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 1 Epidemiology and prevention of helicopter external load accidents
Authors Manwaring-JC; Conway-GA; Garrett-LC 
Source J Saf Res 1998 Aug; 29(2):107-121 
NIOSHTIC No. 20025196 
AbstractFrom 1980 through 1995, there were 230 helicopter external load accidents resulting in 57 fatalities and 74 serious nonfatal injuries in the United States investigated by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). Helicopter external load operations, such as helicopter logging, place unique demands on the aircraft helicopters and the pilots who fly them. A descriptive analysis of NTSB "accident briefs" indicates that mechanical failure, pilot error, and maintenance errors were cited as the most common probable causes of the accidents. Recent experience in Alaska has shown that by adhering to existing regulations and manufacturer recommendations, and by implementing improved training and frequent maintenance, helicopter external load operations are safer with fewer accidents, crashes, and injuries. 
KeywordsAccident-analysis; Accident-prevention; Accidents; Air-transportation; Aircraft; Aircraft-parts-and-auxiliary-equipment; Aircrews; Airport-personnel; Airports; Aircraft-engines; Training; Logging-workers; Lumber-industry; Injury-prevention 
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