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References, Emerging Infectious Diseases journal (EID)



Alert Threshold Algorithms and Malaria Epidemic Detection
Summary: We describe a method for comparing the ability of different alert threshold algorithms to detect malaria epidemics and use it with a dataset consisting of weekly malaria cases collected from health facilities in 10 districts of Ethiopia from 1990 to 2000. Four types of alert threshold algorithms are compared.

Antimicrobial Resistance Symposium at ICEID 2000 - Panel Summary from the 2000 Emerging Infectious Diseases Conference in Atlanta, Georgia
Summary: This symposium highlights selected topics in antimicrobial resistance: community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, malaria, reducing inappropriate antimicrobial drug prescribing for.

Aramburu Press Release - Malaria Returns to the Peruvian Amazon
Summary: Epidemic malaria makes a comeback throughout the Amazon region of South America. ATLANTA-Epidemic malaria has returned to the Peruvian Amazon region, with the number of cases increasing 50-fold from 1992 to 1997, says.


Blood Safety
Summary: The blood supply in industrialized countries is safer than ever. However, blood (a human tissue) is a natural vehicle for transmission of infectious agents. In recent years, numerous pathogens have emerged in the United States and worldwide with the potential to affect the safety of the blood supply.


The Changing Epidemiology of Malaria in Minnesota
Summary: Reported cases of malaria by year, Minnesota , 1988-1998.

Changing Patterns of Autochthonous Malaria Transmission in the United States: A Review of Recent Outbreaks
Summary: A 37-year-old woman, a logistics director for a nongovernment organization, returned to France in March 2004 from an 18-day trip to Guinea, Senegal, and Sierra Leone. Fever, chills, and myalgia developed in the woman 3 days before she returned to France, and she treated herself with aspirin and paracetamol (acetaminophen). Malaria prophylaxis was taken neither during nor after the trip.

Chemoprophylaxis and Malaria Death Rates
Summary: A study of all cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in nonimmune persons reported from 1993 to 2004 in Germany demonstrated that chemoprophylaxis significantly reduced fatality rates among nonimmune malaria patients and supports the importance of existing guidelines for malaria prevention.

Concurrent Dengue and Malaria
Summary: Three recent outbreaks of locally acquired malaria in densely populated areas of the United States demonstrate the continued risk for mosquitoborne transmission of this disease.


DDT, Global Strategies, and a Malaria Control Crisis in South America
Summary: True growth in malaria incidence corresponds temporally with changes in global strategies for malaria control. DDT use for malaria control and application of the Global Malaria Control Strategy to the Americas should be.

Death Rates from Malaria Epidemics, Burundi and Ethiopia
Summary: Death rates exceeded emergency thresholds at 4 sites during epidemics of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Burundi (2000–2001) and in Ethiopia (2003–2004). Deaths likely from malaria ranged from 1,000 to 8,900, depending on site, and accounted for 52% to 78% of total deaths. Earlier detection of malaria and better case management are needed.


From Shakespeare to Defoe: Malaria in England in the Little Ice Age
Summary: Discussions of the potential effects of the weather include predictions that malaria will emerge from the tropics and become established in Europe and North America. Until the second half of the 20th century, malaria was endemic.


The GAP Project in Southeastern Turkey: The Potential for Emergence of Diseases - Letters
Summary: To the Editor: The undersigned, representing interested scientists from both Turkey and the United States, recently visited the water development projects in southeastern Anatolia , Turkey.

Geographic Subdivision of the Range of the Malaria Parasite, Plasmodium vivax
Summary: We examined geographically distinct isolates of Plasmodium vivax and categorized them according to developmental success in Anopheles albimanus . New World isolates have a distinct chromosomal translocation.


Haff Disease - From the Baltic Sea to the U.S. Shore
Summary: Malaria on the Move: Human Population Movement and Malaria Transmission.


Insecticide Resistance and Vector Control
Summary: Insecticide resistance has been a problem in all insect groups that serve as vectors of emerging diseases. Although mechanisms by which insecticides become less effective are similar across all vector taxa, each resistance problem.

International Partnerships in Infectious Diseases Research Training and Control - Panel Summary from the 2000 Emerging Infectious Diseases Conference in Atlanta, Georgia
Summary: The Fogarty International Center (FIC) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) advances health research through international scientific cooperation and is the center for NIH international activities. MIM works to strengthen and sustain.


