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Bones, Joints, & Muscles

Bone graft harvest (Illustration) - Spinal surgery is sometimes performed to remove a herniated disc. If more than one disc is removed the spine can become unstable, and a procedure to fuse the spine together is needed. The spine can be fused with with bone and plates, rods, or special metal cages. The bone may be taken from the patient's body from either the hip or the lower leg. (National Library of Medicine)
Cauda equina (Illustration) - The spinal cord ends in the lumbar area and continues through the vertebral canal as spinal nerves. Because of its resemblance to a horse's tail, the collection of these nerves at the end of the spinal cord is called the cauda equina. These nerves send and receive messages to and from the lower limbs and pelvic organs. (National Library of Medicine)
Dream Anatomy (Exhibit) - A online exhibit that includes the anatomical illustrations 1500 to the present. These illustrations employed fantastic settings, bizarre juxtapositions, antic poses, intense colors, and fanciful metaphors. (National Library of Medicine)
Herniated lumbar disc (Illustration) - Herniated lumbar disc is a condition in which part or all of the soft, gelatinous central portion of an intervertebral disk (the nucleus pulposus) is forced through a weakened part of the disk, resulting in back pain and nerve root irritation. (National Library of Medicine)
Historical Anatomies on the Web (Exhibit) - A digital project designed to give Internet users access to high quality images from important anatomical atlases in the National Library of Medicine's collection. (National Library of Medicine)
Lumbar puncture - Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) is a clear fluid that circulates in the space surrounding the spinal cord and brain. CSF protects the brain and spinal cord from injury by acting like a liquid cushion. CSF is usually obtained through a lumbar puncture (spinal tap). During the procedure, a needle is inserted usually between the 3rd and 4th lumbar vertebrae and the CSF fluid is collected for testing (National Library of Medicine)
Myosin and Actin Protein Molecules in Muscles (Graphic) - Downloadable pdf that contains a graphic. (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism)
Skeletal spine (Illustration) - The spine is divided into several sections. The cervical vertebrae make up the neck. The thoracic vertebrae comprise the chest section and have ribs attached. The lumbar vertebrae are the remaining vertebrae below the last thoracic bone and the top of the sacrum. The sacral vertebrae are caged within the bones of the pelvis, and the coccyx represents the terminal vertebrae or vestigial tail. (National Library of Medicine)
Spinal anatomy (Illustration) - The vertebral column provides structural support for the trunk and surrounds and protects the spinal cord. The vertebral column also provides attachment points for the muscles of the back and ribs. The vertebral disks serve as shock absorbers during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. They also allow the spine to flex and extend. (National Library of Medicine)
Spinal cord injury (Illustration) - A severe spinal cord injury often causes loss of feeling and paralysis, the loss of movement and voluntary control over the muscles in the body. Spinal cord damage also causes loss of reflex function below the point of injury interrupting bodily functions such as breathing, bowel control, and bladder control. In the event of a spinal injury prompt medical attention can help to minimize further spinal cord damage. (National Library of Medicine)

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