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Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance
Home > Related Links
Related Links Inside CDC
Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD)
Promoting Appropriate Antibiotic Use in the Community
Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance Toolkit (for Streptococcus pneumoniae): Manual and resources help state and local health departments design surveillance systems that track Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID)
Antimicrobial Resistance in Healthcare Settings
Campaign to Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance in Healthcare Settings
Arctic Investigation Program, Division of Emerging Infections and Surveillance Services, National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID)
Antimicrobial Resistance in Alaska

Public Health Image Library (PHIL™)


Related Links Outside CDCDisclaimer
Federal and State Government
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)
The Centers for Education and Research on Therapeutics (CERTs) is a research program administered by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), in consultation with the Food and Drug Administration, agencies within the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The mission of the CERTs is to conduct research and provide education that will advance the optimal use of drugs, medical devices, and biological products.
Children's Health: Parental pressure for antibiotics can influence pediatricians' treatment decisions
Children's Health: Educational materials do not substantially increase parents' knowledge and attitudes about the use of antibiotics
Pharmaceutical Research: Asthma patients with uncontrolled symptoms receive more antibiotics than those whose asthma is better controlled
Clinical Evidence Shows Limited Effect of Antibiotic Treatment on Children With Acute Otitis Media...more info
Clinical Decision making: Researchers examine the use of antibiotics to treat acute respiratory infections in otherwise healthy adults
Evidence-Based Medicine: Using a simple set of clinical criteria is a cost-effective approach to treating suspected acute bacterial sinusitis
Computerized guidelines reduce prescribing by hospital doctors of an expensive and over prescribed antibiotic...more info
Evidence Report/Technology Assessment, No. 43: Making Health Care Safer, A Critical Analysis of Patient Safety Practices
  Impact of Changes in Antibiotic Use Practices on Nosocomial Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance — Clostridium difficile and Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE)
US Agency for International Development
Infectious Disease Initiative: Strategies and Interventions to Understand, Contain, and Respond to the Development and Spread of Antimicrobial Resistance
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Antimicrobial Resistance-The USDA Perspective
Remarks prepared for delivery by Dr. Catherine Woteki, Under Secretary for Food Safety, before the conference on Antimicrobial Resistance sponsored by the Royal Society of Medicine Foundation, the Royal Society of Medicine, and the Tufts University School of Medicine, May 4, 2000, Washington, D.C.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
HHS Fact Sheet: Antimicrobial Resistance: The Public Health Response
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER): Antimicrobial Resistance
Proposed FDA rule on additional labeling for antibacterial drug products regarding resistance
Drug Shortages (including How to Report a Drug Shortage). See also American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Drug Product Shortages Management Resource Center.
The Rise of Antibiotic-Resistant Infections
FDA Consumer magazine, September 1995
Inside FDA: When a Drug Is in Short Supply (from the FDA Consumer Magazine)
Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM): Antimicrobial Resistance
FDA announces Public Meeting on Antimicrobial Resistance — October 2, 2002 - "Discussion of the 'Draft Guidance for Industry: Evaluating the Safety of Antimicrobial New Animal Drugs with Regards to Their Microbiological Effects on Bacteria of Human Health Concern'"
Draft Guidance for Industry: Evaluating the Safety of Antimicrobial New Animal Drugs With Regard to Their Microbiological Effects on Bacteria of Human Health Concern
Word Version (.doc)
PDF Version (.pdf)
Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)
Office of Pharmacy Affairs (OPA, formerly Office of Drug Pricing)
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
  Antimicrobial Resistance
  Global Research
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
HIV Drug Resistance Program (HIV DRP)
Fogarty International Center

Wisconsin Antibiotic Resistance Network (WARN)


Congressional Testimony
Antimicrobial Resistance
Hearing before the U.S. Senate Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, September 20, 2000.
Antimicrobial Resistance
Statement of James M. Hughes, M.D., Director, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, before the U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, Subcommittee on Public Health and Safety, February 25, 1999.

Antimicrobial Resistance: The NIH Response to a Growing Problem
Statement of Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, before the U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, Subcommittee on Public Health and Safety, February 25, 1999.


