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Lyme Disease:

Review Articles:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance for Lyme Disease -- United States, 1992--1998. MMWR 2000;49(SS03):1-11.

Nadelman RB and Wormser GP. Lyme borreliosis. Lancet 1998;352:557-65.

Steere AC. Lyme disease. N Engl J Med 1989;321:586-96.

Steere AC, Malawista SE, Syndman DR, et al. Lyme arthritis: an epidemic of oligoarticular arthritis in children and adults in three Connecticut communities. Arthritis Rheum 1977;20:7-17.

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Dennis DT, Nekomoto TS, Victor JC, Paul WS, and Piesman J. Reported distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the United States. J Med Entomol 1998;35(5):629-38.

Dennis DT. Epidemiology, ecology, and prevention of Lyme disease. in Rahn DW, Evans J eds. Lyme disease. Philadelphia, PA: American College of Physicians, 1998;7-34.

Wilson ML. Distribution and abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari:Ixodidae) in North America: ecological processes and spatial analysis. J Med Entomol 1998;35:446-57.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lyme disease -- United States, 1996. MMWR 1997;45(1).

Kitron U, Kazmierczak. Spatial analysis of the distribution of Lyme disease in Wisconsin. Am J Epidemiol 1997;145:558-66.

Barbour AG. Does Lyme disease occur in the South: a survey of emerging tick-borne infections in the region. Am J Med Sci 1996;311:34-40.

Meek JI, Roberts CL, Smith EV, and Cartter ML. Underreporting of Lyme disease by Connecticut physicians, 1992. J Public Health Management Practice 1996;2(4):61-65.

Shadick NA, Phillips CB, Logigian EL, et al. The long-term clinical outcomes of Lyme disease. Ann Intern Med 1994;121:560-7.

Stafford KC, Magnarelli LA. Spatial and temporal patterns of Ixodes scapularis (Acari:Ixodidae) in southeastern Connecticut. J Med Entomol 1993;30:762-71.

Lane RS, Manweiler SA, Stubbs HA, et al. Risk factors for Lyme disease in a small rural community in northern California. Am J Epidemiol 1992;136:1358-68.

Lane RS, Piesman J, Burgdorfer W. Lyme borreliosis: relation of its causative agent to its vectors and hosts in North America and Europe. Annu Rev Entomol 1991;36:587-609.

Maupin GO, Fish D, Zultowsky J, et al. Landscape ecology of Lyme disease in a residential area of Westchester, New York. Am J Epidemiol 1991;133:1105-13.

Wilson ML, Adler GH, Spielman A. Correlation between abundance of deer and that of the deer tick, Ixodes dammini (Acari:Ixodidae). Ann Entomol Soc Am 1985;78:172-6.

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Clinical Description:

Rahn DW. Natural history of Lyme disease. In: Rahn DW, Evans J, eds. Lyme disease, Philadelphia: American College of Physicians, 1998;35-48.

Gaudino EA, Coyle PK, Krupp LB. Post-Lyme syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome. Neuropsychiatric similarities and differences. Arch Neurol 1997;54:1372-6.

Bujak DI, Weinstein A, Dornbush RL. Clinical and neurocognitive features of the post Lyme syndrome. J Rheumatol 1996;23:1392-7.

Steere AC, Levin RE, Molloy PJ et al. Treatment of Lyme arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1994;37:878-88.

Shadick NA, Phillips CB, Logigian EL, et al. The long-term clinical outcomes of Lyme disease. Ann Intern Med 1994;121:560-7.

Logigian EL, Kaplan RF, Steere AC. Chronic neurologic manifestations of Lyme disease. N Engl J Med 1990;323:1438-44.

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Brettschneider S, Bruckbauser H, Klugbauer K, Hofmann H. Diagnostic value of PCR for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in skin biopsy and urine samples from patients with skin borreliosis. J Clin Microbiol 1998;36:2658-65.

Nowakowski J, Schwartz I, Nadelman RB, et al. Culture-confirmed infection and reinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Ann Intern Med 1997;127:130-2.

Tugwell P, Dennis DT, Weinstein A, et al. Clinical guideline 2: laboratory evaluation in the diagnosis of Lyme disease. Ann Intern Med 1997; 127:1109-23.

Johnson, BJ, Robbins KE, Bailey RE, et al. Serodiagnosis of Lyme disease: accuracy of a two-step approach using a flagella-based ELISA and immunoblotting. J Infect Dis 1996;174:346-53.

CDC. Recommendations for test performance and interpretation from the Second National Conference on Serologic Diagnosis of Lyme disease. MMWR 1995;44:590-1.

Nocton JJ, Dressler F, Rutledge BJ, et al. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi by polymerase chain reaction in synovial fluid from patients with Lyme arthritis. N Engl J Med 1994;44:1203-7.

Dressler F, Whelan JA, Reinhart BN, Steere AC. Western blotting in the serodiagnosis of Lyme disease. J Infect Dis 1993;167:392-400.

Berger BW, Johnson RC, Kodner C, Coleman L. Cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi from erythema migrans lesions and perilesional skin. J Clin Microbiol 1992;30:359-361.

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Dotevall L, Hagberg L. Successful Oral Doxycycline Treatment of Lyme Disease--Associated Facial Palsy and Meningitis. Clin Infectious Dis 1999;28:569-74.

