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Extreme Heat Bibliography

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MMWR articles on heat surveillance and investigations can be found on Mobidity & Mortality Weekly Reports.

Heat Stress From Enclosed Vehicles: Moderate Ambient Temperatures Cause Significant Temperature Rise in Enclosed Vehicles

Journal Articles

  • Applegate WB, Runyan JW, Brasfield L, Williams ML, Konigsberg C, Fouche C. Analysis of the 1980 heat wave in Memphis. J Am Geriatr Soc 1981;8:337-42.
  • Bacon C, Scott D, Jones P. Heat stroke in well-wrapped infants. Lancet 1979;422-5.
  • Ballester F, Dolores C, Perez-Hoyos S, Saez M, Hervas A. Mortality as a function of temperature. A study in Valencia, Spain, 1991-1993. Int J Epidemiol 1997;26(3):551-61.
  • Barrow MW, Clark KA. Heat-related illnesses. Am Fam Physician 1998;58(3):749-56.
  • Barthel HJ. Exertion-induced heat stroke in a military setting. Mil Med 1990;155(3):116-9.
  • Bonner RM, Harrison MH, Hall CJ, Edwards RJ. Effect of heat acclimatization on intravascular responses to acute heat stress in man. J Appl Physiol 1976;41(5):708-13.
  • Breslin K. Global climate change: beyond sunburn. Environ Health Perspect 1994;102(5):440-3.
  • Bridger CA, Ellis FP, Taylor HL. Mortality in St. Louis, Missouri, during heat waves in 1936, 1953, 1954, 1955, and 1966. Environ Res 1976;12:38-48.
  • Bross MH, Nash BT, Carlton FB. Heat emergencies. Am Fam Physician 1994;50(2):389-96.
  • Buechley RW, Van Bruggen J, Truppi LE. Heat island = death island? Environ Res 1972;5:85-92.
  • Chestnut LG, Breffle WS, Smith JB, Kalkstein LS. Analysis of differences in hot-weather-related mortality across 44 U.S. metropolitan areas. Environmental Science & Policy 1998;1:59-70.
  • Clarke JF. Some effects of the urban structure on heat mortality. Environ Res 1972;5:93-104.
  • Clowes GHA, O’Donnell TF. Heat stroke. N Engl J Med 1974;291(11):564-7.
  • Combs DL, Quenemoen LE, Parrish RG, Davis JH. Assessing disaster-attributed mortality: development and application of a definition and classification matrix. Int J Epidemiol 1999;18(6):1124-9.
  • Costrini A. Emergency treatment of exertional heat stroke and comparison of whole body cooling techniques. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1989;22(1):15-8.
  • Dematte JE, O’Mara K, Buescher J, Whitney CG, Forsythe S, McNamee T, Adiga RB, Ndukwu IM. Near-fatal heat stroke during the 1995 heat wave in Chicago. Ann Intern Med 1998;129:173-81.
  • DiMaio DJ, DiMaio VJ. The effects of heat and cold: hyperthermia and hypothermia. Forensic Pathology 1993;375-84.
  • Dixit SN, Bushara KO, Brooks BR. Epidemic heat stroke in a Midwest community: risk factors, neurological complications and sequelae. Wisconsin Medical Journal May 1997;39-41.
  • Donoghue ER, Graham MA, Jentzen JM, Lifschultz BD, Luke JL, Mirchandani HG. Criteria for the diagnosis of heat-related deaths: national association of medical examiners. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997;18(1):11-4.
  • Drake DK, Nettina SM. Recognition and management of heat-related illness. Nurse Pract 1994;19(8):43-7.
  • Eichner ER. Treatment of suspected heat illness. Int J Sports Med 1998;19: S150-3.
  • Ellis FP. Heat wave deaths and drugs affecting temperature regulation (letter). BMJ 1976;2(6033):474.
  • Ellis FP. Mortality from heat illness and heat-aggravated illness in the United States. Environ Res 1972;5:1-58.
  • Ellis FP, Nelson F. Mortality in the elderly in a heat wave in New York City, August 1975. Environ Res 1978;15:504-12.
  • Epstein E, Sohar E, Shapiro Y. Exertional heatstroke: a preventable condition. Isr J Med Sci 1995;31:454-62.
  • Faunt JD, Wilkinson TJ, Aplin P, Henschke P, Webb M, Penhall RK. The effete in the Heat: Heat-related hospital presentations during a ten-day heat wave. Aust NZ J Med 1995;25:117-21.
  • Fish PD, Bennett GCJ, Millard P. Heat wave morbidity and mortality in old age. Age Aging 1985;14:243-5.
  • Graham BS, Lichtenstein MJ, Hinson JM, Theil GB. Nonexertional heatstroke. Arch Intern Med 1986;146:87-90.
  • Greenberg JH, Bromberg J, Reed CM, Gustafson TL, Beauchamp RA. The epidemiology of heat-related deaths, Texas–1950, 1970–79, and 1980. Am J Public Health 1983;73(7):805-7.
