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 Infection Control for VHFs in the African Health Care Setting
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"Infection Control for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers
In the African Health Care Setting"

Annexes 13-16

Annex 13 Community Education Materials Go to top of page

Examples of posters used to provide information to family members of Ebola patients. Kikwit, 1995.

Avoid contact with body fluids

Avoid contact with patient's blood, urine and vomit.

Do not touch dead bodies

Do not touch or wash the bodies of deceased patients.

Burn used needles

Burn needles and syringes immediately after use.

Use gloves to handle clothing

Use gloves to handle the patient's clothing. Boil soiled clothing before washing it.


Examples of posters or teaching aids for viral haemorrhagic fevers

Wash spills with bleach solution

-Protect yourself.
-Never touch urine, blood, vomit from a patient with fever.
-Wash spills with bleach solution or soap and water.

Use barrier nursing

To prevent transmission of Lassa fever, wear a gown, gloves and mask.

Wash hands

Wash your hands if you take care of a patient with fever.

Lassa fever symptoms

In addition to fever, Lassa fever patient may have: sore throat, back pain, cough, headache, red eyes, vomiting, or chest pain.

Keep food covered

To prevent Lassa fever, keep your food and water covered.

Avoid rodents

There is no injection or vaccine to prevent Lassa fever. To prevent Lassa fever, we must prevent its spread by rats.

You can get Lassa from dead rats

You can get Lassa fever by touching, playing with or cutting up a rat's dead body.

Annex 14 Conducting In-Service Training for VHF Isolation Precautions Go to top of page

In-service training for VHF Isolation Precautions should be ongoing. Provide training about VHF Isolation Precautions during supervisory visits, staff meetings or conferences. Also use other channels such as newsletters, bulletins and job-aids to provide health facility staff with information and reinforce the use of VHF Isolation Precautions.

Training in skills is most effective if health staff receive information, see examples, and have an opportunity to practice the skills they are learning. Make sure that training sessions for each topic include relevant examples and opportunities for meaningful practice.

Conduct training sessions in small groups with each category of health worker.

  • Present information with charts, pictures, posters or information written on a flipchart or chalkboard. Use drawings from this manual to illustrate the topic you are presenting.

  • Give examples of the skills you would like the health staff to use. For example, demonstrate the steps for handwashing as you explain aloud what you are doing.

  • Provide the materials and supplies that health staff need to practice the skill. For example, provide two buckets of clean water, soap and clean, one-use towels. Ask health workers one at a time to practice washing their hands. Ask for feedback from the rest of the group about what was done well and where improvement is needed.

  • Provide feedback to the health staff and answer questions. Conclude the training by summarizing the steps presented in the session. Provide a job-aid or handout to tape on a wall to remind health facility staff about the skills they learned in the session.

  • Routinely monitor supplies and equipment to make sure that the supplies for doing the desired skill are available. During supervisory visits, be sure to acknowledge when you see health staff using the skills well. When problems occur, find out what has caused them, and take steps to solve them so that health staff can continue to use the practices consistently.

The following is a sample agenda for in-service training. It describes how to include topics about VHF Isolation Precautions during monthly staff meetings. Adapt it to the schedule for your health facility.

Month VHF Isolation Precautions Topic
January 1. Disease Transmission in the Health Care Setting
2. Identifying Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers: When to Suspect a VHF
3. General Information about Standard Precautions
4. Handwashing
1. Recommended Protective Clothing for VHF
2. Practice Putting On and Taking Off Protective Clothing
March 1. Preparing Disinfectants
2. Using Disinfectants
April 1. Selecting Disposal Sites and Planning Security Barriers
2. Building an Incinerator
May 1. Maintaining an Incinerator
2. Preparing a Pit for Burning Infectious Waste
June 1. Safe Use and Disposal of Sharp Instruments
2. Making a Sharps Container
July 1. Assessing Inventory of Protective Clothing
2. Identifying Items to Use When Recommended Protective Clothing is not Available
August 1. Sites for Isolation Area (Patient Room and Changing Room); Security Barriers
2. Planning to Set Up an Isolation Area
September 1. Assessing Available Supplies for Isolation Area
2. Identifying Items to Use When Recommended Supplies are not Available
October 1. Selecting and Training Caregiving Family Members: VHF, Protective Clothing
November 1. Using VHF Isolation Precautions during Patient Care
2. Disinfecting Thermometers, Stethoscopes and Blood Pressure Cuffs
3. Disinfecting Used Needles and Syringes
December 1. Procedures for Responding to Accidental Exposures
2. Standard Precautions -- Especially Handwashing after Examining Patients with Fever