Gerber MA, Shapiro ED, Burke GS, and et al. Lyme disease in children in southeastern Connecticut. N Engl J Med 1996;335:1270-4.

Sigal LH. Persisting complaints attributed to chronic Lyme disease: possible mechanisms and implications for management. Am J Med 1994;96:365-74.

Steere AC, Levin RE, Molloy PJ, and et al. Treatment of Lyme arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1994;37(878-88).

Kalish RA, Leong JM, Steere AC. Association of treatment-resistant chronic Lyme arthritis with HLA-DR4 and antibody reactivity to OspA and OspB of Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect Immun 1993;61:2774-9.

Logigian EL, Kaplan RF, and Steere AC . Chronic neurologic manifestations of Lyme disease. N Engl J Med 1990;323:1438-44.

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Prevention and Control:

Hayes EB, Maupin GO, Mount GA, Piesman J. Assessing the effectiveness of local Lyme disease control. Journal of Public Health Management. Journal of Public Health Management Practices 1999;5:86-94.

Brown M, Hebert AA. Insect repellents: an overview. J Am Acad Dermatol 1997;36:243-9.

Dennis DT, Meltzer MI. Antibiotic prophylaxis after tick bites. Lancet 1997;350:1191-2.

Herrington JE, Campbell GL, Bailey RE, et al. Predisposing factors for individuals' Lyme disease prevention practices: Connecticut, Maine, and Montana. Am J Public Health. 1997;87:2035-38.

Schulze TL, Jordan RA, Hung RW. Suppression of subadult Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) following removal of leaf litter. J Med Entomol 1995;32:730-3.

Schulze TL, Jordan RA, Vasvary LM, et al. Suppression of Ixodes scapularis (Acari:Ixodidae) nymphs in a large residential community. J Med Entomol 1994;31:206-11.

Curran KL, Fish D, Piesman J. Reduction of nymphal Ixodes dammini (Acari:Ixodidae) in a residential suburban landscape by area application of insecticides. J Med Entomol. 1993;30:107-13.

Magid D, Schwartz B, Craft J, Schwartz JS. Prevention of Lyme disease after tick bites: a cost-effectiveness analysis. N Engl J Med 1992;327:534-41.

Piesman J, Mather TN, Sinsky RJ, Spielman A. Duration of tick attachment and Borrelia burgdorferi transmission. J Clin Microbiol 1987;25:557-8.

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Akin E, McHugh GL, Flavell RA, et al. The immunoglobulin (IgG) antibody response to OspA and OspB correlates with severe and prolonged Lyme arthritis and the IgG response to p35 correlates with mild and brief arthritis. Infect Immun 1999;173-81.

Meltzer MI, Dennis DT, Orloski KA. 1999 Cost-effectiveness of a vaccine against Lyme disease in humans. Emerging Infect Dis 1999;5:1-8.

Gross DM, Forsthuber T, Tary-Lehmann M, et al. Identification of LFA-1 as a candidate autoantigen in treatment-resistant Lyme arthritis. Science 1998;281:703-6.

Maes E, Lecomte P, Ray N. A cost-of-illness study of Lyme disease in the United States. Clin Ther 1998;20:993-1008.

Steere AC, Sikand VK, Meurice F, et al. Vaccination against Lyme disease with recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi outer-surface lipoprotein A with adjuvant. N Engl J Med 1998;339:209-16.

Sigal HL, Zahradnik JM, Levin P, et al. A vaccine consisting of recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi outer-surface protein A to prevent Lyme disease. N Engl J Med 1998;339:216-22.

Zhang YQ, Mathiesen D, Kolbert CP, et al. Borrelia burgdorferi enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for discrimination of OspA vaccination from spirochete infection. J Clin Microbiol 1997;35:233-8.

DeSilva AM, Telford SR, Brunet LR, et al. Borrelia burgdorferi OspA is an arthropod-specific transmission-blocking Lyme disease vaccine. J Exp Med 1996;183:271-5.

Schoen RT, Meurice F, Brunet CM, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of an outer surface protein A vaccine in subjects with previous Lyme disease. J Infect Dis 1995;172:1324-9.

Schwan TG, Piesman J, Golde WT, et al. Induction of an outer surface protein on Borrelia burgdorferi during tick feeding. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995;92:2909-13.

Alpert B, Esin J, Sivak SL, et al. Incidence and prevalence of Lyme disease in a suburban Westchester County community. New York State Journal of Medicine 1992;92:5-8.

Lastavica CC, Wilson M, Berardi VP, et al. Rapid emergence of a focal epidemic of Lyme disease in coastal Massachusetts. N Engl J Med 1989;320:133-7.

Steere AC, Taylor E, Wilson ML, et al. Longitudinal assessment of the clinical and epidemiologic features of Lyme disease in a defined population. J Infect Dis 1986;154:295-300.

Hanrahan JP, Benach JL, Coleman JL, et al. Incidence and cumulative frequency of Lyme disease in a community. J Infect Dis 1984;150:489-96.

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Rahn DW and Evans J (eds.) Lyme disease. Philadelphia, PA: American College of Physicians, 1998.

Barbour AG. Lyme Disease: The Cause, the Cure, the Controversy. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Benenson AS. Control of Communicable Diseases Manual (16th Edition). Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 1995.

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This page last reviewed June 20, 2001

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