  • Haines A, Parry M. Climate change and human health. J R Soc Health 1993;86:707-11.
  • Hassanein T, Razack A, Gavaler JS, Van Thiel DA. Heat stroke: its clinical and pathological presentation, with particular attention to the liver. Am J Gastroenterol 1992;87(10):1382-9.
  • Hett HA, Brechtelsbauer DA. Heat-related illness. Postgrad Med 1998;103(6):107-20.
  • Honda Y. Re: Air-conditioning and mortality in hot weather (letter). Am J Epidemiol 1995;142:99.
  • Increased summertime heat stress in the US (scientific correspondence). Nature 1998;396:529-31.
  • Jones TS, Liang AP, Kilbourne EM, et al. Morbidity and mortality associated with the July 1980 heat wave in St. Louis and Kansas City, MO. JAMA 1982;247(24):3327-31.
  • Kaiser R, Rubin CH, Henderson AK, Wolfe MI, Kieszak S, Parrott CL, Adcock M. Heat-related death and mental illness during the 1999 Cincinnati heat wave. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2001;22(3):303-7.
  • Kalkstein LS. Direct impacts in cities. Lancet 1993;342:1397-9.
  • Kalkstein LS. Lessons from a very hot summer (commentary). Lancet 1995;346:857-9.
  • Kalkstein LS, Davis RE. Weather and human mortality: an evaluation of demographic and interregional responses in the United States. Ann Assoc Am Geograph 1989;79(1):44-64.
  • Kalkstein LS, Greene JS. An evaluation of climate/mortality relationships in large U.S. cities and the possible impacts of a climate change. Environ Health Perspect 1997;105:84-93.
  • Kalkstein LS, Jamason PF, Greene JS, Libby J, Robinson L. The Philadelphia hot weather-health watch/warning system: development and application, Summer 1995. Bull Am Meteor Soc 1996;77(7):1519-28.
  • Kalkstein LS, Nichols MC, Barthel CD, Greene JS. Int J Climatol 1996;16:983-1004.
  • Kalkstein LS, Valimont KM. An evaluation of summer discomfort in the United States using a relative climatological index. Bull Am Meteor Soc 1986;67(7):842-8.
  • Katsouyanni K, Pantazopoulou A, Touloumi G, Tselepidaki I, Moustris K, Asimakopoulos D, Poulopoulou G, Trichopoulos D. Evidence for interaction between air pollution and high temperature in the causation of excess mortality. Arch Environ Health 1993;48(4):235-42.
  • Kellermann AL, Todd KH. Killing heat. N Engl J Med 1996;335:84-90.
  • Khogali M. Heat illness alert program: practical implications for management and prevention. Ann NY Acad Sci 1997;813:526-33.
  • Kilbourne EM. Cocaine use and death during heat waves (commentary). JAMA 1998;279(22):1828-9.
  • Kilbourne EM, Keewahn C, Jones S, Thacker SB. Risk factors for heat stroke. JAMA 1982;247(24):3332-4.
  • King K, Negus K, Vance JC. Heat stress in motor vehicles: a problem in infancy. Pediatrics 1981;68(4):579-82.
  • Knobeloch L, Anderon H, Morgan J, Nashold R. Heat-related illness and death, Wisconsin, 1995. Wisconsin Med J 1997;96(5):33-8.
  • Kohl J. Heat stroke. Am J Nurs 1996;96(7):51.
  • Kovats S, Haines A.  The potential health impacts of climate change: an overview. Med War;11:168-78.
  • Kunst AE, Looman CWN, Mackenbach JP. Outdoor air temperature and mortality in the Netherlands: a time-series analysis. Am J Epidemiol 1993;137(3):331-41.
  • Lee DHK. Seventy-five years of searching for a heat index. Environ Res 1980;22:331-56.
  • Lee DHK. Epidemic heat effects. JAMA 1982;247:24.
  • Lye M, Kamal A. Effects of a heat wave on mortality rates in elderly in-patients. Lancet 1977.
  • Macfarlane A, Waller RE. Short-term increases in mortality during heat waves. Nature 1976;264:434-6.
  • Mackenbach JP, Borst V, Schols J. Heat-related mortality among nursing-home patients. Lancet 1997;349:1297-8.
  • Marmor M. Heat wave mortality in New York City, 1949–1970. Arch Environ Health 1975;30:130-6.
  • Marmor M. Heat wave mortality in nursing homes. Environ Res 1978;17:102-15.
  • Martinez B, Annest JL, Kilbourne EM, Kirk ML, Lui KJ, Smith SM. Geographic distribution of heat-related deaths among elderly persons. JAMA 1989;262(16):2246-50.
  • Marzuk PM, Tardiff K, Leon AC, Hirsch CS, Portera L, Iqbal I, Nock MK, Hartwell N. Ambient temperature and mortality from unintentional cocaine overdose. JAMA 1998;279(22):1795-1800.
  • Meehan P, Toomey KE, Drinnon J, Cunningham S, Anderson N, Baker E. Public health response for the 1996 Olympics. JAMA 1998;279(18):1469-73.

