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Oral History Interviews Open for Research

FRANCIS J. ATTIG, Senate Reporter of Debates (1952-1974), 76 pp. As a reporter of debates on the Senate floor, Frank Attig observed the oratorical styles and idiosyncrasies of senators from the 1950s to the 1970s. His was an unusual view of the Senate, literally from the center of floor activities. He was responsible to every senator for the accuracy of their recorded remarks, and to the traditions of the Senate for observing decorum and proper language in the written record (even if forgotten in the spoken debate). Throughout each session until 1974, Attig was present, observing, listening, and recording the proceedings for history.

LEONARD H. BALLARD, Inspector, United States Capitol Police (1947-1984), 287 pp.  When Leonard Ballard joined the Capitol Police in 1947, the police rolls carried the names of 157 men, ranging from college students to retired policemen, who were mostly patronage appointments. When he retired 37 years later, the Capitol Police had expanded to 1,200 men and women, and was a fully professional police force. During this growth, the police balanced increasing security requirements against the needs of an open, democratic institution. Ballard recounts this transformation, explaining the importance of public relations when dealing with the politicians, staff, lobbyists, press, visiting dignitaries, and tourists who daily populate Capitol Hill.

DENNIS W. BREZINA, Staff of the Senate Subcommittee on Research (1967-69)  and Legislative Assistant to Senator Gaylord Nelson (1969-1971), 76 pp. As a member of Wisconsin Senator Gaylord Nelson’s legislative staff in 1970, Dennis Brezina assisted in the establishment of Earth Day, an event designed to bring national attention to environmental problems. A graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Brezina pursued his interest in the history of science and received an M.A. from Harvard University in 1964. Prior to joining Senator Nelson’s staff, he worked in the Science Research Division of the Legislative Reference Service and also the Senate Government Operations Committee’s Subcommittee on Government Research, chaired by Oklahoma Senator Fred Harris.

CHARLES SERGEANT CALDWELL, Aide to Senator Ralph Yarborough (1957-1970), 286 pp.  Caldwell recounts Texas Senator Ralph Yarborough's campaigns for office, the battles between the liberal and conservative wings of the Democratic party, and the origins of two-party politics in Texas. In these colorful and candid interviews, Caldwell relates Senator Yarborough's role in the fateful visit of John F. Kennedy to Texas in 1963. He explains why some liberal Democrats worked behind the scenes to elect Republican Senator John Tower. Caldwell also evaluates the contributions of Lyndon Johnson and John Connally to the Texas political wars, and considers the early career of George H.W. Bush, who ran unsuccessfully against Senator Yarborough in 1964.

GREGORY S. CASEY, Chief of Staff of Senator Larry Craig (1991-1996), Senate Sergeant at Arms, 1996-1998), 198 pages. Having served as legislative director and administrative assistant to Representative Larry Craig (R-Idaho) in the House, after Craig was elected to the Senate, Greg Casey became his chief of staff.  When Senator Trent Lott became majority leader in 1996, he sponsored Casey's election as Sergeant at Arms. Casey came to office determined to reorganize and modernize services under the Sergeant at Arms and to implement fully the Congressional Accountability Act.

DONALD J. DETWILER, Senate Page (1917-1918), 39 pp. The uniformed pages who sit on the steps around the presiding officer's chair in the Senate represent an old tradition dating back to the days of Henry Clay and Daniel Webster. Pages have served in and around the Senate chamber, running errands, carrying messages, sorting papers, filling ink wells and snuff boxes and doing whatever tasks were assigned to them. Donald Detwiler served as a page from 1917 to 1918, when the United States entered the First World War. Growing up in Kansas City, he was appointed a page under the patronage of Senator William H. Thompson, a Democrat from Kansas. In his interview he recalls the Senate of that era.

ROY L. ELSON, Administrative Assistant to Senator Carl Hayden and candidate for the U.S. Senate (1952-1969), 324 pp.  In 1952, when Senator Carl Hayden was 75 years old and was a 25-year veteran of the Senate, he hired 22-year-old Roy Elson as an assistant secretary. By age 27, Elson had become Hayden's Administrative Assistant. The aging senator found that his youthful aide "thought his thoughts." Elson became the senator's surrogate in countless meetings involving the authorization of the Central Arizona Project and other legislative issues. In 1962 he planned the senator's last campaign for reelection. Elson himself ran as the Democratic candidate for the U.S. Senate from Arizona in 1964 against Paul Fannin and in 1968 against Barry Goldwater. In these interviews he shares his knowledge and experience in the Senate, reflects on the senators and staff with whom he served, and offers candid views of the legislative and appropriations processes.

