When the Constitution was ratified in 1787, many
people were concerned that it did not protect certain freedoms. They
thought that the Constitution should be changed or amended to protect
these freedoms. On December 15, 1791, ten amendments
were added to the Constitution. The first eight amendments set out or
enumerate the substantive and procedural individual rights associated
with that description. The 9th and 10th amendments are general rules
of interpretation of the relationship among the people, the State governments,
and the Federal Government. These amendments guarantee certain freedoms
and rights, so they are known as the Bill of Rights.
Amendment I - "Congress
shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting
the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or
of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and
to petition the Government for a redress of grievances."
Amendment II - "A well
regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State,
the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed."
Amendment III - "No Soldier
shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent
of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed
Amendment IV - "The right
of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects,
against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated,
and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by
Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched,
and the persons or things to be seized."
Amendment V - "No person
shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime,
unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases
arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual
service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject
for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb;
nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against
himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due
process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use,
without just compensation."
Amendment VI - "In all
criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy
and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein
the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been
previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and
cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against
him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor,
and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence."
Amendment VII - "In Suits
at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty
dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact
tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the
United States, than according to the rules of the common law."
Amendment VIII - "Excessive
bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel
and unusual punishments inflicted."
Amendment IX - "The enumeration
in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to
deny or disparage others retained by the people."
Amendment X - "The powers
not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited
by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to