This section has archived postings of outbreaks that have occurred since the year 2000.
To find information
on outbreaks that have occurred prior to the year 2000, please visit the
Other Resources page.
On October 25, 2008, CDC received samples of pig tissues, sera and cell cultures from FADDL, the Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory on Plum Island, NY. The samples, originally collected from pig farms outside Manila, were initially tested at the Plum Island facility, which identified multiple swine pathogens, including Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) virus and porcine circovirus type 2. Additional testing by molecular analysis also tentatively identified, for the first time in pigs, Ebola-Reston virus. Further testing of the samples at CDC’s Special Pathogens Branch and Infectious Disease Pathology Branch confirmed the presence of Ebola-Reston virus. Sequence analysis conducted at FADDL and CDC revealed that the virus is similar to the Ebola-Reston virus that infected macaques from the Philippines imported into the US for research in 1989, 1990 and 1996, and into Italy in 1992.
The clinical significance of Ebola-Reston in pigs is unknown, since many of the samples were obtained from pigs with dual PRRSV and Ebola-Reston virus infections. Epidemiologic investigations by Philippine authorities are continuing to look for evidence of human disease associated with infected pigs. However, apparent disease due to infection with Ebola-Reston has never been documented in humans.
On October 2, CDC-Zambia notified CDC’s Special Pathogens Branch about a cluster of 2 cases of a fatal febrile illness suspected to be a viral hemorrhagic fever, with probable person-to-person transmission. Both patients were medevaced from Zambia to South Africa and died there. During hospitalization, further transmission occurred in three other hospital workers, two of whom also subsequently died. Preliminary results indicate that the causative agent is a novel Old World arenavirus distinct from other arenaviruses such as Lassa and LCM. CDC’s Special Pathogens Branch and Infectious Diseases Pathology Branch have been working closely with colleagues in CDC-Zambia, the Special Pathogens Unit, National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD) in South Africa, and CDC-South Africa as well as the respective National Ministries of Health to provide laboratory and epidemiologic support.
On July 10, 2008 CDC was notified by the European Centre for Disease Control (ECDC) about a case of Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) in a woman from The Netherlands. The woman had recently returned from traveling in Uganda. On one occasion the woman had contact with a bat in a cave in the Maramagambo forest in Western Uganda (at the southern edge of Queen Elizabeth National Park), and became ill after returning to The Netherlands. Laboratory testing at the Bernhard Nocht Institute in Hamburg, Germany revealed evidence of Marburg virus infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The patient died on Thursday July 11, 2008 in the morning.
ECDC is working with health authorities in The Netherlands and the World Health Organization (WHO) to respond to the situation.
For additional information, please see the following websites:
On November 26, 2007, CDC received blood samples from the Ugandan Ministry of Health, taken from 20 of the 49 patients involved in an outbreak of an unknown illness in Bundibugyo district in western Uganda. Patients reported fever, enteritis, and bleeding. Of the 49, 14 have died. Genetic sequencing of a small segment of viral RNA from samples indicated the presence of a previously unknown strain of Ebola virus. At the invitation of the Ugandan Ministry of Health, CDC, WHO, MSF and other collaborators deployed field investigators to the affected region; additionally, a laboratory was set up in Entebbe at the Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI). As the outbreak neared conclusion in January 2008, the total number of suspected cases was 149, with 37 deaths.
On August 28, 2007, CDC was notified of cases of an unidentified disease in a remote area of Kasai Occidental Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Clinical samples were sent to the CDC Special Pathogens Branch laboratory for testing, as well as to the Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville (CIRMF) laboratory in Gabon. Results obtained by both Real Time PCR and viral antigen assay were positive for infection with Ebola virus. The presence of other diseases in the same area of the country contributing to the outbreak cannot be ruled out. At the invitation of the DRC Ministry of Health, CDC, WHO, MSF and other collaborators have deployed field investigators to the region. The onset of the latest laboratory-confirmed case was on September 29, 2007. On October 1, 2007, the total of suspected cases was 249 with 183 deaths.
On July 27, 2007, CDC was notified of a suspect case of Marburg hemorrhagic fever in Uganda by the Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI). A blood specimen taken from the only fatal patient, a miner at a local lead and gold mine, was received by CDC on Friday, July 27, 2007. The specimen tested positive for Marburg virus.