GROVER W. ENSLEY, Executive Director, Joint Economic Committee (1949-1957), 116 pp.  An economist, Grover Ensley joined the staff of Senator Ralph Flanders, a Vermont Republican, in 1946, just prior to the Republican victories in the congressional elections that year. He arrived on Capitol Hill when his senator was moving into the majority and when Congress was seeking to expand its previously minimal professional staff resources. In 1949, Dr. Ensley joined the staff of the Joint Economic Committee and quickly advanced to Executive Director. The committee served as a major force in shaping American economic policy during the Truman and Eisenhower eras, issuing studies that became "must readings for economists."

MARTIN GOLD, Counsel to Senator Mark Hatfield (1972-1976), Counsel to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (1976-1977), Counsel to the Senate Rules Committee (1977-1979), Counsel to the Senate Republican Leader (1979-1982, 2003-2004), 146 pp.  Gold served as a procedural specialist for Senate Majority Leaders Howard Baker and Bill Frist. A graduate of American University, where he also received a law degree, Gold joined the staff of Senator Mark Hatfield after serving in the U.S. Army. He became a careful student of the Senate rules and precedents, monitoring the flow of debate and legislation and offering timely parliamentary advice to Republican senators. Between stints in the majority leader's office, he founded the firm of Gold and Liebengood while continuing to give regular seminars on Senate procedures.

BRIAN HALLEN, Senate Enrolling Clerk (1986-1995), 135 pp. The Senate Enrolling Clerk prepares for printing all Senate-passed legislation prior to its transmittal to the House of Representatives or the White House, and physically transmits all Senate messages to the House. The Enrolling Clerk maintains files of bills from the House and transmits those that the Senate has not acted on by the end of a Congress to the National Archives. The Enrolling Clerk's primary responsibilities are the engrossment and enrollment of Senate bills and joint resolutions. Brian Hallen began as technical assistant in 1975 and ten years later became Senate Enrolling Clerk. His two decades in that office coincided with revolutionary changes in printing technology that brought modernization to ancient procedures of the Senate.

WILLIAM F. HILDENBRAND, Secretary of the Senate (1961-1981), 347 pp. A shrewd "head counter" within the Senate Republican leadership, Bill Hildenbrand first came to Capitol Hill in 1957 on the staff of a Delaware Representative. In 1961, he joined the staff of Delaware Senator J. Caleb Boggs. When Senator Hugh Scott became Republican whip in 1969, he made Hildenbrand his administrative assistant. When Scott was elected Republican leader, he continued as his right-hand man. Hildenbrand recounts the difficulties Senate Republicans had in working with the Nixon White House. Elected secretary of the minority, Hildenbrand became a familiar figure on the Senate floor. After the Republicans won the majority in 1980, he was elected Secretary of the Senate, where his duties became more administrative than political, but he continued to assist his party's leadership in the majority after so many years in the minority.

F. NORDY HOFFMANN, Sergeant at Arms (1975-1981), 264 pp. A former Notre Dame football player under coach Knute Rockne, Nordy Hoffmann looked like a Sergeant at Arms. During the 1930s he had been an aide to Philip Murray, president of the United Steelworkers of America and head of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). Murray sent Hoffmann to Washington to reorganize lobbying efforts for the Steelworkers. His activities as a lobbyist and his fund raising for Democratic congressional candidates led to his appointment to the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee in 1967. As a result of the associations he made during those years, Hoffmann was elected Senate Sergeant at Arms in 1975, which placed him in charge of Senate security, protocol, computers and numerous other essential services.

G. WILLIAM HOAGLAND, Staff Director of the Senate Budget Committee (1986-2002), Advisor to the Majority Leader (2003-2007), 107 pp. Hoagland moved to Washington in 1974 as a n economist for the Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service. In 1975 he became one of the first staff members of the nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office (CBO). In 1981, President Ronald Regan appointed him as administrator of the Food and Nutrition Service, and he also served as special assistant to the Secretary of Agriculture. He returned to Capitol Hill in 1982, serving first as a group leader and senior analyst and then alternately as staff director and minority staff director of the Senate Budget Committee for the next twenty years. Working with the committee's chairman, New Mexico Senator Pete Domenici, he participated in the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings budget reform legislation, the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990, and the 1995 Balance Budget Agreement. In 2003, Senate majority leader Bill Frist, appointed him a policy advisor on budget and financial matters, a position he held until he retired from the Senate in 2007. The Capitol Hill newspaper Roll Call regularly rated him among the "Top 50 Hill Staffers," and the National Journal listed him among "The Washington 100 Decision Makers."

