Primary Navigation for the CDC Website
CDC en Español
Adverse Childhood Experiences Study
Email Icon Email this page
Printer Friendly Icon Printer-friendly version
 ACE Study
bullet Home
bullet About the Study
bullet Pyramid
bullet Major Findings
bullet Questionnaires
bullet Data and Statistics
bullet Future Directions
bullet Related Links

Publications on Major Findings By
Publication Year

Following is a comprehensive list of ACE publications by publication year.


  1. Anda RF, Brown DW, Dube SR, Bremner JD, Felitti VJ, Giles WH. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Adults. Am J Prev Med. 2008;34(5):396-403.

  2. Corso, PS, Edwards, VJ, Fang, X, Mercy, JA.. Health-related quality of life among adults who experienced maltreatment during childhood. Am J Public Health, 2008;98:1094-1100.


  1. Anda RF, Brown DW. Root Causes and Organic Budgeting: Funding Health from Conception to the Grave. Ped Health. 2007;1(2):141–143.

  2. Anda RF, Brown DW, Felitti VJ, Bremner JD, Dube SR, Giles WH. Adverse childhood experiences and prescribed psychotropic medications in adults. Am J Prev Med. 2007 May;32(5):38994.

  3. Edwards, VJ, Anda RF, Gu D, Dube, S R, Felitti, VJ. Adverse childhood experiences and smoking persistence in adults with smoking-related symptoms and illness*. Permanente Journal 2007;11:57.

  4. Brown DW, Anda RF, Felitti VJ. Self-Reported Information and Pharmacy Claims Were Comparable for Lipid-Lowering Medication Exposure. J Clin Epidemiol. 2007 60(5):525529.

  5. Chapman DP, Dube SR, Anda RF. Adverse childhood events as risk factors for negative mental health outcomes. Psychiatric Annals. 2007 37(5):359364.

  6. Edwards, VJ, Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Anda RF. It's OK to ask about past abuse. American Psychologist. 2007 62(4):327328.


back to top


  1. Dube SR, Miller JW, Brown DW, Giles WH, Felitti VJ, Dong M, Anda RF. Adverse childhood experiences and the association with ever using alcohol and initiating alcohol use during adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2006;38(4):444.e1–444.e10.

  2. Anda, RF, Felitti, VJ, Brown, DW, Chapman, D, Dong, M, Dube, SR, Edwards, VJ, Giles, WH. (2006) Insights Into Intimate Partner Violence From the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. In PR Salber and E Taliaferro, eds. The Physician's Guide to Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse, Volcano, CA: Volcano Press; 2006.

  3. Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Walker J, Whitfield, CL, Bremner JD, Perry BD, Dube SR, Giles WH. The Enduring Effects of Abuse and Related Adverse Experiences in Childhood: A Convergence of Evidence from Neurobiology and Epidemiology. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 2006; 56(3):17486.

    back to top


  1. Dube SR, Anda RF, Whitfield, CL, Brown DW, Felitti VJ, Dong M, Giles WH. Long-Term Consequences of Childhood Sexual Abuse by Gender of Victim. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2005;28:430–438.

  2. Dong M, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Williamson DF, Dube SR, Brown DW, Giles WH. Impact of residential mobility during childhood on health in adults: The hidden role in Adverse Childhood Experiences. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 2005;159:1104–1110.

  3. Edwards, V. J., Anda, R. F., Dube, S. R., Dong, M., Chapman, D. F., & Felitti, V. J. (2005). The wide-ranging health consequences of adverse childhood experiences. In Kathleen Kendall-Tackett and Sarah Giacomoni (eds.) Victimization of Children and Youth: Patterns of Abuse, Response Strategies, Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute.

