The following references may help increase awareness of
violence in the workplace.
Fatal occupational injuries by event or exposure
and major private industry sector.
US Department of Labor (DOL), Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), (2005),
PDF, 5 pages. Includes the category "Assaults and Violent
Acts" and reports 792 such acts in 2005.
Workplace Violence Awareness & Prevention. OSHA and The Long Island Coalition for Workplace Violence Awareness
and Prevention, (1996, February). Includes facts and figures about workplace violence, elements of a workplace violence
prevention program, and a sample program.
- Cal/OSHA Guidelines for Workplace Security.
State of California, (1995, March 30). Characterizes
establishments, profiles and motives of the agent or assailant, and identifies preventive measures
by type. In California, the majority (60 percent) of workplace
homicides involved a person entering a small late-night retail establishment.
Nonfatal Type II events involving assaults to service
providers, especially to health care providers, may represent the most
prevalent category of workplace violence resulting in physical injury.
Violence. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
Safety and Health Topic. Reports that an average of 1.7
million people were victims of violent crime while working or on duty in the
United States each year from 1993 through 1999 according to the Bureau of
Justice Statistics (BJS). Includes NIOSH publications as well as other US
government occupational violence links including a psychological first aid
manual for mental health providers.
Violence on the Job. National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 2004-100d, (2004). Discusses practical measures for identifying risk factors for
violence at work, and taking strategic action to keep employees safe.
Available as streaming video, Flash media, PDF transcript or as a
Occupational Hazards in Hospitals. US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS),
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 2002-101, (2002, April).
Also available as a 105 KB
PDF, 15 pages. Increases employee and employer
awareness of the risk factors for violence in hospitals and provides
strategies for reducing exposure to these factors.
Stress at Work.
US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS),
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 99-101, (1999). Highlights knowledge about the causes of stress at work and outlines steps that can be taken to prevent job stress.
Defines job stress as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur
when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or
needs of the worker. Job stress can lead to poor health and even injury.
Explores a combination of organizational change and stress management
as the most useful approach for preventing stress at work.
- Violence in the Workplace. National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH) Fact Sheet, (1997, June). Provides basic
information on workplace violence including risk factors and prevention
strategies. Homicide is reported as the second second leading cause of
death on the job, second only to motor vehicle crashes, and homicide is the
leading cause of workplace death among females.
in the Workplace – Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies. US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS),
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Current Intelligence Bulletin 57, (1996, July). Reviews what is known about fatal and nonfatal violence in
the workplace to determine the focus needed for prevention and research
efforts. Reports that each week in the United States, an average of 20
workers are murdered and 18,000 are assaulted while at work. These staggering
figures should not be an accepted cost of doing business in our society—nor
should death or injury be an inevitable result of one's chosen occupation.
Preventing Homicide in the Workplace. US Department of Health and
Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
(NIOSH) Publication No. 93-109, (1995, May). Reports workplaces with the
highest rates of occupational homicide were taxicab establishments, liquor
stores, gas stations, detective/protective services, justice/public order
establishments (including courts, police protection establishments, legal
counsel and prosecution establishments, correctional institutions, and fire
protection establishments), grocery stores, jewelry stores, hotels/motels, and
eating/drinking places. Taxicab establishments had the highest rate of
occupational homicide--nearly 40 times the national average and more than
three times the rate of liquor stores, which had the next highest rate.
- Homicide in U.S. Workplaces: A Strategy for Prevention and Research.
US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS),
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 92-103, (1992, September), 435 KB
PDF, 13 pages. Serves as a foundation for the development of a
national strategy for use in prioritizing research and targeting
interventions to prevent work-related homicides. Recommends study of
various environmental approaches such as improved lighting, locked drop-safes,
work areas openly visible to the public and increased staffing. Behavioral
strategies, such as training in conflict resolution and non-violent response
should also be examined.
- Violence in the Workplace: Accepted Disabling Claims due to Assaults and Violent Acts, Oregon, 2001-2005. Oregon Department of Consumer and Business Services, (2006,
December), 908 KB
Provides a study of Workers'
Compensation Claims Caused by Violent Acts, 2001 to 2005.
- Workplace Violence: Issues in Response.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), (2004, March 1). Also available as a 6.2
PDF, 80 pages. Shares expertise of representatives from law enforcement,
private industry, government, law, labor, professional organizations, victim
services, the military, academia, mental health as well as the FBI on this
important issue. This
monograph resulted from a June 2002 symposium hosted by the FBI’s National
Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime entitled “Violence in the Workplace.”
in the Workplace 1993-99. US Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of
Justice Statistics (BJS), (2001). Presents
data for 1993 through 1999 from the National Crime Victimization Survey
estimating the extent of workplace crime in the United States.
accounted for 18 percent of all violent crime during the seven-year period. Of
the occupations examined, police officers experienced such crimes at the
highest rate (260.8 per 1,000 police officers), whereas college or university
professors and teachers had the lowest rate (1.6 per 1,000 teachers).
Government employees had violent victimization rates (28.6 per 1,000
government worker) that were higher than those people who work for private
companies (9.9 per 1,000 workers) or self-employed people (7.4 per 1,000).
- Sygnatur, Eric F. and Guy A. Toscano. "Work-related
Homicides: The Facts." Compensation and
Working Conditions 3.8(2000, Spring), 76 KB PDF, 6 pages.
Provides information on work-related homicides, including information about the perpetrators, demographics of the
decedents, and other relevant facts about these events, such as the time
of the incident, the location, and the type of establishment in which
the homicide occurred. Contrary to popular belief, the majority of these
incidents are not crimes of passion committed by disgruntled coworkers and
spouses, but rather result from robberies.
Most Workplace Violence on Women Hidden, Says Center Report. University
of Albany (UA), Center for Women in Government. Summarizes and comments on a report addressing workplace violence,
emphasizing data specific to women. Two-thirds of the nonfatal attacks
on women are committed by patients or residents in institutional settings.
Husbands, boyfriends and ex-partners commit 15 percent of all workplace
homicides against women. Women are more likely to suffer serious injury
from workplace violence than men. Women who are victims of violent
workplace crimes are twice as likely as men to know their attackers.
Training Resources. University of Minnesota (UM), Minnesota Center
Against Violence and Abuse. Provides training resources specific to
workplace violence, including US Office of Personnel Management guide, the
OSHA guidelines, and a prevention guide from the State of Mississippi.
Workplace Violence: Can You Close the Door On It?
American Nurses Association (ANA), (1994). Heightens awareness regarding workplace violence and recommends
nine steps to prevent it.