PAT M. HOLT, Chief of Staff, Senate Foreign Relations Committee (1950-1977), 311 pp. A journalist who had reported for various newspapers and for the Congressional Quarterly, Pat Holt joined the staff of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in 1950. Because of his ability to speak Spanish, he became the committee's specialist in Latin American relations in 1958. Shortly afterwards came Vice President Richard Nixon's ill-fated tour of South America, ending with the storming of his limousine in Venezuela, and then Fidel Castro's revolution in Cuba. Latin American relations assumed an increasingly important position on the committee's agenda. In 1965, suspicions over the Lyndon Johnson administration's version of conditions in the Dominican Republic gave Holt a unique opportunity to examine State Department and CIA records. His findings played a part in Chairman J. William Fulbright's break with the Johnson administration. Holt later served as chief of staff under the chairmanships of Fulbright and John Sparkman.

J. FRANKLIN LITTLE, Senate Page (1910-1912), 39 pp. Frank Little was a boy selling newspapers near the Capitol Building in 1910 when he caught the attention of Senator Henry DuPont, a Republican from Delaware. Senator DuPont arranged for his appointment as a page. In his interview he relates the political education he received as a page, the work assigned to pages at the time, and the hijinks in which the pages engaged throughout the Capitol Building to the top of the dome.

JOHN D. LANE, Administrative Assistant to Senator Brien McMahon (1949-1952), 66 pp. John Lane recounts Senator McMahon's brief but notable Senate career and his bid for the presidency. While on the Senate staff, Lane also came to know Senators John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, and during the Kennedy administration he served on a special presidential commission to study regulatory commissions. He was a partner in the Washington law firm of Wilkes, Artis, Hedrick & Lane, and chaired several committees of the American Bar Association, for which he was also reviewed the qualifications of presidential nominees to the federal judiciary. From 1991 to 1992, Lane was president of the Federal Communications Bar Association, and during the administration of President Bill Clinton he worked in the White House vetting judicial nominations.

CHUCK LUDLAM, Counsel to the Subcommittee on Administrative Practice and Separation of Powers (1975-1979), legal counsel to the Joint Economic Committee (1982-1985), chief tax counsel to the Senate Small Business Committee (1985-1993), and counsel to Senator Joseph I. Lieberman (2001-2005), 258 pp. Chuck Ludlam served in the Peace Corps both before and after his diverse career on the Senate staff and as a lobbyist for the Biotechnology Industry Organization. On the subcommittee staff of Senator James Abourezk, Ludlam drafted legislation creating the Office of Senate Legal Counsel. He contributed to issues that ranged widely from ethics in government to antitrust legislation, airline noise reduction, embryonic stem cell research, and U.S.-China cultural exchanges.

CARL M. MARCY, Chief of Staff, Senate Foreign Relations Committee (1950-1973), 284 pp. Senator J. William Fulbright holds the record as the longest serving chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee (fifteen years, from 1959 to 1974), but Carl Marcy served for eighteen years as the committee's chief of staff (from 1955 to 1973). For most of that time their service overlapped, and Marcy's recollections are in large part the story of Fulbright's impact on the committee, during the presidencies of Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson and Nixon. It was a period in which the bipartisan consensus in foreign policy unraveled and the gap between Congress and the White House widened steadily, most notably over the war in Vietnam. No longer completely trusting the executive branch as a source of information, the committee expanded its staff during Marcy's tenure as chief of staff and pursued more vigorous oversight of the policy makers.

STEWART E. McCLURE, Chief Clerk, Senate Committee on Labor, Education, and Public Welfare (1949-1973), 292 pp. When the Russians launched Sputnik, Stuart McClure as chief clerk of the Committee on Labor, Education and Public Welfare suggested that an education bill currently being considered might stand a better chance of passage if it were packaged as a defense measure. From his memo was born the National Defense Education Act. Having previously served as administrative assistant to Senator Guy Gillette (an Iowa Democrat), McClure became chief of staff of the Labor Committee in 1955 under the chairmanship of Senator Lister Hill, and again in 1971 under the chairmanship of Senator Harrison Williams. He recounts the avalanche of domestic legislation that the committee handled during the Great Society and offers candid assessments of the internal politics and stresses of committee life during those years.

