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Lymphatic Filariasis

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Patient with lymphedema of the leg
Patient with lymphedma. (CDC Photo)

Although the parasite damages the lymph system, most infected people have no symptomos and will never develop clinical symptoms. These people do not know they have lymphatic filariasis unless tested. A small percentage of persons will develop lymphedema. This is caused by fluid collection because of improper functioning of the lymph system resulting in swelling. This mostly affects the legs, but can also occur in the arms, breasts, and genitalia. Most people develop these symptoms years after being infected.

The swelling and the decreased function of the lymph system make it difficult for the body to fight germs and infections. These people will have more bacterial infections in the skin and lymph system. This causes hardening and thickening of the skin, which is called elephantiasis. Many of these bacterial infections can be prevented with appropriate skin hygiene and exercise.

Men can develop hydrocele or swelling of the scrotum after the death of an adult worm.

Filarial infection can also cause pulmonary tropical eosinophilia syndrome, although this syndrome is typically found in persons living with the disease in Asia. Symptoms of pulmonary tropical eosinophilia syndrome include cough, shortness of breath, and wheezing. The eosinophilia is often accompanied by high levels of IgE (Immunoglobulin E) and antifilarial antibodies.


Page last modified: April 24, 2008
Page last reviewed: February 27 2007
Content Source: Division of Parasitic Diseases (DPD)
National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-borne, and Enteric Diseases (ZVED)
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