Annex 15 Local Resources for Community Mobilization and Education Go to top of page

Section 8 of this manual describes how to develop community education in an urgent situation. The first step is to identify key community resources such as groups who know the community and already have access to it. Information about each key community resource can be recorded on the following chart. Use the chart as a reference to identify appropriate community resources that can be called upon when a VHF occurs.

Local Resources for Community Mobilization and Education

or Group
Expertise Representative or
Leader and
Contacted? Task

Annex 16 International and Regional Contacts Go to top of page


SWITZERLAND World Health Organization (WHO)
Division of Emerging and other Communicable Diseases Surveillance
and Control (EMC)
Dr David L. Heymann
20 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 GenËve 27, Switzerland
Tel: 41-22-791-2660/41-22-791-2661
Fax: 41-22-791-4198
ZIMBABWE WHO Regional Office for Africa
Dr D. Barakamfitiye
Director, Prevention and Control of Diseases
Medical School, C Ward, Parirenyatwa Hospital, Mazoe Street
P.O.Box BE 773, Belvedere, Harare, Zimbabwe
Tel: 1-407-733-9236
Fax: 1-407-733-9360
Dr A. Ndikuyeze, Regional Adviser, Prevention and Control of Diseases
Medical School, C Ward, Parirenyatwa Hospital, Mazoe Street
P.O.Box BE 773, Belvedere, Harare, Zimbabwe
Tel: 1-407-733-9240
Fax: 263-479-1214
WHO Collaborating Centres for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
National Center for Infectious Diseases
Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases
Special Pathogens Branch
1600 Clifton Road, MS G-14
Atlanta, Georgia 30329-4018, USA
Telephone: 1-404-639-1115
Fax: 1-404-639-1118
US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases
Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5011, USA
Telephone: 1-301-619-4608
Fax: 1-301-619-4625
Institut Pasteur de Bangui
Boite Postale 923
Bangui, Central African Republic
Telephone: 236-614-576
Fax: 236-610-109
FINLAND University of Helsinki
Haartman Institute
Department of Virology
P.O.Box 21
SF-Helsinki, Finland
Telephone: 358-0-434-6490
Fax: 358-0-434-6491
FRANCE Institut Pasteur ‡ Paris
28, rue du Dr Roux
75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
Telephone: 33-1-4061-3088
Fax: 33-1-4061-3151
GERMANY Philipps-University
Institute of Virology
Robert-Koch-Str. 17
D-35037 Marburg, Germany
Telephone: 49-6421-28-6253
Fax: 49-6421-28-8962
KENYA Kenya Medical Research Institute
Mbagathi Road
P.O.Box 54628
Nairobi, Kenya
Telephone: 254-2-722-541
Fax: 254-2-725-950
NIGERIA University of Ibadan
College of Medicine
Department of Virology
Ibadan, Nigeria
SOUTH AFRICA National Institute for Virology
Special Pathogens Unit
Private Bag X4
Sandringham 2131, Zaloska 4
Republic of South Africa
Telephone: 27-11-882-9910
Fax: 27-11-882-0596
SWEDEN Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control
S-105 21 Stockholm, Sweden
Telephone: 46-8-735-1300
Fax: 46-8-735-6615
UNITED KINGDOM Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research
Division of Pathology
Porton Down, Salisbury, United Kingdom
Telephone: 44-198-061-2224
Fax: 44-198-061-2731
Infection Control For VHFs Manual
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Sections on this page
 Annex 13 Community Education Materials
 Annex 14 Conducting In-Service Training for VHF Isolation Precautions
 Annex 15 Local Resources for Community Mobilization and Education
 Annex 16 International and Regional Contacts
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