CHRISTINE S. McCREARY, Staff of Senator Stuart Symington, 1953-1977, and Senator John Glenn, 1977-1998, 38 pp. In her 45 years of service on Capitol Hill, Christine McCreary saw great changes in both the Senate and in Washington, D.C. She left Bethune-Cookman College to come to the capital as a secretary during World War II. While working in the Federal Security Administration typing pool, she was called to take dictation for the chairman of the National Security Board, Stuart Symington. Symington was impressed with her work and invited her to join his staff when he became director of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation and when he was elected to the Senate as a Missouri Democrat in 1952. McCreary was one of the first African American staff members to challenge the de facto segregation that existed by dining regularly in the staff cafeterias. Remaining with Senator Symington until his retirement, she then joined the staff of Ohio Senator John Glenn.

ROY L. McGHEE, Superintendent of the Senate Periodical Press Gallery (1973-1991) 190 pp. After serving as a reporter in Missouri and as United Press International bureau chief in Denver, Roy McGhee came to Washington in 1959 as a congressional reporter for UPI. He covered members of Congress from the Southwest, who at the time included Senate Majority Leader Lyndon Johnson and House Speaker Sam Rayburn. McGhee remained a Washington reporter until 1973, when he became superintendent of the Senate Periodical Press Gallery, a post he held until his retirement in 1991. His interviews therefore recount what it was like to cover Capitol Hill, as well as how the staff facilitated such coverage.

JESSE R. NICHOLS, Government Documents Clerk and Librarian, Senate Committee on Finance (1937-1971), 98 pp. Among the first African Americans hired as clerical staff of the Senate, Jesse Nichols served as government documents clerk for the Senate Finance Committee from 1937 to 1971. Previously, black men and women had worked as messengers, grounds keepers, and in service positions, but typically had been excluded from the clerical staff. When Nichols started work, most restaurants and other services on Capitol Hill were still segregated, and he recounts the transition to integration. Appointed by Senator Pat Harrison, a Mississippi Democrat, Nichols' career extended through the chairmanships of several Southern senators, including Walter George, Harry Byrd, and Russell Long.

SCOTT I. PEEK, Administrative Assistant to Senator George A. Smathers (1952-1963), 122 pp. Shortly after graduating from the University of Florida in 1952, Scott Peak joined the staff of Senator George Smathers, a Florida Democrat. By 1958 he had become the senator's Administrative Assistant. During those years, Smathers served as assistant to Senate Majority Leader Lyndon Johnson, as Secretary of the Democratic Conference, and as chairman of the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee. Peek recounts the daily workings of the senator's office, dealings with lobbyists and the press, and the senator's relations with other members such as Johnson, John Kennedy, Richard Russell, Robert Kerr, and Russell Long. He also describes the political scene of that era, from fund raising to conventions and campaigns.

WARREN FEATHERSTONE REID, Chief Aide to Senator Warren Magnuson (1964-1981), 197 pp. As a student at George Washington University in the 1950s, Featherstone Reid worked as a Senate elevator operator and Capitol police officer on the patronage of his home state senator, Warren Magnuson, Democrat of Washington. After law school, he joined Senator Magnuson's staff, where he specialized in health and education matters. Reid worked with the senator on the Commerce Committee and the Appropriations Committee. When Magnuson became chairman of the Appropriations Committee and President pro tempore of the Senate, Reid served as his chief aide and troubleshooter. From this unique vantage point, he discusses the legislative and appropriations processes, the impact of the media, and the influence of lobbying groups and of various presidential administrations from Lyndon Johnson to Jimmy Carter.

FLOYD M. RIDDICK, Senate Parliamentarian (1964-1974), 550 pp. While researching his doctoral dissertation on congressional procedure in 1935, Floyd Riddick spent a year observing the workings of the House of Representatives. Most of the rest of his career he spent on the Senate side of the Capitol, as the first editor of the "Daily Digest" in the Congressional Record and as Parliamentarian of the Senate. As Parliamentarian, he sat immediately below the presiding officer in the Senate chamber, providing information on precedents and advising other senators on parliamentary procedure. In his interviews he talks about Senate  filibusters and the efforts to change the rules of cloture. He also discusses the censures of Joseph McCarthy and Thomas Dodd, the contested election between John Durkin and Louis Wyman, and the preparations for a planned impeachment trial of Richard Nixon.

