The aim of this resource
guide is to point you to the articles, World Wide Web resources and so
forth that CDC has either published or referenced. Several links to non-CDC
web sites covering viral hemorrhagic fevers are also included.
Please note: Links from this site to nonfederal organizations are
provided solely as a service to our users. These links do not constitute
an endorsement of these organizations or their programs by CDC or the
federal government, and none should be inferred. CDC is not responsible
for the content of the individual organization Web pages found at these
and Information Materials Available Via Mail
Special Pathogens Branch offers printed information, as well as several
videos, on a variety of diseases, but most particularly on hantavirus
pulmonary syndrome. Visit this page to learn what
is available and how you may obtain it.
website offers a good deal of information on viral hemorrhagic fevers.
This information includes everything from journal articles in their entirety,
to slide sets ready for downloading. Use CDC
Health Topics A-Z or use CDC
Web Search search to find the information you need.
Infectious Diseases (EID)
EID is a peer-reviewed journal that focuses upon "enhanc[ing]
communication of public health information about emerging diseases so
that prevention measures can be implemented without delay." Reports
on outbreaks of HPS in Argentina and Chile are published here, as well
as other articles covering other viral hemorrhagic fevers.
Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR)
IDSR is a surveillance project in Africa that is coordinated with CDC,
WHO and USAID. The IDSR strategy aims to improve the availability and
use of surveillance and laboratory data to control priority infectious
diseases that are the leading causes of death, disability, and illness
in the African region. Priority diseases include viral hemorrhagic fevers.
and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)
MMWR is a weekly journal published by the CDC. The journal publishes
the latest-breaking data by those involved with the outbreak investigations.
Reports from the initial hantavirus pulmonary syndrome outbreak were published
in this journal. Articles about disease epidemiology and surveillance,
results of research studies, and many other subjects, are all available.
Health Image Library (PHIL)
The PHIL is an extensive collection of still images, image sets, and multimedia
files related to public health and diseases. Images of the Ebola hemorrhagic
fever outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly,
Zaire) can found on this site.
Resources for Teachers
National Center for Infectious Diseases: Teachers' Tools
This page has links to programs and teaching resources to help teach
teens and children about public health and infectious diseases.
Resources for Students
National Center for Infectious Diseases: Student Resources
page has helpful links for students looking for other resources on infectious
of Ebola Virus in Africa
This brief article describing the cases and outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic
fever that have occurred since 1979 appeared in the CDC journal Emerging
Infectious Diseases. It is available in full online.
and Phylogenetic Characterization of Ebola Viruses Causing Different
Outbreaks in Gabon
This article describes the results of analysis of the glycoprotein gene
of Ebola virus isolates obtained during investigations of outbreaks
of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Gabon. It appeared in the CDC journal
Emerging Infectious Diseases, and is available in full online.
Inoculation of Plants and Animals With Ebola Virus
This article presents the results of an experiment in which 33 varieties
of 24 species of plants and 19 species of vertebrates and invertebrates
were experimentally inoculated with Ebola Zaire virus. It appeared
in the CDC journal Emerging Infectious Diseases, and is available in
A multimedia web version of a 1994 videotape discussing the nature of
HPS and its prevention, with numerous pictures, sound and video
clips! However, you'll need a fast computer connection to make downloading
efficient. Produced for a general audience.
Pulmonary Syndrome-United States: Updated Recommendations for Risk Reduction"
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, July 26, 2002/Vol. 51/No.
This report provides updated recommendations for prevention and control
of hantavirus infections associated with rodents in the United States.
It supersedes the previous report (CDC. Hantavirus infection---southwestern
United States: interim recommendations for risk reduction. MMWR 1993;42[No.
RR-11]:1--13). These recommendations are based on principles of rodent
and infection control, and accumulating evidence that most infections
result from exposure, in closed spaces, to active infestations of infected
rodents. The recommendations contain updated specific measures and precautions
for limiting household, recreational, and occupational exposure to rodents,
eliminating rodent infestations, rodent-proofing human dwellings, cleaning
up rodent-contaminated areas and dead rodents, and working in homes
of persons with confirmed hantavirus infection or buildings with heavy
Acrobat Reader format (PDF) version
Infection Southwestern United States: Interim Recommendations
for Risk Reduction"
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, May 13, 1994/Vol. 43/No.
This report provided interim recommendations for prevention and control
of hantavirus infections associated with rodents in the southwestern
Adobe Acrobat Reader
format (PDF) version
Management of Agents Associated with Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome:
Interim Biosafety Guidelines
This document provides interim biosafety guidelines for preventing
laboratory-associated infections with agents that cause hantavirus pulmonary
syndrome. It is also part of the supplement to "Hantavirus Infection--
Southwestern United States: Interim Recommendations for Risk Reduction",
published in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, July
30, 1993, Volume 42, Number RR-11, Pages i-13.
