication applications. Am J Prev Med 1998 (in press).

Gustafson D, Wise M, McTavish F, Taylor JO, Wolberg W, Stewart J, Smalley RV, Bosworth K. Development and pilot evaluation of a computer-based support system for women with breast cancer. J Psychosocial Oncology 1993;11:69-93.

Gustafson D. Consumer Health Plan Information Needs: Results of Pilot Interviews and Focus Group Meetings. Center for Health Systems Research and Analysis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1995.

Gustafson DH, Bosworth K, Hawkins RP, Boberg EW, Bricker E. CHESS: A computer-based system for providing information, referrals, decision support and social support to people facing medical and other health-related crises. Proc Annu Symp Comput Appl Med Care 1992:161-5.

Gustafson DH, Hawkins RP, Boberg EW, Bricker E, Pingree S, Chan CL. The use and impact of a computer-based support system for people living with AIDS and HIV infection. Proc Annu Symp Comput Appl Med Care 1994:604-8.

Gustafson DH, Hawkins RP, Boberg EW, et al. The impact of computer support on HIV infected individuals. Final report to the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, 1994.

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Hallgren MM, McAdams AK. The economic efficiency of Internet public goods. In: McKnight LW, Bailey JP (eds.) Internet Economics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997:27-62.

Hammett TM, Gaiter JL, Crawford C. Reaching seriously at-risk populations: Health interventions in criminal justice settings. Health Educ Behav 1998;25:99-120.

Harris J. National Assessment of Consumer Health Information Demand and Delivery. Reference Point Foundation, Partnerships for Networked Health Information for the Public, Rancho Mirage, Ca, 1995.

Harris L & Equifax: Health Care Information Privacy: A survey of the public and leaders, 1993.

Harris LM, editor. Health and the new media. Technologies transforming personal and public health. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 1995.

Harris, J. National Assessment of Consumer Health Information Demand and Delivery. Rancho Mirage, CA: Reference Point Foundation, Partnership for Networked Health Information for the Public,. May 14-16, 1995.

Hassett M, Lowder C, Rutan D. Use of computer network bulletin board systems by disabled persons. Proc Annu Symp Comput Appl Med Care 1992;151-5.

Hawkins R, Gustafson DH, Chewning B, Bosworth K, Day P. Interactive computer programs as public information campaigns for hard-to-reach populations: The BARN Project example. J Communications 1987;37:8-28.

Haynes RB, Mulrow CD, Huth EJ, Altman DG, Gardner MJ. More informative abstracts revisited. Ann Int Med 1990;113:69-76.

Health Commons Institute. Shared decision making and new information technologies. Transforming the health care system. An invitational conference for policy leaders. Portland, ME: Health Commons Institute, 1994.

Health Information Technology Institute, Mitretek Systems. Criteria for assessing the quality of health information on the Internet. Accessed January 27, 1998. Available from: URL:

Health On the Net Foundation. HON code of conduct for medical and health web sites. Accessed January 27, 1998. Available from: URL:

Henderson J, Noell J, Reeves T, Strecher V, for the Science Panel on Interactive Communication and Health. Developers and evaluation of interactive health communication applications. Am J Prev Med 1998 (in press).

Hersey JC, Matheson J, Lohr KN. Consumer health informatics and patient decision-making. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1997.

Hoffman DL, Novak TP. Bridging the racial divide on the Internet. Science 1998;280:390-1.

Holman H, Lorig K. Patient education in the rheumatic diseases-pros and cons. Bulletin on the Rheumatic Diseases 1987;37(5):1-8.

Holt GA, Hallon JD, Hughes SE, et al. OTC lables: Can consumers read and understand them? Amer Pharmacologist 1990;30:51-54.

Hornik RC. Alternative models of behavior change. In: Wasserheit J, Holmes K, Aral S. (eds.). Research issues in human behavior and sexually transmitted disease in the AIDS era. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology 1992;201-19.

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Impicciatore P, Pandolfini C, Casella N, Bonati M. Reliability of health information for the public on the World Wide Web: systematic survey of advice on managing fever in children at home. BMJ 1997;314:1875-9.

Institute of Medicine. Telemedicine. A guide to assessing telecommunications in health care. Field MJ, editor. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1996.