WILLIAM RIDGELY, Senate Financial Clerk (1949-1981), 161 pp. The Senate Disbursing Office pays the salaries of senators and staff, and keeps the Senate's financial records. Bill Ridgely started as a clerk, became head bookkeeper, and rose to Financial Clerk. He recounts the dramatic growth in Senate staff, the impact of computers, and the Disbursing Office's dealings with the Appropriations and Rules Committees. Later, as Assistant Secretary of the Senate, he handled the Senate's participation in the International Parliamentary Union, including an eventful meeting in Havana, Cuba.

ARTHUR J. RYNEARSON, Office of the Senate Legislative Counsel (1976-2003), 158 pp.  Art Rynearson was hired in 1976 to draft foreign policy-related legislation. He joined the Office of Legislative Counsel, which dates back to 1919 and was created to "aid in drafting public bills and resolutions or amendments thereto on request of any committee." Over time, the nonpartisan office also provided drafting services for individual senators as well as for committees. To develop expertise, each attorney was assigned to a specific area of statutory law. With a lifelong personal interest in foreign relations and law school training in international legal affairs, Rynearson was well-suited for the Office of Legislative Counsel. In 2003, the Senate passed a resolution commending his exemplary service as “the primary drafter in the Senate of virtually all legislation relating to international relations, international security, immigration, and the State Department, and all matters relating to Senate consideration of international treaties.”

DARRELL ST. CLAIRE, Assistant Secretary of the Senate (1933-1977), 248 pp.  When Darrell St. Claire joined the staff of Senator Carl Hayden in 1933, almost all positions on Capitol Hill were still determined by patronage. Senator Hayden headed the Democratic Patronage Committee, and St. Claire served as its secretary, dispensing staff positions to majority party members during the New Deal years. Later, as Assistant Secretary of the Senate, he became a leader in the movement to install a professional staff, and took the responsibilities of personnel management in the Senate. St. Claire also worked on the staff of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, and in an appendix he details how he once became the personal target of Senator Joseph R. McCarthy.  

DOROTHYE G. SCOTT, Administrative Assistant to the Senate Democratic Secretary and to the Secretary of the Senate (1945-1977), 363 pp. When Senate Democrats elected Felton "Skeeter" Johnston as Secretary of the Majority in 1945, Dorothye Scott became his secretary. Ten years later, when Johnston was elected Secretary of the Senate, Scott moved "downstairs" with him as administrative assistant. After Johnston's retirement, she continued in her post under Frank Valeo until her retirement. During the 1950s, the Secretary's suite contained one of the few private dining rooms in the Capitol, and Dorothye Scott arranged almost daily luncheons for the Democratic leader, Lyndon Johnson, and the senior senators who constituted the powerful "inner club," about whom she offers personal reminiscences.  

HOWARD E. SHUMAN, Administrative Assistant to Senators Paul Douglas and William Proxmire (1955-1983), 631 pp.  As legislative and administrative assistant to Senator Paul Douglas during the 1950s and 1960s, Howard Shuman helped carry the banner for civil rights, fought against oil and gas interests, and promoted many other liberal issues on Senator Douglas' agenda. During the 1970s he continued the legislative battle while on the staff of Senator William Proxmire, supporting "Truth in Lending" laws and opposing the SST. As a specialist in economic issues, Shuman also observed the evolution of the federal budget process through his close associations with the Senate Appropriations, Finance, and Budget committees and with the Joint Economic Committee.

GEORGE A. SMATHERS, United States Senator from Florida (1951-1969), 172 pp. After two terms in the House, George Smathers defeated the incumbent Senator Claude Pepper in the legendary Democratic primary of 1950, going on to serve three terms in the Senate. In the Senate he chaired the Senate Democratic Campaign Committee, served on the Democratic Policy Committee and was elected Secretary of the Democratic Conference. He was a member of the committees on Commerce, Finance and Foreign Relations. In these interviews, he also recounts his close personal friendships with John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson and Richard M. Nixon.  