  • McLaren C MD, Null J CCM, Quinn J MD. Heat Stress From Enclosed Vehicles: Moderate Ambient Temperatures Cause Significant Temperature Rise in Enclosed Vehicles. Pediatrics 2005; 116(1):e109-e112.
  • Moore JD. Noting ER trends could help avert health disasters. Modern Healthcare 1998;76.
  • Naughton MP, Henderson A, Mirabelli MC, Kaiser R, Wilhelm JL, Kieszak SM, Rubin CH, McGeehin MA. Heat-Related Mortality During the 1999 Heat Wave in Chicago. Am J Prev Med 2002;22(4):221-7.
  • Nielsen B. Olympics in Atlanta: a fight against physics. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996;28(6):665-8.
  • Mirchandani HG, McDonald G, Hood IC, Fonseca C. Heat-related deaths in Philadelphia—1993. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1996;17(2):106-8.
  • Noakes TD. Fluid and electrolyte disturbances in heat illness. Int J Sports Med 1998;19:S146-9.
  • Nugent SK. Pediatric heatstroke: a case report. Indiana Medicine 1987;235-7.
  • O'Brien KK, Montain SJ, Corr WP, Sawka MN, Knapik JJ, Craig SC. Hyponatremia Associated with Overhydration in U.S. Army Trainees. Mil Med 2001;166(5):405-10.
  • Oechsli F, Buechley R. Excess mortality associated with three Los Angeles September hot spells. Environ Res 1970;3:277-84.
  • Pandolf KB. Time course of heat acclimation and its decay. Int J Sports Med 1998;19:S157-60.
  • Pan W, Li L, Tsai M. Temperature extremes and mortality from coronary heart disease and cerebral infraction in elderly Chinese. Lancet 1995;345:353-5.
  • Phillips DR. Urbanization and human health. Parasitology 1993;106:S93-107.
  • Poulton TJ, Walker RA. Helicopter cooling of heatstroke victims. Aviat Space Environ Med 1987;358-61.
  • Porter KR, Thomas SD, Whitman S. The relation of gestation length to short-term heat stress. Am J Public Health 1999;89(7):1090-2.
  • Rango N. Exposure-related hypothermia mortality in the United States, 1970-79. AJPH 1984;74(10):1159-60.
  • Ramlow JM, Kuller LH. Effects of the summer heat wave of 1988 on daily mortality in Allegheny County, PA. Public Health Rep 1990;105(3):283-9.
  • Roberts KB, Roberts EC. The automobile and heat stress. Pediatrics 1976;58(1):101-4.
  • Rogot E, Sorlie PD, Backlund E. Air-conditioning and mortality in hot weather. Am J Epidemiol 1992;136(1):106-16.
  • Rooney C, McMichael AJ, Kovats RS, Coleman MP. Excess mortality in England and Wales, and in Greater London, during the 1995 heat wave. J Epidemiol Community Health 1998;(52):482-6.
  • Rydman RJ, Rumoro DP, Silva JC, Hogao TM, Kampe LM. The rate and risk of heat-related illness in hospital emergency departments during the 1995 Chicago heat disaster. J Med Syst 1999;23(1):41-55.
  • Saez M, Sunyer J, Castellsague J, Murillo C, Anto JM. Relationship between weather temperature and mortality: a time series analysis approach in Barcelona. Int J of Epidemiol 1995;24(3):576-82.
  • Sartor F, Snacken R, Demuth C, Walckiers D. Temperature, ambient ozone levels, and mortality during summer, 1994, in Belgium. Environ Res 1995;70:105-13.
  • Schuman SH. Patterns of urban heat-wave deaths and implications for prevention: data from New York and St. Louis during July, 1966. Environ Res 1972;5:59-75.