Adobe Acrobat Reader
format (PDF) version
for Trapping and Sampling Small Mammals for Virologic Testing
This manual is intended as a guide for those persons performing
ecologic and epidemiologic studies involving populations of rodents
which are potentially infected with hantavirus. This manual is also
available in Spanish on the Pan
American Health Organization's (PAHO) website.
Contacts for Hantavirus Information
Telephone numbers for state health departments are listed here.
These institutions may be your first line of contact should you wish
to access very localized information on HPS.
Special Pathogens Branch offers a hotline for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
information. Please note that what is offered is at the same level
of detail, or of less detail, than that found on the "All About
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome" web page here. The number is
and Emerging Infections: Key Issues in the Prevention and Control of
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
This review describes the phenomenon of emerging infections and some
of the biosafety considerations associated with the study of an increasing
number of new and recently recognized viruses. Factors influencing the
emergence of pathogenic microorganisms are described, using the hemorrhagic
fever viruses as examples. Particular attention is given to the outbreak
of Ebola virus hemorrhagic fever in Zaire in 1995.
to Readers Update: Management of Patients with Suspected Viral Hemorrhagic
Fever -- United States"
In 1988, CDC published guidelines for managing patients with suspected
viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF). Pending a comprehensive review of the
1988 guidelines, this notice provides interim recommendations that update
the 1988 guidelines for health-care settings in the United States. This
update applies to four viruses that cause syndromes of VHF: Lassa, Marburg,
Ebola, and Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever viruses; although the risk
and/or mode of nosocomial transmission differs for each of these viruses,
the limited data do not permit clear distinctions. MMWR
44(25);475-479. Publication date: 06/30/1995.
Links from this site to nonfederal organizations are provided solely as
a service to our users. These links do not constitute an endorsement of
these organizations or their programs by CDC or the federal government,
and none should be inferred. CDC is not responsible for the content of
the individual organization Web pages found at these links.
Library of Medicine LOCATORplus
The National Library of Medicine catalog of books, journals, and audiovisuals
and access points to other medical research tools, including MEDLINE and
Consumer Health. An excellent central point for searching for medical
information, including journal articles on viral hemorrhagic fevers.
American Health Organization
This regional office of the World Health Organization tracks HPS, among
many other diseases and health issues. Use their "Search the PAHO
Web" search engine to locate articles that may be currently available
in both English and Spanish.
As written in their mission statement, "[t]he objective of WHO is
the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health." In
support of this objective, the organization offers a very large array
of information online on human diseases, including viral hemorrhagic fevers. The
press releases chronicling current disease events may be of particular
Please note: in the
interest of avoiding redundancy, articles that may be obtained on the
web sites immediately above are not listed below.
Supplement Devoted To Recent Research On Ebola
Supplement 1, Volume 179, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, February
1999. Contents: "(S)ubstantial new, peer-reviewed information
about Ebola". Topics include clinical observations; epidemiology
and surveillance; ecology and natural history; virology and pathogenesis;
experimental therapy; control, response, prevention; conclusions..
the Ebola Tree: Genetic Analysis Offers Insights Into the Workings
of a Notorious Virus
An article in Scientific American, online version.
Ebola Virus: Virology, Fiction and Threat to Mankind, F.A. Murphy:
Dr. Frederick A. Murphy Talks About the Ebola Virus
An interview with Dr. Murphy, a well-known researcher in the study
of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. It appears on the "African Studies
WWW (U. Penn)" web site, a site supported by the African Studies
Center at the University of Pennsylvania.
A scientific examination of filoviruses with information on the virus
genome and disease pathogenesis. From Leicester University, in Great
Report - Mouse-borne Hantavirus
An article from the annual report of the University of Iowa titled
"Fatal First Case of Mouse-borne Hantavirus in North Central Iowa".
What Is It and What Can Be Done About It?
From "Montguide", a publication of the Montana State University
Park Service Public Health Program (NPS)
Their home page reads, "(t)he National Park) Service Public Health
Program is responsible for protecting the health of approximately 270
million annual visitors and thousands of NPS employees at over 360 NPS
facilities. The program provides system-wide public health guidance
through written policies, standards and procedures, training, consultation
and evaluation." The "Vectors" section of the site
offers publications on HPS as well as on other vector-borne diseases,
like rabies, plague, and tick-borne diseases.
Rodent Proofing Techniques: A Training Guide for National Park
Published by the National Park Service, Public Health Program, 1997,
54 pages, and posted on their site. As stated in their introduction,
"(t)his manual is designed as a training reference for making rodent
control in buildings an attainable goal." The guide was prepared
in response to the recognition of HPS. It offers detailed and heavily
illustrated information on rodent biology and habits, building inspection
methods, and rodent exclusion methods. File size: approximately
2.3 Mb. Download time will vary, but may take 10 - 15 minutes or longer
on Internet connections of 56 Kbps or lower.
A fact sheet describing the disease, largely from clinical and preventive
perspectives. From the World Health Organization