Malakooti Press Release: Malaria Rises to New Heights
Summary: ATLANTA -The number of malaria cases at high elevations in Kenya is increasing, according to M.A. Malakooti in an article to be published in an upcoming issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases.

Malaria: A Reemerging Disease in Africa
Summary: A recent upsurge of malaria in endemic-disease areas with explosive epidemics in many parts of Africa is probably caused by many factors, including rapidly spreading resistance to antimalarial drugs, climatic changes, and population movements.

Malaria and Global Warming in Perspective? - Letters
Summary: Malaria and Global Warming in Perspective? While Reiter's paper offers an interesting perspective on the history of malaria in Europe , it provides no illuminating information on the influence of climate change on human health.

Malaria and Irrigated Crops, Accra, Ghana
Summary: We investigated the prevalence of malaria and associated risk factors in children living in urban Ghana. Malaria prevalence was associated with low hemoglobin concentration, low socioeconomic status, and higher age. Our findings indicate that African urban poor are seriously affected by malaria and that irrigated agriculture may increase this risk.

Malaria and Travel to the Dominican Republic - Letter
Summary: The rise in international travel to malaria-endemic areas in recent years has been followed by an increase in the number of cases diagnosed in countries where malaria is not endemic. Tourist areas of the Dominican Republic have traditionally been considered to be low risk for malaria transmission. However, over the past few years, sporadic descriptions of imported falciparum malaria in travelers to these destinations have been described.

Malaria Attributable to the HIV-1 Epidemic, Sub-Saharan Africa
Summary: We assessed the impact of HIV-1 on malaria in the sub-Saharan African population. Averaged across 41 countries, the impact of HIV-1 was limited (although quantitatively uncertain) because of the different geographic distributions and contrasting age patterns of the 2 diseases. However, in Botswana, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, South Africa, and Namibia, the incidence of clinical malaria increased by less than or equal to28% (95% confidence interval [CI] 14%–47%) and death increased by less than or equal to114% (95% CI 37%–188%).

Malaria Epidemic and Drug Resistance, Djibouti
Summary: Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected before, during, and after a 1999 malaria epidemic in Djibouti shows that, despite a high prevalence of resistance to chloroquine, the epidemic cannot be attributed to a sudden increase in drug resistance of local parasite populations.

Malaria Epidemics and Interventions, Kenya, Burundi, Southern Sudan, and Ethiopia, 1999-2004
Summary: Quantitative data on the onset and evolution of malaria epidemics are scarce. We review case studies from recent African Plasmodium falciparum epidemics (Kisii and Gucha Districts, Kenya, 1999; Kayanza Province, Burundi, 2000–2001; Aweil East, southern Sudan, 2003; Gutten and Damot Gale, Ethiopia, 2003–2004). We highlight possible epidemic risk factors and review delays in epidemic detection and response (up to 20 weeks), essentially due to poor case reporting and analysis or low use of public facilities. Epidemics lasted 15–36 weeks, and patients' age profiles suggested departures from classical notions of epidemic malaria everywhere but Burundi. Although emergency interventions were mounted to expand inpatient and outpatient treatment access, we believe their effects were lessened because of delays, insufficient evaluation of disease burden, lack of evidence on how to increase treatment coverage in emergencies, and use of ineffective drugs.

Malaria Epidemics and Surveillance Systems in Canada
Summary: In the past decade, fluctuations in numbers of imported malaria cases have been seen in Canada. In 1997 to 1998, malaria case numbers more than doubled before returning to normal. This increase was not seen in any other industrialized country.

Malaria in Illegal Chinese Immigrants, Italy
Summary: The recent increase of population movements is paralleled by an increase in imported malaria cases in Europ , where malaria is not endemic. In Italy, migrants and foreign-born people visiting relatives represent an increasing proportion of imported malaria cases.

Malaria in Kenya's Western Highlands
Summary: Records from tea estates in the Kericho district in Kenya show that malaria reemerged in the 1980s. Renewed epidemic activity coincided with the emergence of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria and may have been triggered by the failure of antimalarial drugs. The highland malaria epidemics of the 1940s were stopped largely by sporontocidal drugs, and combination chemotherapy has recently limited transmission. Antimalarial drugs can limit the pool of gametocytes available to infect mosquitoes during the brief transmission season.

Malaria on the Move: Human Population Movement and Malaria Transmission
Summary: However, population movement can precipitate or increase malaria transmission in other ways as well. Furthermore, people can inadvertently transport infectious mosquitoes to malaria- free areas, reintroducing disease.