  • Semenza JC, Cervantes J, Jones DS. Deaths in the Chicago heat wave. N Engl J Med 1996;335(24):1848-9.
  • Semenza JC, McCullough JE, Flanders D, McGeehin MA, Lumpkin JR. Excess hospital admissions during the July 1995 heat wave in Chicago. Am J Prev Med 1999;16(4):269-77.
  • Seretakis D, Lagiou P, Lipworth L, Signorello LB, Rothman KJ, Trichopoulos D. Changing seasonality of mortality from coronary heart disease. JAMA 1997;278(12):1012-4.
  • Shapiro Y, Magazanik A, Udassin R, Ben-Baruch G, Shvartz E, Shoenfeld Y. Heat intolerance in former heat stroke patients. Ann Intern Med 1979;90:913-6.
  • Shen T, Howe HL, Celan A, Moolenaar RL. Toward a broader definition of heat-related death:  comparison of mortality estimates from medical examiners’ classification with those from total death differentials during the July 1995 heat wave in Chicago, Illinois. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1998;19(2):113-8.
  • Simon HB. Hyperthermia. N Engl J Med 1993;329(7):483-7.
  • Smoyer KE. Putting risk in its place: methodological considerations for investigating extreme event health risk. Soc Sci Med 1998;47(11):1809-24.
  • Steadman RG. A universal scale of apparent temperature. J Climate App Meteorol 1984;23:1674-87.
  • Steadman RG. The assessment of sultriness. Part I: A temperature-humidity index based on human physiology and clothing science. J App Meteorol 1979;18:861-73.
  • Steadman RG. The assessment of sultriness. Part II: Effects of wind, extra radiation and barometric pressure on apparent temperature. J App Meteorol 1979;18:874-85.
  • Tek D, Olshaker JS. Heat illness. Environ Emerg 1992;10(2):299-311.
  • Touloumi G, Pocock SJ, Katsouyanni K, Trichopoulos D. Short-term effects of air pollution on daily mortality in Athens: a time-series analysis. Int J Epidemiol 1994;23(5):957-67.
  • Tucker LE, Stanford J, Graves B, Swetnam J, Hamburger S, Azam A. Classical heat stroke: clinical and laboratory assessment. South Med J 1985;78(1):20-5.
  • Voelker R. Probe of heat wave deaths under way. JAMA 1995;274(8):595-6.
  • Wadlington WB, Tucker AL, Fly F, Greene HL. Heat stroke in infancy. Am J Dis Child 1976;130:1250-1.
  • Wainwright S, Buchannan SD, Mainzer M, Parrish RG, Sinks TH. Cardiovascular mortality—the hidden perils of heat waves. Prehospital Disaster Med 1999;14(4):222-31.
  • Wasserman GM, Martin BL, Hyams KC. A survey of outpatient visits in a United States Army forward Unit during Operation Desert Shield. Mil Med 1997;162(6):374-9.
  • Wetterhall SF, Coulombier DM, Herndon JM, Zaza S, Cantwell JD. Medical care delivery at the 1996 Olympic games. JAMA 1998;279(18):1463-8.
  • Wongsurawat N, Davis BB, Morley JE. Thermoregulatory failure in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc 1990;38:899-906.
  • Whitman S, Good G, Donoghue ER, Benbow N, Shou W, Mou S. Mortality in Chicago attributed to the July 1995 heat wave. Am J Public Health 1997;87(9):1515-7.


  • Klinenberg E. Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago. University of Chicago Press; 2002.

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