Israel BA, Sherman SJ. Social support, control and the stress process. In: Health Behavior and Health Education, Glanz K, Lewis FM, Rimer B (eds.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1990.

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Jadad AR, Gagliardi A. Rating Health Information on the Internet; Navigating to knowledge or to Babel? JAMA 1998;279:611-4.

Jimison H, Adler L, Coye M, Mulley Jr A, Eng TR, for the Science Panel on Interactive Communication and Health. Health care providers and purchasers and evaluation of interactive health communication applications. Am J Prev Med 1998 (in press).

Jimison HB, Henrion M. Hierarchical preference models for patients with chronic disease. Medical Decision Making 1992; 7:351.

Jimison, H.B., Fagan, L.M., Shachter, R.D., and Shortliffe, E.H.: Patient-Specific Explanation in Models of Chronic Disease. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, Volume 4, Number 3, June 1992, p. 191-205.

Jimison, H.B., Patient-Specific Interfaces to Health and Decision-Making Information. In: Health Promotion and Interactive Technology: Theoretical Applications and Future Directions. Street, R., Gold, M., and Manning, T., eds. 1997.

Jubelirer SJ, Linton JC. Reading versus comprehension: Implications for patient education and consent in an outpatient oncology clinic. Journal of Cancer Education 1994;9(1):26-29.

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Kahin B, Keller J, editors. Public access to the Internet. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press 1995.

Kasper JF, Mulley AF Jr., Wennberg JE. Developing shared decision making programs to improve the quality of health care. Quality Review Bulletin 1992;18: 183-190.

Kassirer JP. The next transformation in the delivery of health care [editorial]. N Engl J Med 1995;332:52-4.

Keoun B. Cancer patients find quackery on the Web. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996;88:1263-5.

Kieschnick T, Adler LJ, Jimison HB. 1996 Health informatics directory. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1996.

Kinzie MB, Schorling JB, Siegel M. Prenatal alcohol education for low-income women with interactive multimedia. Patient Educ Couns 1993;21:51-60.

Korsch BM. What do patients and parents want to know? What do they need to know? Pediatrics 1984;74:917-919.

Kraut R, Scherlis W, Mukhopadhyay T, Manning J, Kiesler S. The Home Net field trial of residential Internet services. Communications of the ACM 1996;39:55-63.

Krishna S, Balas EA, Spencer DC, Griffin JZ, Boren SA. Clinical trials of interactive computerized patient education: Implications for family practice. J Fam Pract 1997;45:25-33.

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Lasker RD, Humphreys BL, Braithwaite WR. Making a powerful connection: The health of the public and the national information infrastructure. Report of the US Public Health Service Data Policy Coordinating Committee. US Department of Health and Human Services, July 6, 1995.

Lawrence S, Giles CL. Searching the World Wide Web. Science 1998;280:98-100.

Lindberg DA; Humphreys BL. The High-Performance Computing and communications program, the national information infrastructure and health care. J Am Med Inform Assoc 1995;2:156-9.

Liu T, Soong SJ, Wang X, Wilson NP, Craig CB. African American and white differences in nutritional status among low-income women attending public health clinics. J Health Care Poor Underserved 1996;7:323-37.

Llewellyn-Thomas HA, Thiel EC, Sem FWC, et al. Presenting clinical trial information: A comparison of methods. Patient Education and Counseling 1995; 25: 97-107.

Locke SE, Kowaloff HB, Hoff RG, Safran C, Popovsky MA, Cotton DJ, Finkelstein DM, Page PL, Slack WV. Computer-based interview for screening blood donors for risk of HIV transmission. JAMA 1992;268:1301-5.

Lorig K, Chastain RL, Ung E, et al. Development and evaluation of a scale to measure perceived self-efficacy in people with arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatology 1989; 32(1):37-44.

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MacKie-Mason JK, Varian HR. Economic FAQs about the Internet. In: McKnight LW, Bailey JP (Eds.). Internet Economics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997:27-62.

Mahler HI, Kulik JA. Preferences for health care involvement, perceived control and surgical recovery: A prospective study. Social Science & Medicine 1990;31:743-751.

Maibach E, Flora J, Nass C. Changes in self-efficacy and health behavior in response to a minimal contact community health campaign. Health Communication 1991; 3(1).