Professional Associations
American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP)
American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)
American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine (ACP-ASIM)
Antibiotic Resistance
American Medical Association (AMA)
Antibiotics and Antimicrobials
American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP)
Drug Product Shortages Management Resource Center
American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA)
Judicious Therapeutic Use of Antimicrobials
Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL)
Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE)
Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)
Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS)

Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA)


Nongovernmental Organizations
Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics (APUA)
Conducts educational, research and international networking activities to promote more appropriate use of antibiotics.
CDC Foundation
Nonprofit enterprise that fights threats to health by creating programs with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Antimicrobial Resistance (CIRAR)
Aims to plan, implement, and evaluate outcomes of a core program and curriculum to prepare biomedical researchers to conduct interdisciplinary research.
Michigan Antibiotic Resistance Reduction (MARR) Coalition
Dedicated to promoting more careful antibiotic use by helping health care providers and patients understand when antibiotics can help and when they should not be prescribed.

National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID)
Supports research that will lead to a better understanding of the causes, cures, and prevention of infectious diseases.


Population Health Division, Commonwealth Department of Health and Aging
  Joint Expert Technical Advisory Committee on Antibiotic Resistance (JETACAR)
    JETACAR reports
Health Canada
  Health Canada: Antibiotic Resistance
Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance (CCAR)
European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS)
European Commission
Opinion of the Scientific Steering Committee on Antimicrobial Resistance, May 28, 1999 Adobe Acrobat PDF (268 KB, 121 pages)
Publishes news of infectious disease incidents and surveillance data from network of public health centres in the European Union.
MIKSTRA Programme (Finland): New strategies for antimicrobial use
Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
Reunión anual regional de los países participantes en la red de monitoreo/vigilancia de la resistencia a los antibióticos (Asunción, Paraguay, 31 enero-2 febrero 2001)
United Kingdom
Department of Health
Antibiotic Resistance
The Path of Least Resistance
Health Protection Agency (HPA)
Antibiotic prescribing guidance for primary care
(CDR July 7, 2000;10:241,244)
The Gonococcal Resistance to Antimicrobials Surveillance Programme (GRASP)
World Health Organization (WHO)
WHO Global Strategy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance
Background documents
Antibiotic resistance: synthesis of recommendations by expert policy groupsAdobe Acrobat PDF (1.00 MB, 163 pages). Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics.
Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeaeAdobe Acrobat PDF (526 KB, 65 pages). John Tapsall.
Antimicrobial resistance in shigellosis, cholera and campylobacteriosisAdobe Acrobat PDF (438 KB, 56 pages). David A. Sack, Christine Lyke, Carol McLaughlin and Voravit Suwamvanichkij.
Drug resistance in malariaAdobe Acrobat PDF (353 KB, 32 pages). Peter B. Bloland.
Infection control programmes to contain antimicrobial resistanceAdobe Acrobat PDF (360 KB, 53 pages). Lindsay E. Nicolle.
Interventions against antimicrobial resistance: a review of the literature and exploration of modelling cost-effectivenessAdobe Acrobat PDF (58 KB, 6 pages). Richard Smith, Joanna Coast, Michael R Millar, Paula Wilton and Anne-Marie Karcher.
Interventions and strategies to improve the use of antimicrobials in developing countriesAdobe Acrobat PDF (319 KB, 35 pages). Drug Management Program.
Resistant pneumococcal infectionsAdobe Acrobat PDF (300 KB, 35 pages). Stephanie J. Schrag, Bernard Beall and Scott Dowell.
Further information about the rational use of drugs
WHO Global Principles for the Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance in Animals Intended for Food
The Principles provide a framework of recommendations to reduce the overuse and misuse of antimicrobials in food animals for the protection of human health.
Related WHO publications and links on Antimicrobial resistance
Overcoming Antimicrobial Resistance, WHO Infectious Disease Report 2000
Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response
Anti-infective Drug Resistance
Use of antimicrobials outside human medicine and resultant antimicrobial resistance in humans
Surveillance standards for antimicrobial resistance
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Date: August 29, 2008
Content source: National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases/Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion
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