Malaria - Panel Summary from the 2000 Emerging Infectious Diseases Conference in Atlanta, Georgia
Summary: The purpose of this conference panel was to explore two major initiatives to build capacity for prevention and control of malaria. Malaria is a growing concern as antimicrobial resistance against multiple drugs.

Malaria Reemergence in the Peruvian Amazon Region - Letters
Summary: Epidemic malaria has rapidly emerged in Loreto Department, in the Peruvian Amazon region. Moreover, chloroquine and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine drug-resistant P. falciparum strains have emerged.

Malaria Risk in Travelers
Summary: Imported malaria has been an increasing problem in several Western countries in the last 2 decades. To calculate the risk factors of age, sex, and travel destination in Swedish travelers, data was used from the routine reporting system for malaria (mixture of patients with and without adequate prophylaxis), a database on travel patterns, and in-flight or visa data on Swedish travelers of 1997 to 2003.

Maternal Malaria and Perinatal HIV Transmission, Western Kenya
Summary: Malaria during pregnancy is a serious problem in sub-Saharan Africa , affecting an estimated 24 million pregnant women; malaria prevalence may exceed 50% among primigravid and secundigravid women in malaria-endemic areas.

Migrating Populations - A Closer View of Who, Why, and So What - Panel Summary from the 2000 Emerging Infectious Diseases Conference in Atlanta, Georgia
Summary: In the last decade, human migration increased fourfold; destinations now involve all points on the globe, with religious persecution and political conflict as common reasons to migrate.

Molecular Analysis of Plasmodium ovale Variants
Summary: Complete DNA sequences of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSUrRNA) gene and partial sequences of three other loci were obtained from three variant-type and three classic-type Plasmodium ovale isolates from Southeast Asia and compared with GenBank-available data.

A Molecular Surveillance System for Global Patterns of Drug Resistance in Imported Malaria
Summary: A molecular surveillance system for global patterns of drug resistance in imported malaria. Analysis of imported malaria in travelers may represent a novel surveillance system for drug-resistant malaria.


Naturally Acquired Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria in Human, Thailand
Summary: We describe a case of naturally acquired infection with Plasmodium knowlesi in Thailand. Diagnosis was confirmed by the small subunit ribosomal RNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences. The occurrence of simian malaria in human has signified the roles of wild primate populations in disease transmission in some malaria-endemic areas.

New and Reemerging Diseases: The Importance of Biomedical Research
Summary: New diseases are superimposed on endemic diseases such as diarrheal diseases, malaria, tuberculosis (TB), and measles, which continue to exact a huge toll.

Nosocomial Malaria and Saline Flush
Summary: An investigation of malaria in a US patient without recent travel established Plasmodium falciparum molecular genotype identity in 2 patients who shared a hospital room. P. falciparum can be transmitted in a hospital environment from patient to patient by blood inoculum if standard precautions are breached.

Nonmalarial Infant Deaths and DDT Use for Malaria Control
Summary: Nonmalarial infant deaths and DDT use for malaria control. However, plausible if inconclusive studies associate DDT with more preterm births and shorter duration of lactation, which raise the possibility.


Occupational Malaria Following Needlestick Injury (Letter to the Editor)
Summary: A 24-year-old female nurse was admitted to the emergency room at Bichat University Hospital in Paris, France, on July 4, 2001, with fever, nausea, and general malaise. She had no notable medical history, except spontaneously regressive Schönlein-Henloch purpura at 9 months of age. On admission, after she was given paracetamol, her axillary temperature was 37.6°C.


Pesticides and Public Health: Integrated Methods of Mosquito Management
Summary: Pesticides have a role in public health as part of sustainable integrated mosquito management. Other components of such management include surveillance, source reduction or prevention, biological control, repellents, traps, and pesticide-resistance.

Plasmodium falciparum Spatial Analysis, Western Kenya Highlands
Summary: a population-based study to determine the unbiased, age-specific Plasmodium falciparum prevalence, asexual and sexual parasite density, and spatial distribution to establish rates of infection at a site in western Kenya. Parasite prevalence and densities in the population decreased with age and distance from valley bottoms. Observations suggest that parasite transmission is intense at this altitude. Asexual parasite density indicated clustering near major vector breeding habitats. Variability in seasonal prevalence indicates transmission instability and susceptibility to epidemics.