  4. Whitfield CL, Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Anda RF. Adverse childhood experiences and hallucinations. Child Abuse and Neglect. 2005;29(7):797–810.

back to top


  1. Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Fleisher VI, Edwards VJ, Whitfield CL, Dube SR, Williamson DF. Childhood Abuse, Household Dysfunction and Indicators of Impaired Worker Performance in Adulthood. The Permanente Journal, 2004;8(1):30–38.
  2. Chapman DP, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Dube SR, Edwards VJ, Whitfield CL. (2004). Epidemiology of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Depressive Disorders In a Large Health Maintenance Organization Population. Journal of Affective Disorders, 2004;82(2):217–225.
  3. Dong M, Anda RF, Felitti, VJ, Dube SR, Williamson DF, Thompson TJ, Loo CM. Giles WH. The Interrelatedness of Multiple Forms of Childhood Abuse, Neglect, and Household Dysfunction. Child Abuse and Neglect, 2004;28(7):771–784.
  4. Dong M, Dube SR, Giles WH, Felitti VJ. Anda, RF. RE: “Adverse Childhood Experiences and Self-Reported Liver Disease: New Insights into the Causal Pathway.” Archives of Internal Medicine. 2004;164(4):460–461.
  5. Dong M, Giles WH, Felitti VJ, Dube, SR, Williams JE, Chapman DP, Anda RF. Insights into causal pathways for ischemic heart disease: Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. Circulation, 2004;110:1761–1766.
  6. Dube SR, Williamson DF, Thompson T, Felitti VJ, Anda RF. (2004). Assessing the Reliability of Retrospective Reports of Adverse Childhood Experiences Among Adult HMO Members Attending a Primary Care Clinic. Child Abuse and Neglect, 2004;28(7):729–737.
  7. Hillis SD, Anda RF, Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Marchbanks PA, Marks JS. The Association Between Adolescent Pregnancy, Long-Term Psychosocial Outcomes, and Fetal Death. Pediatrics, 2004;113(2):320–327.
  8. Ye D, Yao J, Dong M. Progress on the adverse childhood experience study. Chinese Journal of Disease Control and Prevention, 2004;8(6):483–485. (Article in Chinese)

back to top


  1. Dong M, Anda RF, Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Giles WH. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Self- reported Liver Disease: New Insights into a Causal Pathway. Archives of Internal Medicine, 2003;163:1949–1956.

  2. Dong M, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Dube SR, Giles WH. The Relationship of Exposure to Childhood Sexual Abuse to Other Forms of Abuse, Neglect and Household Dysfunction during Childhood. Child Abuse and Neglect, 2003;27(6):625–639.

  3. Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Dong M, Chapman DP, Giles WH, Anda RF. Childhood Abuse, Neglect and Household Dysfunction and the Risk of Illicit Drug Use: The Adverse Childhood Experience Study. Pediatrics, 2003;111(3):564–572.

  4. Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Dong M, Giles WH, Anda RF. The Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Health Problems: Evidence from Four Birth Cohorts Dating Back to 1900. Preventive Medicine, 2003;37(3):268–277.

  5. Edwards, V. J., Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., & Dube, S. R. (2003). Adverse Childhood Experiences and Health-Related Quality of Life as an Adult. in K. Kendall-Tackett (ed.) Victimization and Health, American Psychological Association.
  6. Edwards, V. J., Holden, G. W., Anda, R. F., & Felitti, V. J. Experiencing Multiple Forms of Childhood Maltreatment and Adult Mental Health: Results from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2003;160(8):1453–1460.
  7. Felitti VJ. Ursprünge des Suchtverhaltens - Evidenzen aus einer Studie zu belastenden Kindheitserfahrungen . Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie, 2003;52:547–559
  8. Whitfield CL, Anda RF, Dube SR, Felitti VJ. Violent Childhood Experiences and the Risk of Intimate Partner Violence in Adults: Assessment in a Large Health Maintenance Organization. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2003;18(2):166–185.

back to top


  1. Anda RF, Chapman DP, Felitti VJ, Edwards V, Williamson DF, Croft JP, Giles WH. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Risk of Paternity in Teen Pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2002;100(1):37–45.
  2. Anda RF, Whitfield CL, Felitti VJ, Chapman D, Edwards VJ, Dube SR, Williamson DF. Adverse childhood experiences, alcoholic parents, and later risk of alcoholism and depression. Psychiatric Services, 2002;53(8):1001–1009.
  3. Dube SR, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Edwards VJ, Croft JB. (2002). Adverse Childhood Experiences and personal alcohol abuse as an adult. Addictive Behaviors, 2002;27(5):713–725.

  4. Dube SR, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Edwards VJ, Williamson DF. Exposure to abuse, neglect and household dysfunction among adults who witnessed intimate partner violence as children. Violence and Victims, 2002;17(1):3–17.