McCray JC, Maloney K. Improving access to knowledge-based health sciences information: early results from a statewide collaborative effort. Bull Med Libr Assoc 1997;85:136-40.

McGinnis JM, Foege WH: Actual causes of death in the United States. JAMA 1993;270:2207-12.

McTavish FM, Gustafson DH, Owens BH, Wise M, Taylor JO, Apantaku FM, Berhe H, Thorson B. CHESS: An interactive computer system for women with breast cancer piloted with an under-served population. Proc Annu Symp Comput Appl Med Care 1994;599-603.

Meyer H. Information systems. Surfing the Net for a health plan. Hosp Health Netw 1996;70:37-8.

Micke MM. The case of hallucinogenic plants and the Internet. J Sch Health 1996;66:277-80.

Milio N. Electronic networks, community intermediaries, and the public's health. Bull Med Libr Assoc 1996;84:223-8.

Miller RA, Gardner RM. Summary recommendations for responsible monitoring and regulation of clinical software systems. Annals of Internal Medicine 1997;127:842-5.

Mogelonsky M. Poor and unschooled, but a smart shopper. American Demographics 1994;16:14-5.

Morgan PP. Illiteracy can have major impact on patients' understanding of health care information. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1993;148(7):1196-1197.

Morris TA, Guard JR, Marine SA, Schick L, Haag D, Tsipis G, Kaya B, Shoemaker S. Approaching equity in consumer health information delivery: NetWellness. J Am Med Inform Assoc 1997;4:6-13.

Mullen PD, Laville EA, Biddle AK, et al. Efficacy of psychoeducational interventions on pain, depression, and disability in people with arthritis: a meta-analysis. Journal of Rheumatology 1987;14(Suppl 15):33-39.

Mullen, P. D., Green, L. W., & Persinger, G. S. (1985). Clinical trials of patient education for chronic conditions: A comparative meta-analysis of intervention types. Preventive Medicine, 14, 753-781.

Mullich J. Patient heal thyself. Healthcare Inform 1997 Jul:27-32.

Murray PJ, Rizzolo MA. Web site reviews and evaluations. Nursing Standard Online 1997 Jul 30;11(45). Accessed January 29, 1998. Available from: URL:

Musil CM. Gender differences in health and health actions among community-dwelling elders. J Gerontol Nurs 1998;24:30-8.

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National Cancer Institute. Making health communication programs work. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services. NIH Publication no. 89-1493, April 1989.

National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 1996-97 and Injury Chartbook. Hyattsville, Maryland: 1997.

National Research Council, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (US). For the record: protecting electronic health information. Washington: National Academy Press; 1997.

National Telecommunications and Information Administration. NTIA Information. Accessed February 21, 1998. Available from:

National Work Group on Literacy and Health. Communicating with patients who have limited literacy skills. Report of the National Work Group on Literacy and Health. J Fam Pract 1998;46:168-75.

Nease RF Jr. Risk attitudes in gambles involving length of life: aspirations, variations, and ruminations. Medical Decision Making 1994;14(2):201-203.

Office of Technology Assessment. Bringing health care online. The role of information technologies, OTA-ITC-624. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, September, 1995.

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O'Leary A, Shoor S, Lorig K, et al. A cognitive-behavioral treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. Health Psychology 1988;7(6):527-544.

O'Leary, A. Self-efficacy and health. Behaviour Research and Therapy 1985;23.4:437-451.

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Pane GA, Farner MC, Salness KA. Health care access problems of medically indigent emergency department walk-in patients. Ann Emerg Med 1991;20:730-3.

Patrick K, Eng TR, Robinson TN, Gustafson D, for the Science Panel on Interactive Communication and Health. The challenge to medicine in the Information Age: The clinician's role in interactive health communication. JAMA 1998 (in press).

Patrick K, Robinson TN, Alemi F, Eng TR, for the Science Panel on Interactive Communication and Health. Policy issues relevant to the evaluation of interactive health communication applications. Am J Prev Med 1998 (in press).

Pealer LN, Dorman SM. Evaluating health-related Web sites. J Sch Health 1997;67;232-5.

