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Typhoid Fever

For the most current updates about typhoid fever, please visit Typhoid Immunizations

Additional information on typhoid fever can be obtained from your local or state health department, a travel clinic, or your doctor. Also, CDC provides a Travelers' Hotline, at 1-888-232-3228.

 MMWR Articles

bulleted list item Epidemic Typhoid Fever -- Dushanbe , Tajikistan , 1997 September 18, 1998/Vol.47/No. 36 ADobe Acrobat file PDF
bulleted list item Typhoid Immunizations -- MMWR Recommendations and Reports / December 16, 1994


bulleted list item CDC Safe Water System
bulleted list item CDC Travelers' Health


Steinberg EB, Bishop RB, Dempsey AF, Hoekstra RM, Nelson JM, Ackers M, Calugar A, Mintz ED. Typhoid fever in travelers: who should be targeted for prevention? Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2004; 39:186-191.

Crump JA, Luby SP, Mintz ED. The global burden of typhoid fever. Bulletin of WHO. 2004;84:346-353.

Olsen SJ, Bleasdale SC , Magnano AR , et al. Outbreaks of typhoid fever in the United States, 1960-1999. Epidemiology and Infection . 2003;130:13-21.

Ackers M, Puhr N, Tauxe R, Mintz E. Laboratory-based surveillance of Salmonella Typhi infections in the United States: antimicrobial resistance on the rise. JAMA 2000; 283: 2668-2673.

Mermin JH, Villar R, Carpenter C, et al. A massive epidemic of multidrug-resistant typhoid fever in Tajikistan associated with consumption of municipal water. J Infect Dis 1999; 179: 1416-1422.

Mermin JH, Townes JM, Gerber M, et al. Typhoid fever in the United States, 1985-1994: changing risks of international travel and increasing antimicrobial resistance. Arch Intern Med 1998; 158: 633-638.

CDC. Typhoid immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR 1994; 43 (No. RR-14).

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Date: October 25, 2005
Content source: National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases: Division of Bacterial Diseases
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