Plasmodium ovale Malaria Acquired in Central Spain
Summary: Plasmodium ovale malaria acquired in central Spain. We describe a case of locally acquired Plasmodium ovale malaria in Spain. Because patients with malaria may never have visited endemic areas, occasional transmission.

Plasmodium vivax Malaria
Summary: We report 11 cases of severe Plasmodium vivax malaria in Bikaner (western India). Patients exhibited cerebral malaria, renal failure, circulatory collapse, severe anemia, hemoglobinurea, abnormal bleeding, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and jaundice. Peripheral blood microscopy, parasite antigen-based assays, and parasite 18s rRNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction showed the presence of P. vivax and absence of P. falciparum.


Rabies Encephalitis in Malaria-Endemic Area, Malawi, Africa
Summary: In a malaria-endemic area of Africa, rabies was an important cause of fatal central nervous system infection, responsible for 14 (10.5%) of 133 cases. Four patients had unusual clinical manifestations, and rabies was only diagnosed postmortem. Three (11.5%) of 26 fatal cases originally attributed to cerebral malaria were due to rabies.

Reduced Efficacy of Insecticide-treated Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying for Malaria Control in Pyrethroid Resistance Area, Benin
Summary: A trial to test the continuing efficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) was undertaken in experimental huts at 2 sites in Benin, the first where pyrethroid knockdown resistance gene (kdr) is present at high frequency (Ladji), the second where Anopheles gambiae is susceptible (Malanville).

Reemergence of Epidemic Malaria in the Highlands of Western Kenya
Summary: The increasing malaria incidence may be due to drug resistance. This study investigated reports of epidemic malaria in a highland area of Kenya traditionally thought to be free of malaria to 1) formulate recommendations for reducing.

Reply to F. Taylor - Letters
Summary: Dr. Taylor´s letter calls attention to the small but important number of induced malaria cases that occur in the United States. Preventing induced malaria requires screening potential blood, tissue, and organ donors and deferring.

Resurgent Vector-Borne Diseases as a Global Health Problem
Summary: Yellow fever in Cuba was the first vector-borne disease to be effectively controlled in this manner, followed quickly by yellow fever and malaria in Panama.


Screening Blood Donors at Risk for Malaria: Reply to Hänscheid et al. - Letters
Summary: Screening Blood Donors at Risk for Malaria: Reply to Hänscheid et al. addresses our suggestion that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could serve as a reference test for screening blood donations. PCR should be accompanied by.

Social Inequalities and Emerging Infectious Diseases
Summary: Although many who study emerging infections subscribe to social-production-of-disease theories, few have examined the contribution of social inequalities to disease emergence.

Spatial Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax, Afghanistan
Summary: Plasmodium vivax is endemic to many areas of Afghanistan. Geographic analysis helped highlight areas of malaria risk and clarified ecologic risk factors for transmission. Remote sensing enabled development of a risk map, thereby providing a valuable tool to help guide malaria control strategies.

Subclinical Plasmodium falciparum Infection and HIV-1 Viral Load - Letter
Summary: To the Editor: Although malaria-related illness and death are more common in children, and HIV-1 generally progresses faster in children than in adults, to our knowledge the effect of intermittent malaria on HIV-1 viral load has not been directly explored in children. To investigate this issue, we monitored HIV-positive infants from a 1996–2001 birth cohort study in Kisumu, Kenya, a P. falciparum–holoendemic area.


Tickborne Relapsing Fever Diagnosis Obscured by Malaria, Togo
Summary: Results of a cross-sectional, clinic-based study to investigate relapsing fever in Togo during 2002–2004 demonstrated the presence of Borrelia crocidurae and B. duttonii by laboratory testing. Most patients were treated for malaria whether or not plasmodia were observed. Thus, many RF patients originally had a misdiagnosis of malaria, which resulted in ineffective treatment. The inability of microscopic analysis to detect spirochetes compared with PCR demonstrates the need for tests with greater sensitivity.

Transfusion-Associated Malaria - Letters
Summary: To the Editor: A recent article by Zucker (1) described two cases of malaria that were probably transfusion associated. A case of transfusion-associated malaria in which the source was identified was reported in San Francisco in 1991.

Travel and the Emergence of Infectious Diseases
Summary: Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations.


Page last modified : January 25, 2007
Content source: Division of Parasitic Diseases
National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (ZVED)


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