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Biological Agents Safety and Health Topics
Biological Agents

In Focus
Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and their associated toxins. They have the ability to adversely affect human health in a variety of ways, ranging from relatively mild, allergic reactions to serious medical conditions, even death. These organisms are widespread in the natural environment; they are found in water, soil, plants, and animals. Because many microbes reproduce rapidly and require minimal resources for survival, they are a potential danger in a wide variety of occupational settings.

This page provides a starting point for technical and regulatory information about some of the most virulent and prevalent biological agents.
Anthrax Anthrax. Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by a spore-forming bacterium called Bacillus anthracis. It is generally acquired following contact with anthrax-infected animals or anthrax-contaminated animal products.
Avian Flu  Avian Flu. Avian influenza is a highly contagious disease of birds which is currently epidemic amongst poultry in Asia. Despite the uncertainties, poultry experts agree that immediate culling of infected and exposed birds is the first line of defense for both the protection of human health and the reduction of further losses in the agricultural sector.
Bloodborne Pathogens and Needlestick Prevention Bloodborne Pathogens and Needlestick Prevention. OSHA estimates that 5.6 million workers in the health care industry and related occupations are at risk of occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and others.
Botulism Botulism. Cases of botulism are usually associated with consumption of preserved foods. However, botulinum toxins are currently among the most common compounds explored by terrorists for use as biological weapons.
Foodborne Disease Foodborne Disease. Foodborne illnesses are caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites, toxins, metals, and prions (microscopic protein particles). Symptoms range from mild gastroenteritis to life-threatening neurologic, hepatic, and renal syndromes.
Hantavirus Hantavirus. Hantaviruses are transmitted to humans from the dried droppings, urine, or saliva of mice and rats. Animal laboratory workers and persons working in infested buildings are at increased risk to this disease.
Legionnaires' Disease Legionnaires' Disease. Legionnaires' disease is a bacterial disease commonly associated with water-based aerosols. It is often the result of poorly maintained air conditioning cooling towers and potable water systems.
Molds and Fungi Molds and Fungi. Molds and fungi produce and release millions of spores small enough to be air-, water-, or insect-borne which may have negative effects on human health including allergic reactions, asthma, and other respiratory problems.
Plague Plague. The World Health Organization reports 1,000 to 3,000 cases of plague every year. A bioterrorist release of plague could result in a rapid spread of the pneumonic form of the disease, which could have devastating consequences.
Ricin Ricin. Ricin is one of the most toxic and easily produced plant toxins. It has been used in the past as a bioterrorist weapon and remains a serious threat.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an emerging, sometimes fatal, respiratory illness. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the most recent human cases of SARS were reported in China in April 2004 and there is currently no known transmission anywhere in the world.
Smallpox Smallpox. Smallpox is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. It is estimated that no more than 20 percent of the population has any immunity from previous vaccination.
Tularemia Tularemia. Tularemia is also known as "rabbit fever" or "deer fly fever" and is extremely infectious. Relatively few bacteria are required to cause the disease, which is why it is an attractive weapon for use in bioterrorism.
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHFs) Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHFs). Along with smallpox, anthrax, plague, botulism, and tularemia, hemorrhagic fever viruses are among the six agents identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as the most likely to be used as biological weapons. Many VHFs can cause severe, life-threatening disease with high fatality rates.

In Focus
Hot Topics
  • Avian Influenza Protecting Poultry Workers at Risk. OSHA Safety and Health Information Bulletin (SHIB), (2004, December 13). Also available as a 47 KB PDF, 8 pages.
  • U.S. Postal Service: Better Guidance Is Needed to Ensure an Appropriate Response to Anthrax Contamination. Government Accountability Office (GAO) Report GAO-04-239, (2004, September), 1.0 MB PDF, 83 pages.
    • Report Highlights, 75 KB PDF, 1 page.
Alliances Anthrax eTools
  • Anthrax. OSHA. Discusses anthrax topics, such as who is at risk for anthrax exposure and what to do in case of an anthrax threat.

  • Legionnaires' DiseaseLegionnaires' Disease. OSHA. Assists industrial hygienists in the assessment of worksites for potential Legionnaires' disease. It provides information on disease recognition, investigation procedures to identify probable water sources, and control strategies.

 Safety and
 Health Topics
  Biological Agents
  Avian Flu
  Bloodborne Pathogens and Needlestick Prevention
  Foodborne Disease
  Legionnaires' Disease
  Molds and Fungi
  Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
  Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHFs)
Content Reviewed 12/12/2006

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