Introduction to Risk Factors and Protective FactorsIntroduction to Risk Factors and Protective Factors


Arthur, M. W., J. D. Hawkins, J. A. Pollard, R. F. Catalano, A. J. Baglioni, Jr. (2002), “Measuring Risk and Protective Factors for Substance Use, Delinquency, and Other Adolescent Problem Behaviors. The Communities That Care Survey,” Evaluation Review, 26(6):575-601.

Catalano, R. F., J. D. Hawkins (1996), “The Social Development Model: A Theory of Antisocial Behavior.” In J. D. Hawkins (ed.), Delinquency and Crime: Current Theories (pp. 149-197), New York: Cambridge University Press.

Guo, J., J. D. Hawkins, K. G. Hill, R. D. Abbott (2001), “Childhood and Adolescent Predictors of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence in Young Adulthood,” Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62(6):754-762.

Hawkins, J. D., R. F. Catalano, et al. (1992), Communities That Care, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Hawkins, J. D., M. L. Van Horn, M. W. Arthur (2004), “Community Variation in Risk and Protective Factors and Substance Use Outcomes,” Prevention Science, 5(4):213-220.

Howell, J. C. (2003), Preventing and Reducing Juvenile Delinquency: A Comprehensive Framework, Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Howell, J. C., A. Egley, Jr. (2005), “Moving Risk Factors Into Developmental Theories of Gang Membership,” Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 3(4):334-354.

Kegler, M. C., R. F. Oman, S. K. Vesely, K. R. McLeroy, C. B. Aspy, S. Rodine, L. Marshall (2005), “Relationships Among Youth Assets and Neighborhood and Community Resources,” Health Education and Behavior, 32(3):380-397.

Kirby, L. D., M. W. Fraser (1997), “Risk and Resilience in Childhood.” In M. W. Fraser (ed.), Risk and Resilience in Childhood (pp. 10-33), Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers.

Stouthamer-Loeber, M., R. Loeber, E. Wei, D. P. Farrington, P. H. Wikstrom (2002), “Risk and Promotive Effects in the Explanation of Persistent Serious Delinquency in Boys,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(1):111-123.

Stouthamer-Loeber, M., E. Wei, R. Loeber, A. S. Masten (2004), “Desistance From Persistent Serious Delinquency in the Transition to Adulthood,” Development and Psychopathology, 16:897-918.