For the most current updates about typhoid fever, please visit Typhoid Immunizations
Additional information on typhoid fever can be obtained from your local or state health department, a travel clinic, or your doctor. Also, CDC provides a Travelers' Hotline, at 1-888-232-3228.
Steinberg EB, Bishop RB, Dempsey AF, Hoekstra RM, Nelson JM, Ackers M, Calugar A, Mintz ED. Typhoid fever in travelers: who should be targeted for prevention? Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2004; 39:186-191.
Crump JA, Luby SP, Mintz ED. The global burden of typhoid fever. Bulletin of WHO. 2004;84:346-353.
Olsen SJ, Bleasdale SC , Magnano AR , et al. Outbreaks of typhoid fever in the United States, 1960-1999. Epidemiology and Infection . 2003;130:13-21.
Ackers M, Puhr N, Tauxe R, Mintz E. Laboratory-based surveillance of Salmonella Typhi infections in the United States: antimicrobial resistance on the rise. JAMA 2000; 283: 2668-2673.
Mermin JH, Villar R, Carpenter C, et al. A massive epidemic of multidrug-resistant typhoid fever in Tajikistan associated with consumption of municipal water. J Infect Dis 1999; 179: 1416-1422.
Mermin JH, Townes JM, Gerber M, et al. Typhoid fever in the United States, 1985-1994: changing risks of international travel and increasing antimicrobial resistance. Arch Intern Med 1998; 158: 633-638.
CDC. Typhoid immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR 1994; 43 (No. RR-14).
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