Perednia DA, Allen A. Telemedicine technology and clinical applications. JAMA 1995;273:483-8.

Peters R, Sikorski R. Digital dialogue. Sharing information and interests on the Internet. JAMA 1997;277:1258-60.

Peterson C, Stunkard AJ. Personal control and health promotion. Social Science and Medicine 1989;28:819-828.

Pingree S, Hawkins RP, Gustafson DH, Boberg E, Bricker E, Wise M, et al. Will the disadvantaged ride the information highway? Hopeful answers from a computer-based health crisis system. J Broadcasting & Electronic Media 1996;40:331-53.

Pingree S, Hawkins RP, Gustafson DH, et al. Will HIV-positive people use an interactive computer system for information and support? A study of CHESS in two communities. 16th Annual Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care 1993; 22-26.

Powell DR, Sharp SL, Farnell SD, Smith PT. Implementing a self care program. Effect on employee health care utilization AAOHN J 1997;45:247-53.

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Reference Point Foundation. A national assessment of consumer health information demand and delivery. Prepared for the US Department of Health and Human Services Partnerships for Networked Health Information Conference, Rancho Mirage, CA May 14-16, 1995.

Reid JC, Klachko DM, Kardash CAM, et al. Why people don’t learn from diabetes literature: Influence of text and reader characteristics. Patient Education and Counseling 1995;25:31-38.

Rennie D, Yank V, Emanuel L. When authorship fails. A proposal to make contributors accountable. JAMA 1997;278:579-85.

Rennie D. How to report randomized controlled trials: The CONSORT statement. JAMA 1996;276:649.

Rind DM, Kohane IS, Szolovits P, Maintaining confidentiality of medical records shared over the internet and the World Wide Web. Annals of Internal Medicine 1997;127:138-41.

Rischitelli DG: The confidentiality of medical information in the workplace. J Occup Environ Med 1995;37:583-93.

Robinson TN, Patrick K, Eng TR, Gustafson D, for the Science Panel on Interactive Communication and Health. An evidence-based approach to interactive health communication: A challenge to medicine in the Information Age. JAMA 1998 (in press).

Robinson TN. Community health behavior change through computer network health promotion: Preliminary findings from Stanford Health-Net. Comput Methods Programs Biomed 1989;30:137-44.

Rodwin MA. Physicians’ conflicts of interest. The limitations of disclosure. N Engl J Med 1989;321:1405-8.

Rossi PH, Freeman HE. Evaluation. A systematic approach. 5th edition. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1993.

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Safran C, Rind D, Citroen M, et. al. Protection of confidentiality in the computer-based patient record. MD Comput 1995;12:187-92.

Saksena S, Nickelson DE. Medical information and disinformation: The perils of a new era. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1995;18:2216-7.

Scolamiero SJ. Support groups in cyberspace. MD Comput 1997;14:12-4.

Scolnick A. WHO considers regulating ads, sale of medical products on Internet. JAMA 1997;278:1723-4.

Shiffman S, Gitchell J, Strecher V, et al. Real-world efficacy of computer-tailored smoking cessation materials as a supplement to nicotine replacement. Presented at the10th World Conference on Tobacco or Health. Beijing, China, Aug 24-28, 1997.

Shimakawa T, Sorlie P, Carpenter MA, Dennis B, Tell GS, Watson R, Williams OD. Dietary intake patterns and sociodemographic factors in the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. ARIC Study Investigators. Prev Med 1994;23:769-80.

Shortliffe EH; Bleich HL; Caine CG; Masys DR; Simborg DW. The federal role in the health information infrastructure: A debate of the pros and cons of government intervention. J Am Med Inform Assoc 1996;3:249-57.

Silberg WM, Lundberg GD, Musacchio RA. Assessing, controlling, and assuring the quality of medical information on the Internet. Caveant lector et viewor--let the reader and buyer beware. JAMA 1997;277:1244-5.

Silverstein SC, Garrison HH, Heinig SJ. A few basic economic facts about research in the medical and related life sciences. The FASEB J 1995;9:833-40.

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Skinner CS, Strecher VJ, Hospers H. Physicians' recommendations for mammography: Do tailored messages make a difference? American Journal of Public Health 1994;84(1):43-49.

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Comments:   Updated: 05/20/08