A 6-person CDC team consisting of three medical officers, a mammologist, and two microbiologists arrived in Uganda on August 10, traveling to the town of Ibanda in Kamwenge province, near the site of the mine where the exposures are believed to have occurred. WHO, the Ugandan Minsistry of Health, and other collaborators have also deployed personnel. The team has initiated an investigation by capturing bats and other animals at the site of the mine in an effort to further identify the animal host of the Marburg virus, and by tracing human contacts in communities near the mine.
In December 2006, the Kenya Ministry of Health received reports of unexplained fatalities associated with fever and generalized bleeding from Garissa District in North Eastern Province. The outbreak was confirmed by isolation of RVF virus from 10 patients. CDC deployed a 6-person team from the Special Pathogens Branch to assist in outbreak response, diagnostic assays, database creation and management, technology transfer and public health messaging. The team, in collaboration with CDC's International Emerging Infections Program (IEIP) Kenya, WHO, MSF and other partners, engaged in case finding, determination of risk factors, and a follow-up study. Like earlier outbreaks of RVF, this outbreak was also associated with recent heavy rainfalls.
On March 25, 2005, CDC’s Special Pathogens Branch reported that testing conducted by its laboratory had identified the presence of Marburg virus in 9 of 12 specimens from patients who had died during an outbreak of suspected hemorrhagic fever in Angola. The testing, which was performed using a combination of RT-PCR, antigen-detection ELISAs and virus isolation, was carried out by CDC. The Special Pathogens Branch is a World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center on Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers.CDC is working closely with WHO and other international partners to assist the Ministry of Health in Angola with the outbreak investigation and response. A CDC emergency response team consisting of experts in viral hemorrhagic fevers is expected to be deployed to the affected region in the next few days. CDC also has shipped preventive gear and supplies to officials in Angola. An outbreak notice was posted on CDC travelers’ health website on March 25.
For additional information, visit the following websites:
According to the
World Health Organization (WHO), 20 cases, including 5 deaths, from Ebola
hemorrhagic fever (EHF) have been reported from Yambio County in southern
Sudan. EHF has been laboratory confirmed by both the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Kenya Medical Research Institute.
CDC has confirmed that the virus is the Ebola-Sudan strain (incubation
period: 2-21 days), one of three previously recognized Ebola virus
strains known to cause human disease.
For information regarding
the recent cases of Ebola hemorrhagic fever syndrome in south Sudan, please
refer to the World
Health Organization's (WHO) Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response
For information regarding
cases of Ebola hemorrhagic fever syndrome in The Republic of the Congo,
please refer to the World
Health Organization's (WHO) Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response
On May 6, 2002, the
Gabonese Ministry of Health declared that the Ebola hemorrhagic fever
outbreak in the Ogooué-Ivindo province had ended. CDC participated
with the Gabonese and Congolese Ministries of Health, the World
Health Organization (WHO), the International Center for Medical Research
in Franceville, Gabon, and other partners in an international response
to the outbreak in the Ogooué-Ivindo province of Gabon and in neighboring
villages in the Republic of the Congo.
For more information
about the outbreak, please refer to the World
Health Organization's Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response Page.
On February 27, 2001, Uganda was declared officially to be free of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, following a 42-day period, twice the maximum incubation period, during which no new cases had been reported.
October 2000 and February 2001, CDC participated with the World
Health Organization (WHO), the
Ugandan Ministry of Health, Medecins
Sans Frontieres (MSF), and other partners in an international response
to the outbreak.
For more information about the outbreak in Uganda or about viral hemorrhagic fevers in general, please refer to the following:
Outbreak of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever--Uganda, August 2000 --January 2001, published in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, February 09, 2001.
The CDC and WHO manual: "Infection Control for Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers in the African Health Care Setting.”
In September 2000, the Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and subsequently the Ministry of Health of Yemen received reports of unexplained hemorrhagic fever in humans and associated animal deaths from the southwestern border of Saudi Arabia and Yemen. CDC confirmed the outbreak to be caused by Rift Valley fever virus.
For additional information,
see the following:
This page last reviewed December 19, 2008
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