  5. Felitti VJ. The relationship between adverse childhood experiences and adult health: Turning gold into lead. The Permanente Journal, 2002;6:44–47.

  6. Felitti VJ. Belastungen in der Kindheit und Gesundheit im Erwachsenenalter: die Verwandlung von Gold in Blei. Z psychsom Med Psychother, 2002;48(4):359–369.

  7. Williamson DF, Thompson, TJ, Anda, RF,. Dietz, WH, Felitti VJ. Body Weight, Obesity, and Self-Reported Abuse in Childhood. International Journal of Obesity, 2002;26:1075–1082.

back to top


  1. Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Chapman DP, Croft JB, et al. Abused boys, battered mothers, and male involvement in teen pregnancy. Pediatrics, 2001;107(2), e19.
  2. Dube SR, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Chapman D, Williamson DF, Giles WH. Childhood abuse, household dysfunction and the risk of attempted suicide throughout the life span: Findings from Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2001;286:3089–3096.
  3. Dube SR, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Croft JB, Edwards VJ, Giles WH. Growing up with Parental alcohol abuse: Exposure to Childhood Abuse, Neglect and Household Dysfunction. Child Abuse and Neglect, 2001;25(12):1627–1640.
  4. Edwards, V.J., Anda, R.F., Nordenberg, D.F., Felitti, V.J., Williamson, D.F., Howard, N., & Wright, J.A. An investigation of response rate bias in an epidemiological study of child abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 2001;25:307–312.
  5. Edwards, Valerie J., Fivush, Robyn, Anda, Robert F., Felitti, Vincent J., and Nordenberg, Dale F. Autobiographical memory disturbances in childhood abuse survivors. In J.J. Freyd and A.P. DePrince (Eds.) Trauma and Cognitive Science: A meeting of minds, science, and human experience. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press. Also published in Aggression, Maltreatment, and Trauma (2001).
  6. Hillis SD, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Marchbanks PA. Adverse childhood experiences and sexual risk behaviors in women: a retrospective cohort study. Family Planning Perspectives, 2001;33:206–211.

back to top


  1. Hillis SD, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Nordenberg D, Marchbanks PA. Adverse childhood experiences and sexually transmitted diseases in men and women: a retrospective study. Pediatrics, 2000;106(1):E11.

back to top


  1. Anda RF, Croft JB, Felitti VJ, Nordenberg D, Giles WH, Williamson DF, Giovino GA. Adverse childhood experiences and smoking during adolescence and adulthood. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1999;282:1652–1658.
  2. Dietz PM, Spitz AM, Anda RF, Williamson DF, McMahon PM, Santelli JS, Nordenberg DF, Felitti VJ, Kendrick JS. Unintended pregnancy among adult women exposed to abuse or household dysfunction during their childhood. Journal of the American Medical Association,. 1999;282:1359–1364.

back to top


  1. Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Nordenberg D, Williamson DF, Spitz AM, Edwards V, Koss MP, Marks, JS. The relationship of adult health status to childhood abuse and household dysfunction. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 1998;14:245–258.
  2. Foege WH. Adverse childhood experiences: A public health perspective (editorial). American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 1998;14:354–355.
  3. Weiss JS, Wagner SH. What explains the negative consequences of adverse childhood experiences on adult health? Insights from cognitive and neuroscience research (editorial). American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 1998;14:356–360.
  4. Whitfield CL. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Trauma (editorial). American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 1998;14:361–363.

back to top

* Links to non-Federal organizations are provided solely as a service to our users. Links do not constitute an endorsement of any organization by CDC or the Federal Government, and none should be inferred. The CDC is not responsible for the content of the individual organization Web pages found at this link.


Date last reviewed: January 10, 2008
Date last modified: June 12, 2008
Content source: Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

bullet Health Outcomes
bullet Publication Year
Contact Info
Adverse Childhood
Experiences Study
4770 Buford Hwy, NE
MS K-67
Atlanta, GA 30341-3717

bullet Contact Us

  Home | Policies and Regulations | Disclaimer | e-Government | FOIA | Contact Us
Safer, Healthier People

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30333, U.S.A
Tel: (404) 639-3311 / Public Inquiries: (404) 639-3534 / (800) 311-3435
USA.govDHHS Department of Health
and Human Services