GEORGE TAMES, Washington Photographer for the New York Times (1945-1985), 198 pp. As a newspaper photographer, George Tames was a regular on Capitol Hill over a span of forty years. He developed access to and captured the likeness of numerous members of Congress, and had his work reproduced in influential publications. He developed a style contrary to the "herd instinct" of press photographers, demonstrating his artistic eye, sense of place, and special intimacy with his subjects. In these interviews he relates some of the stories behind his most memorable photographs and offers his perspective of the Senate through a camera's lens.

FRANCIS R. VALEO, Secretary of the Senate (1966-1977), 924 pp. Starting as a foreign policy specialist for the Legislative Reference Service, Frank Valeo joined the staff of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, became assistant to the Democratic Whip, Mike Mansfield, succeeded Bobby Baker as Senate Democratic Secretary and served as Secretary of the Senate from 1966 to 1977. Valeo accompanied Senator Mansfield on his many trips to Southeast Asia in the 1950s and 1960s and to the People's Republic of China in 1972. He drafted many of Senator Mansfield's private messages to President Lyndon Johnson, warning against escalation of the war in Vietnam. Valeo also played a significant role in passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and in the Senate's preparations for a possible impeachment trial of President Richard Nixon in 1974. His name is recorded in constitutional history in the case of Buckley v. Valeo (1976) that continues to influence campaign financing laws.

REIN J. VANDER ZEE, Administrative Assistant to the Majority Whip and Assistant Secretary of the Majority (1961-1964), 159 pp. When Senator Hubert Humphrey became the Democratic Whip in 1961, Rein Vander Zee served as his assistant, supervising the Democratic cloakroom and assisting the Democratic floor leadership. Vander Zee had worked on Humphrey's 1960 campaign for the presidency, most notably in the decisive West Virginia primary. He later acted as an advance man for the Kennedy-Johnson ticket. His oral history recounts the personalities and politics of the Senate during the Kennedy and Johnson presidencies.

J. ROBERT VASTINE, Staff Director, Senate Republican Conference (1985-1991), 227 pages. Starting on the staff of Representative Tom Curtis (R-Missouri) and as minority staff director of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, J. Robert Vastine was one of the architects of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Act of 1974. After service in the Treasury Department, he returned to the Senate as staff director of the Senate Republican Conference, under the chairmanship of Senator John Chafee (R-Rhode Island). In that post he helped shift the Conference's focus to broadcast media, establishing technological innovations to improve senators' contacts with the media in their home states.

JERRY T. VERKLER, Staff Director of the Senate Interior and Insular Affairs Committee (1963-1974), 182 pp. The Senate Interior and Insular Affairs Committee had jurisdiction over all legislation dealing with public lands and territories, national parks and battlefields, forest reserves, irrigation and reclamation, water supply and mineral resources. Increasingly, the committee also handled environmental and energy issues. Jerry Verkler joined the committee's staff in 1961, under the chairmanship of Clinton P. Anderson and became staff director under Henry M. Jackson. Verkler particularly played a leading role in passage of the Wilderness Act of 1964, which created the National Wilderness System, and the act establishing the Land and Water Conservation Fund.

RUTH YOUNG WATT, Chief Clerk, Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (1947- 1979), 315 pp. As chief clerk of the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Ruth Watt managed the hearing rooms, made arrangements for witnesses and investigators, took care of the subcommittee's finances, issued its subpoenas, supervised its records, and in general handled its paperwork.  She worked closely with subcommittee chairmen from Joseph R. McCarthy to Henry M. Jackson, and with staff members who included William P. Rogers, Roy Cohn, Robert F. Kennedy, Pierre Salinger and Carmine Bellino. She also offers candid reminiscences of such colorful witnesses as Howard Hughes, Jimmy Hoffa, and Joe Valachi.

FRANCIS O. WILCOX, Chief of Staff, Senate Foreign Relations Committee (1947-1955), 240 pp. When the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 authorized the first professional staffs of Senate committees, Senators Arthur Vandenberg and Tom Connally jointly appointed Francis Wilcox to become the first chief of staff of the Foreign Relations Committee. His service corresponded with the beginning of the Cold War and the zenith of bipartisan foreign policy. During those years the committee dealt with such momentous issues as the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, and formation of NATO. Wilcox devotes much of his oral history to discussing the forces and personalities that both facilitated bipartisanship and eventually unraveled it.


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